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Africa :: Uganda
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Uganda
  • Introduction :: UGANDA

  • The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. A constitutional referendum in 2005 cancelled a 19-year ban on multi-party politics.
  • Geography :: UGANDA

  • East-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    1 00 N, 32 00 E
    Africa
    total: 241,038 sq km
    land: 197,100 sq km
    water: 43,938 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 81
    slightly smaller than Oregon
    total: 2,729 km
    border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 km, Kenya 814 km, Rwanda 172 km, South Sudan 475 km, Tanzania 391 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
    mostly plateau with rim of mountains
    lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
    highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
    copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold
    arable land: 34.53%
    permanent crops: 11.26%
    other: 54.21% (2012 est.)
    144.2 sq km (2010)
    66 cu km (2011)
    total: 0.32 cu km/yr (41%/16%/43%)
    per capita: 12.31 cu m/yr (2005)
    NA
    draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers
  • People and Society :: UGANDA

  • noun: Ugandan(s)
    adjective: Ugandan
    Baganda 16.9%, Banyankole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6% (2002 census)
    English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
    Roman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Anglican 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9% (2002 census)
    35,918,915
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    0-14 years: 48.7% (male 8,714,354/female 8,765,900)
    15-24 years: 21.2% (male 3,775,679/female 3,833,574)
    25-54 years: 25.7% (male 4,618,088/female 4,615,616)
    55-64 years: 2.4% (male 405,740/female 447,118)
    65 years and over: 2.1% (male 327,771/female 415,075) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 102.4%
    youth dependency ratio: 97.5%
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.9%
    potential support ratio: 20.5% (2014 est.)
    total: 15.5 years
    male: 15.5 years
    female: 15.6 years (2014 est.)
    3.24% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    44.17 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    10.97 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    -0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    urban population: 15.8% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 5.43% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    KAMPALA (capital) 1.863 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    19.3
    note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2011 est.)
    310 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    total: 60.82 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 70.17 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 51.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    total population: 54.46 years
    male: 53.1 years
    female: 55.86 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    5.97 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    30% (2011)
    8% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    0.12 physicians/1,000 population (2005)
    0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 94.8% of population
    rural: 71% of population
    total: 74.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 5.2% of population
    rural: 29% of population
    total: 25.2% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 32.8% of population
    rural: 34.1% of population
    total: 33.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 67.2% of population
    rural: 65.9% of population
    total: 66.1% of population (2012 est.)
    7.44% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    1,561,900 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    63,000 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    4.3% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    14.1% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    3.3% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 73.2%
    male: 82.6%
    female: 64.6% (2010 est.)
    total: 11 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 11 years (2009)
    total number: 117,266
    percentage: 25%
    note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2010 est.)
    total: 5.4% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
  • Government :: UGANDA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
    conventional short form: Uganda
    republic
    name: Kampala
    geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    111 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwa, Bulambuli, Buliisa, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibaale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitooma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubirizi, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo
    9 October 1962 (from the UK)
    Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
    several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995; amended many times, last in 2005 (2011)
    mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Prime Minister Ruhakana RUGUNDA (since 18 September 2014); note - the prime minister assists the president in supervising the cabinet
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
    election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI re-elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 68.4%, Kizza BESIGYE 26.0%, other 5.6%
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (338 seats; 238 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women - directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 25 "representatives" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5; there are 13 ex-officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 263, FDC 34, DP 12, UPC 10, UPDF 10, CP 1, JEEMA 1, independent 43, vacant 1; note - UPDF is the Uganda People's Defense Force
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and 5 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission (a 9-member independent advisory body) and with approval of the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also sits as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 10 High Court Circuits and 7 High Court Divisions); Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts
    Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]
    Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO]
    Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Muntu MUGISHA]
    Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA]
    National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]
    Peoples Progressive Party or PPP [Bidandi SSALI]
    Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Olara OTUNNU]
    Lord's Resistance Army or LRA [Joseph KONY]
    National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]
    Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO
    The Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Oliver WONEKHA (since 6 June 2013)
    chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
    telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
    FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
    chief of mission: Ambassador Scott H. DELISI (since 18 July 2012)
    embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
    mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
    telephone: [256] (414) 259 791 through 93, 95
    FAX: [256] (414) 259-794
    six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a grey crowned crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK
    grey crowned crane; national colors: black, yellow, red
    name: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!"
    lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA
    note: adopted 1962
  • Economy :: UGANDA

  • Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. Since 1990 economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, better domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. The global economic downturn hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth has largely recovered due to past reforms and sound management of the downturn. Oil revenues and taxes will become a larger source of government funding as oil comes on line in the next few years, although lower oil prices since 2014 may prove a stumbling block to further exploration and development. Instability in South Sudan is a risk for the Ugandan economy because Uganda's main export partner is Sudan, and Uganda is a key destination for Sudanese refugees. Unreliable power, high energy costs, inadequate transportation infrastructure, and corruption inhibit economic development and investor confidence.
    $66.65 billion (2014 est.)
    $62.93 billion (2013 est.)
    $59.51 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 98
    $26.09 billion (2014 est.)
    5.9% (2014 est.)
    5.8% (2013 est.)
    2.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    $1,800 (2014 est.)
    $1,700 (2013 est.)
    $1,700 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 209
    15.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    15.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    15.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    household consumption: 78.9%
    government consumption: 8.8%
    investment in fixed capital: 24.2%
    investment in inventories: 0.2%
    exports of goods and services: 21%
    imports of goods and services: -33.2%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 21.9%
    industry: 26.7%
    services: 51.3% (2014 est.)
    coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry
    sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
    5% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    18 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    agriculture: 82%
    industry: 5%
    services: 13% (1999 est.)
    NA%
    24.5% (2009 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.4%
    highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)
    44.3 (2009)
    45.7 (2002)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    revenues: $3.434 billion
    expenditures: $4.431 billion (2014 est.)
    13.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    -3.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    35.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    34.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    1 July - 30 June
    4.3% (2014 est.)
    5.5% (2013 est.)
    14% (31 December 2010)
    9.65% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    21.7% (31 December 2014 est.)
    23.3% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    $1.483 billion (31 December 2008)
    $1.347 billion (31 December 2007)
    $1.485 billion (31 December 2008)
    $1.258 billion (31 December 2007)
    $2.451 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.269 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    $4.075 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.791 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    $3.908 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.583 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    $7.294 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $7.727 billion (31 December 2011)
    $1.788 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    -$2.224 billion (2014 est.)
    -$1.999 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    $2.776 billion (2014 est.)
    $2.829 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
    UAE 10.9%, Rwanda 10.3%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.4%, Kenya 9.4%, Germany 6.1%, Netherlands 5.4%, Italy 4.4%, Belgium 4.3% (2013)
    $5.116 billion (2014 est.)
    $4.974 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
    Kenya 19.4%, UAE 14.1%, India 12.2%, China 10.7% (2013)
    $3.711 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $3.338 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    note: excludes gold
    country comparison to the world: 103
    $5.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $4.445 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    $NA
    $NA
    Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
    2,585.2 (2014 est.)
    2,586.9 (2013 est.)
    2,505.6 (2012 est.)
    2,522.8 (2011 est.)
    2,177.6 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: UGANDA

  • 2.493 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    2.284 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    70 million kWh (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    36 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    571,700 kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    21% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    75.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    3.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    2.5 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    18,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    22,990 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    2.548 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: UGANDA

  • 315,000 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    16.355 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    general assessment: mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and VSAT applications
    domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 50 per 100 persons in 2010
    international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania (2011)
    public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; Uganda first began licensing privately owned stations in the 1990s; by 2007 there were nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations, mostly based in and around Kampala; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available in Kampala (2007)
    AM 7, FM 33, shortwave 2 (2001)
    8 (plus 1 repeater) (2001)
    .ug
    32,683 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    3.2 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 64
  • Transportation :: UGANDA

  • 47 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    total: 5
    over 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 42
    over 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
    914 to 1,523 m: 26
    under 914 m:
    7 (2013)
    total: 1,244 km
    narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    total: 20,000 km (does not include local roads)
    paved: 3,264 km
    unpaved: 16,736 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    (there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)
    lake port(s): Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell (Lake Victoria)
  • Military :: UGANDA

  • Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces (includes Marine Unit), Uganda Air Force (2013)
    18-26 years of age for voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; no conscription; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that while recruitment under 18 years of age could occur with proper consent, "no person under the apparent age of 18 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces"; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2012)
    males age 16-49: 7,249,271
    females age 16-49: 7,025,439 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 4,313,068
    females age 16-49: 4,200,901 (2010 est.)
    male: 423,923
    female: 420,236 (2010 est.)
    1.45% of GDP (2012)
    3.73% of GDP (2011)
    1.45% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 67
  • Transnational Issues :: UGANDA

  • Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border
    refugees (country of origin): 187,838 (Democratic Republic of Congo); 167,264 (South Sudan); 28,005 (Somalia); 16,601 (Rwanda); 14,367 (Burundi) (2015)
    IDPs: 30,136 (displaced in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions; intercommunal violence and cattle raids) (2014)
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