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Central Asia :: Uzbekistan
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Uzbekistan
  • Introduction :: UZBEKISTAN

  • Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country has gradually lessened its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. However, long-serving septuagenarian President Islom KARIMOV, who rose through the ranks of the Soviet-era State Planning Committee (Gosplan), remains wedded to the concepts of a command economy, creating a challenging environment for foreign investment. Current concerns include post-KARIMOV succession, economic stagnation, pervasive corruption, declining quality of social services, persistent inability to adequately meet the country's energy needs outside of Tashkent, the curtailment of human rights, and the lack of democratization.
  • Geography :: UZBEKISTAN

  • Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
    41 00 N, 64 00 E
    Asia
    total: 447,400 sq km
    land: 425,400 sq km
    water: 22,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 57
    about four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California
    Area comparison map:
    total: 6,893 km
    border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2,330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,314 km, Tajikistan 1,312 km, Turkmenistan 1,793 km
    0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
    none (doubly landlocked)
    mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
    mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
    mean elevation: NA
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
    highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
    natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
    agricultural land: 62.6%
    arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 51.7%
    forest: 7.7%
    other: 29.7% (2011 est.)
    42,150 sq km (2012)
    48.87 cu km (2011)
    total: 56 cu km/yr (7%/3%/90%)
    per capita: 2,113 cu m/yr (2005)
    NA
    shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
  • People and Society :: UZBEKISTAN

  • noun: Uzbekistani
    adjective: Uzbekistani
    Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
    Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
    note: in the Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status
    Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
    29,199,942 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    0-14 years: 24.56% (male 3,676,029/female 3,496,916)
    15-24 years: 19.92% (male 2,945,837/female 2,869,483)
    25-54 years: 43.46% (male 6,310,206/female 6,379,037)
    55-64 years: 7.17% (male 987,930/female 1,104,347)
    65 years and over: 4.9% (male 610,272/female 819,885) (2015 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 49.7%
    youth dependency ratio: 42.7%
    elderly dependency ratio: 7%
    potential support ratio: 14.3% (2015 est.)
    total: 27.6 years
    male: 27.1 years
    female: 28.2 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    0.93% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    17 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    -2.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    urban population: 36.4% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    TASHKENT (capital) 2.251 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2015 est.)
    23.8 (2006 est.)
    36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    total: 19.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 22.78 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 15.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    total population: 73.55 years
    male: 70.5 years
    female: 76.78 years (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    1.79 children born/woman (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    64.9% (2006)
    6.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    2.53 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    4.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 98.5% of population
    rural: 80.9% of population
    total: 87.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 1.5% of population
    rural: 19.1% of population
    total: 12.7% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    0.15% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    32,300 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    2,200 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    14.3% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    4.4% (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    NA
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.6%
    male: 99.7%
    female: 99.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 12 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 11 years (2011)
  • Government :: UZBEKISTAN

  • conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
    conventional short form: Uzbekistan
    local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
    local short form: O'zbekiston
    former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "uz" (self) and "bek" (master) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) to give the meaning "Land of the free"
    presidential republic; highly authoritarian
    name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
    geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
    time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
    1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
    several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992; amended several times, last in 2014 (2016)
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when elected president by the former Supreme Soviet; first elected president of independent Uzbekistan in 1991)
    head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of both chambers of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 29 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president
    election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV (LDPU) 90.4%, Akmal SAIDOV (Democratic Party of Uzbekistan) 3.1%, Khatamjan KETMANOV (NDP) 2.9%, Nariman UMAROV (Justice Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan) 2.1%, other 1.5%
    description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of the Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; 135 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed and 15 indirectly elected by the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan; members serve 5-year terms)
    note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Islom KARIMOV
    elections: last held on 21 December 2014 and 4 January 2015 (next to be held in December 2019)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 52, National Rebirth Party 36, NDP 27, Adolat 20, Ecological Movement 15
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 34 judges organized in civil, criminal, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); Higher Economic Court (consists of 19 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: judges of the 3 highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for 5-year terms subject to reappointment
    subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts
    Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIKHANOV]
    Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV]
    Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Islam KARIMOV]
    National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV]
    People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
    no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups in Uzbekistan
    ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Baxtiyor GULOMOV (since 18 July 2013)
    chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
    FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela L. SPRATLEN (since 21 January 2015)
    embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
    FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
    three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar
    khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green
    name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
    lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV
    note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics
  • Economy :: UZBEKISTAN

  • Uzbekistan is a landlocked country with more than 60% of the population living in densely populated rural communities. Since its independence in September 1991, the government maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbekistani agriculture remains largely centered around cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth largest cotton exporter and sixth largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. In 2015, Russia’s Gazprom announced it would reduce its natural gas imports from Uzbekistan but Tashkent continues to export natural gas to China and Chinese investments in the country have substantially increased.
    While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government continues to intervene in the business sector and has not addressed the impediments to foreign investment in the country. In the past Uzbekistani authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbekistani laws and have frozen and seized their assets. At the same time, the Uzbekistani Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering financing and tax advantages.
    In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdown in neighboring countries of Russia and China have been hurting Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsening its problem of currency shortage.
    $185.8 billion (2015 est.)
    $174 billion (2014 est.)
    $161 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 64
    $65.95 billion (2015 est.)
    6.8% (2015 est.)
    8.1% (2014 est.)
    8% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    $6,100 (2015 est.)
    $5,700 (2014 est.)
    $5,300 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 161
    31% of GDP (2015 est.)
    32.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    33.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    household consumption: 57.8%
    government consumption: 17.3%
    investment in fixed capital: 25.4%
    investment in inventories: -0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 31.5%
    imports of goods and services: -31.9% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 18.8%
    industry: 33.7%
    services: 47.5% (2015 est.)
    cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
    textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
    4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    17.54 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    agriculture: 25.9%
    industry: 13.2%
    services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
    4.8% (2015 est.)
    4.8% (2014 est.)
    note: official data, another 20% are underemployed
    country comparison to the world: 47
    17% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.8%
    highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
    36.8 (2003)
    44.7 (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    revenues: $18.74 billion
    expenditures: $19.69 billion (2015 est.)
    28.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    -1.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    8.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    7.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    calendar year
    11% (2015 est.)
    11% (2014 est.)
    note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012
    country comparison to the world: 211
    12.44% (31 December 2013 est.)
    11.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    $8.504 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $7.606 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    $16.56 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $15.59 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    $13.21 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $13.09 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    $NA (31 December 2012)
    $715.3 million (31 December 2006)
    $134 million (2015 est.)
    $1.062 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    $13.53 billion (2015 est.)
    $13.31 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
    China 26.8%, Russia 14.7%, Kazakhstan 14.6%, Turkey 13.1%, Bangladesh 10.2% (2014)
    $13.5 billion (2015 est.)
    $12.92 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
    Russia 22.8%, China 19.6%, South Korea 14.9%, Kazakhstan 10.2%, Germany 4.8%, Turkey 4.4% (2014)
    $15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $17.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    $10.19 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $10.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    $NA
    $NA
    Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
    2,565.8 (2015 est.)
    2,311.4 (2014 est.)
    2,311.4 (2013 est.)
    1,890.1 (2012 est.)
    1,715.8 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: UZBEKISTAN

  • 49.91 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    45.21 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    12.27 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    12.18 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    12.57 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    86.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    13.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    64,810 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    30,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    340 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    594 million bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    71,260 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    69,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    4,331 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    59.63 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    46.13 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    13.5 billion cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    123.2 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
  • Communications :: UZBEKISTAN

  • total subscriptions: 2.51 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 9 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    total: 21.6 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 75 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas
    domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 3 private and 1 state-owned operator with a total subscriber base of 19 million as of January 2014
    international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008 (2009)
    government controls media; 14 state-owned broadcasters - 10 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2013, the government closed TV and radio broadcasters affiliated with the National Association of Electronic Mass Media of Uzbekistan, a government-sponsored NGO for private broadcast media
    AM 20, FM 24, shortwave 3 (2008)
    28 (includes 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent and approximately 20 stations in regional capitals) (2006)
    .uz
    56,075 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    total: 11.8 million
    percent of population: 40.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
  • Transportation :: UZBEKISTAN

  • 53 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    total: 33
    over 3,047 m: 6
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m: 4 (2013)
    total: 20
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    under 914 m: 18 (2013)
    gas 10,401 km; oil 944 km (2013)
    total: 3,645 km
    broad gauge: 3,645 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    total: 86,496 km
    paved: 75,511 km
    unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    1,100 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    river port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)
  • Military and Security :: UZBEKISTAN

  • Uzbek Armed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces (2013)
    18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-month or 1-year conscript service obligation for males; moving toward a professional military, but conscription in some form will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: UZBEKISTAN

  • prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
    stateless persons: 86,703 (2014)
    current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; government-compelled forced labor of adults remained endemic during the 2014 cotton harvest; despite a decree banning the use of persons under 18, children were mobilized to harvest cotton by local officials in some districts; in some regions, local officials forced teachers, students, private business employees, and others to work in construction, agriculture, and cleaning parks; Uzbekistani women and children are victims of sex trafficking domestically and in the Middle East, Eurasia, and Asia; Uzbekistani men and, to a lesser extent, women are subjected to forced labor in Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine in the construction, oil, agriculture, retail, and food sectors
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Uzbekistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; law enforcement efforts in 2014 were mixed; the government made efforts to combat sex and transnational labor trafficking, but government-compelled forced labor of adults in the cotton harvest went unaddressed, and the decree prohibiting forced child labor was not applied universally; official complicity in human trafficking in the cotton harvest remained prevalent; authorities made efforts to identify and protect sex and transnational labor victims, although a systematic process is still lacking; minimal efforts were made to assist victims of forced labor in the cotton harvest, as the government does not openly acknowledge the existence of this forced labor; the ILO did not have permission or funding to monitor the 2014 harvest, but the government authorized the ILO to conduct a survey on recruitment practices and working conditions in agriculture, particularly the cotton sector, and to monitor the 2015-17 cotton harvests for child and forced labor in project areas (2015)
    transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
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