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Central Asia :: UZBEKISTAN
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UZBEKISTAN
  • Introduction :: UZBEKISTAN

  • Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991 upon the dissolution of the USSR, the country is striving to reduce its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islom KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in September 2016. The political transition to his successor, then-Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV was peaceful, but sidelined the constitutional process where the chairman of the Senate would have served as the acting president. MIRZIYOYEV, who won the presidential election in December 2016, has sought to improve relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and proposed wide-ranging economic and judicial reforms.
  • Geography :: UZBEKISTAN

  • Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
    41 00 N, 64 00 E
    Asia
    total: 447,400 sq km
    land: 425,400 sq km
    water: 22,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 58
    about four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California
    Area comparison map:
    total: 6,893 km
    border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2,330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,314 km, Tajikistan 1,312 km, Turkmenistan 1,793 km
    0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
    none (doubly landlocked)
    mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
    mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
    mean elevation: NA
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
    highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
    natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
    agricultural land: 62.6%
    arable land 10.1%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 51.7%
    forest: 7.7%
    other: 29.7% (2011 est.)
    42,150 sq km (2012)
    most of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated
    earthquakes; floods; landslides or mudslides; avalanches; droughts
    shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
  • People and Society :: UZBEKISTAN

  • 29,748,859 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    noun: Uzbekistani
    adjective: Uzbekistani
    Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
    Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
    note: in the Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status
    Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
    0-14 years: 23.88% (male 3,640,914/female 3,464,304)
    15-24 years: 18.52% (male 2,804,516/female 2,706,399)
    25-54 years: 44.49% (male 6,583,745/female 6,651,261)
    55-64 years: 7.85% (male 1,105,034/female 1,231,714)
    65 years and over: 5.25% (male 667,109/female 893,863) (2017 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 47.7
    youth dependency ratio: 41.4
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.2
    potential support ratio: 16 (2015 est.)
    total: 28.6 years
    male: 28 years
    female: 29.2 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    0.93% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    16.8 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    -2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    most of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated
    urban population: 36.6% of total population (2017)
    rate of urbanization: 1.62% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    TASHKENT (capital) 2.251 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    23.4 years (2014 est.)
    36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    total: 18 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 21.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    total population: 74 years
    male: 71 years
    female: 77.3 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    1.76 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    5.8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    4.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 98.5% of population
    rural: 80.9% of population
    total: 87.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 1.5% of population
    rural: 19.1% of population
    total: 12.7% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    NA
    NA
    NA
    16.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    NA
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 100%
    male: 100%
    female: 100% (2015 est.)
    total: 12 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 12 years (2016)
  • Government :: UZBEKISTAN

  • conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
    conventional short form: Uzbekistan
    local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
    local short form: O'zbekiston
    former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "uz" (self) and "bek" (master) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) to give the meaning "Land of the Free"
    presidential republic; highly authoritarian
    name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
    geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
    time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
    1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
    history: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992
    amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2014 (2017)
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016)
    head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Achilbay RAMATOV (since 15 December 2016)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 4 December 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president
    election results: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Khatamjon KETMONOV (NDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURADOV (Milliy Tiklanish/National Revival) 2.4%, other 1.8%
    description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of the Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; 135 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round, if needed, and 15 indirectly elected by the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan; members serve 5-year terms)
    note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV
    elections: last held on 21 December 2014 and 4 January 2015 (next to be held in December 2019)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 52, National Revival Democratic Party 36, NDP 27, Adolat 20, Ecological Movement 15
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 67 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, economic, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: judges of the highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for initial 5-year term, subsequent 10-year term, and lifetime term subject to reappointment
    subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts; economic courts
    Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIKHANOV]
    Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV]
    Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV]
    National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV]
    People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
    no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups in Uzbekistan
    ADB, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Said RUSTAMOV (since 24 April 2017)
    chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
    FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela L. SPRATLEN (since 27 January 2015)
    embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
    FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
    three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar
    khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green
    name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
    lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV
    note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics
  • Economy :: UZBEKISTAN

  • Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in which 51% of the population lives in urban settlements; the agriculture-rich Fergana Valley, in which Uzbekistan’s eastern borders are situated, has been counted among the most densely populated parts of Central Asia. Since its independence in September 1991, the government has largely maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production, prices, and access to foreign currency. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbek agriculture remains largely centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth-largest cotton exporter and seventh-largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. In early 2016, Russia’s Gazprom announced it planned to increase purchases of Uzbek gas.
    Aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government is taking incremental steps to reform the business sector and address impediments to foreign investment in the country. Since the death of first President Islam KARIMOV, rhetorical emphasis on such initiatives and ostensible government efforts to seek input from the private sector have increased. In the past, Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek laws and have frozen and seized their assets. At the same time, the Uzbek Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering financing and tax advantages.
    In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity, and the government has lately raised the issue of currency reform in a number of official decrees and proclamations. Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdown in neighboring Russia and China have been hurting Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsening its problem of foreign currency shortage.
    $205.6 billion (2016 est.)
    $188.4 billion (2015 est.)
    $172.5 billion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 64
    $66.85 billion (2016 est.)
    7.8% (2016 est.)
    8% (2015 est.)
    8.1% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    $6,600 (2016 est.)
    $6,200 (2015 est.)
    $5,800 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 159
    31.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    31.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    32.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    household consumption: 60.1%
    government consumption: 16.5%
    investment in fixed capital: 24.8%
    investment in inventories: 3%
    exports of goods and services: 19.9%
    imports of goods and services: -21.2% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 18.5%
    industry: 34.6%
    services: 46.8% (2016 est.)
    cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
    textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
    4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    17.85 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    agriculture: 25.9%
    industry: 13.2%
    services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
    4.9% (2016 est.)
    4.9% (2015 est.)
    note: official data; another 20% are underemployed
    country comparison to the world: 65
    14% (2016 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.8%
    highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
    36.8 (2003)
    44.7 (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    revenues: $21.37 billion
    expenditures: $21.31 billion (2016 est.)
    32.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    0.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    15.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    13.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    calendar year
    8% (2016 est.)
    10% (2015 est.)
    note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012
    country comparison to the world: 208
    9% (2016)
    9% (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    16% (31 December 2016 est.)
    11.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    $7.555 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $7.403 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    $17.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $16.26 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    $11.63 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $11.78 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    $NA (31 December 2012)
    $715.3 million (31 December 2006)
    $498 million (2016 est.)
    $-159.7 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    $11.2 billion (2016 est.)
    $11.5 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
    Switzerland 35.1%, China 19.7%, Russia 9.3%, Turkey 8.7%, Kazakhstan 7.2%, Bangladesh 5.4%, Afghanistan 4.9% (2016)
    $10.91 billion (2016 est.)
    $12 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
    China 22.2%, Russia 18%, South Korea 10.5%, Kazakhstan 10%, Turkey 5.8%, Germany 5.2% (2016)
    $14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    $16.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $14.84 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    $NA
    $NA
    Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
    2,966.6 (2016 est.)
    2,966.6 (2015 est.)
    2,569.6 (2014 est.)
    2,311.4 (2013 est.)
    1,890.1 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: UZBEKISTAN

  • electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    59 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    12.93 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    86.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    13.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    52,910 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    27,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    380 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    594 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    63,650 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    61,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    4,102 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    55.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    10.44 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    14.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    109 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
  • Communications :: UZBEKISTAN

  • total subscriptions: 3,412,921
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    total: 23,265,389
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 79 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas
    domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by three private and two state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 23 million as of mid-2016
    international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber- optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008 (2016)
    government controls media; 18 state-owned broadcasters - 14 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2013, the government closed TV and radio broadcasters affiliated with the National Association of Electronic Mass Media (NAEMM) of Uzbekistan, a government-sponsored NGO for private broadcast media; in 2015, the NAEMM relaunched its TV channel under a different name (2017)
    .uz
    total: 13,791,083
    percent of population: 46.8% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
  • Transportation :: UZBEKISTAN

  • number of registered air carriers: 2
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 29
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,486,673
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 114,334,520 mt-km (2015)
    UK (2016)
    53 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    total: 33
    over 3,047 m: 6
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m: 4 (2013)
    total: 20
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    under 914 m: 18 (2013)
    gas 13,700 km; oil 944 km (2016)
    total: 4,304 km
    broad gauge: 4,304 km 1.520-m gauge (1,354 km electrified) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    total: 86,496 km
    paved: 75,511 km
    unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    1,100 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    river port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)
  • Military and Security :: UZBEKISTAN

  • Armed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces (2016)
    18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-month or 1-year conscript service obligation for males; moving toward a professional military, but conscription in some form will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities; note - widely considered to have one of the strongest militaries in Central Asia, although it is untested (2016)
  • Transnational Issues :: UZBEKISTAN

  • prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
    stateless persons: 86,524 (2016)
    current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; government-compelled forced labor of adults remained endemic during the 2014 cotton harvest; despite a decree banning the use of persons under 18, children were mobilized to harvest cotton by local officials in some districts; in some regions, local officials forced teachers, students, private business employees, and others to work in construction, agriculture, and cleaning parks; Uzbekistani women and children are victims of sex trafficking domestically and in the Middle East, Eurasia, and Asia; Uzbekistani men and, to a lesser extent, women are subjected to forced labor in Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine in the construction, oil, agriculture, retail, and food sectors
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Uzbekistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; law enforcement efforts in 2014 were mixed; the government made efforts to combat sex and transnational labor trafficking, but government-compelled forced labor of adults in the cotton harvest went unaddressed, and the decree prohibiting forced child labor was not applied universally; official complicity in human trafficking in the cotton harvest remained prevalent; authorities made efforts to identify and protect sex and transnational labor victims, although a systematic process is still lacking; minimal efforts were made to assist victims of forced labor in the cotton harvest, as the government does not openly acknowledge the existence of this forced labor; the ILO did not have permission or funding to monitor the 2014 harvest, but the government authorized the UN's International Labour Organization to conduct a survey on recruitment practices and working conditions in agriculture, particularly the cotton sector, and to monitor the 2015-17 cotton harvests for child and forced labor in project areas (2015)
    transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan