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Central Asia :: Uzbekistan
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  • Introduction :: UZBEKISTAN

  • Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country has lessened its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. However, long-serving septuagenarian President Islom KARIMOV, who rose through the ranks of the Soviet-era State Planning Committee (Gosplan), remains wedded to the concepts of a command economy, creating a challenging environment for foreign investment. Current concerns include post-KARIMOV succession, terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
  • Geography :: UZBEKISTAN

  • Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
    41 00 N, 64 00 E
    total: 447,400 sq km
    land: 425,400 sq km
    water: 22,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 57
    slightly larger than California
    total: 6,893 km
    border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2,330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,314 km, Tajikistan 1,312 km, Turkmenistan 1,793 km
    0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
    none (doubly landlocked)
    mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
    mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
    lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
    highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
    natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
    arable land: 10.23%
    permanent crops: 0.8%
    other: 88.98% (2012 est.)
    41,980 sq km (2005)
    48.87 cu km (2011)
    total: 56 cu km/yr (7%/3%/90%)
    per capita: 2,113 cu m/yr (2005)
    shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
  • People and Society :: UZBEKISTAN

  • noun: Uzbekistani
    adjective: Uzbekistani
    Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
    Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
    Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
    28,929,716 (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    0-14 years: 24.9% (male 3,693,838/female 3,514,734)
    15-24 years: 20.5% (male 3,008,779/female 2,934,534)
    25-54 years: 43% (male 6,178,921/female 6,255,715)
    55-64 years: 6.8% (male 926,129/female 1,036,576)
    65 years and over: 4.8% (male 588,881/female 791,609) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 48.3%
    youth dependency ratio: 42%
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.3%
    potential support ratio: 15.8% (2014 est.)
    total: 27.1 years
    male: 26.6 years
    female: 27.7 years (2014 est.)
    0.93% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    17.02 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    5.29 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    -2.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    urban population: 36.3% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 1.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    TASHKENT (capital) 2.241 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    23.8 (2006 est.)
    36 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    total: 19.84 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 23.54 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 15.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    total population: 73.29 years
    male: 70.25 years
    female: 76.52 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    1.8 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    64.9% (2006)
    6.1% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    2.53 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    4.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    urban: 98.5% of population
    rural: 80.9% of population
    total: 87.3% of population
    urban: 1.5% of population
    rural: 19.1% of population
    total: 12.7% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2012 est.)
    0.18% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    34,700 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    2,700 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    14.3% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    4.4% (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.6%
    male: 99.7%
    female: 99.5% (2015 est.)
    total: 12 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 11 years (2011)
  • Government :: UZBEKISTAN

  • conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
    conventional short form: Uzbekistan
    local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
    local short form: O'zbekiston
    former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
    republic; authoritarian presidential rule with little power outside the executive branch
    name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
    geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
    time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
    1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
    several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992; amended several times, last in 2014 (2014)
    civil law system
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet; first elected president of independent Uzbekistan on 29 December 1991)
    head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of both chambers of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for subsequent terms; previously was a five-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to seven years and changed back to five years in 2011); election last held on 29 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister nominated by the political party or parties that win(s) the most seats in parliament; ministers and deputy ministers appointed by the president
    election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 90.4%, Akmal SAIDOV 3.1%, Khatamjan KETMANOV 2.9%, Nariman UMAROV 2.1%, other 1.5%
    description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of the Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; 135 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed and 15 indirectly elected by the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan; members serve 5-year terms)
    note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Islom KARIMOV
    elections: last held on 21 December 2014 and 4 January 2015 (next to be held in December 2019)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 52, National Rebirth Party 36, NDP 27, Adolat 20, Ecological Movement 15
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 34 judges organized in civil, criminal, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); Higher Economic Court (consists of 19 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: judges of the 3 highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for 5-year terms subject to reappointment
    subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts
    Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIXONOV]
    Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV]
    Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Sodiqjon TURDIYEV]
    National Rebirth Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Milliy Tiklanish) [Sarvar OTAMURODOV]
    People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
    there are no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups operating in Uzbekistan
    ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    chief of mission: Ambassador Baxtiyor GULOMOV (since 18 July 2013)
    chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 283-6803
    FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
    consulate(s) general: New York
    chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela SPRATLEN (since 21 January 2015)
    embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
    FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
    three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar
    khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green
    name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
    lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV
    note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics
  • Economy :: UZBEKISTAN

  • Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country; more than 60% of the population lives in densely populated rural communities. Export of natural gas, gold and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbekistani agriculture remains largely centered around cotton; Uzbekistan is now the world's fifth largest cotton exporter and sixth largest producer. The country is beginning to enforce a ban on the use of child labor in its cotton harvest and is trying to address international criticism for its previous use of this practice. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government continues to intervene in the business sector and has not addressed the impediments to foreign investment in the country. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments and a favorable export environment. In the past Uzbekistani authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbekistani laws and have frozen and even seized their assets. At the same time, the Uzbekistani Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering financing and tax advantages. Diminishing foreign investment and difficulties transporting goods across borders further challenge Uzbekistan’s economy though it recently has intensified economic ties to Beijing. Tashkent began exporting natural gas to China and Chinese investments in the country have substantially increased.
    $170.3 billion (2014 est.)
    $159.1 billion (2013 est.)
    $147.4 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $63.08 billion (2014 est.)
    7% (2014 est.)
    8% (2013 est.)
    8.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    $5,600 (2014 est.)
    $5,300 (2013 est.)
    $5,000 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 162
    31% of GDP (2014 est.)
    30.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
    32% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    household consumption: 55.6%
    government consumption: 22.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 24.4%
    investment in inventories: 0%
    exports of goods and services: 26.9%
    imports of goods and services: -29.6%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 18.5%
    industry: 32%
    services: 49.5% (2014 est.)
    cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
    textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
    6.2% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    17.24 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    agriculture: 25.9%
    industry: 13.2%
    services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
    4.9% (2014 est.)
    4.9% (2013 est.)
    note: official data, another 20% are underemployed
    country comparison to the world: 47
    17% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.8%
    highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
    36.8 (2003)
    44.7 (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    revenues: $18.67 billion
    expenditures: $19.27 billion (2014 est.)
    29.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    -1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    7.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    6.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    calendar year
    12.1% (2014 est.)
    12% (2013 est.)
    note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012
    12.44% (31 December 2013 est.)
    11.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    $7.605 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $6.154 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    $15.58 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $13.57 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    $12.76 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $12.07 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    $NA (31 December 2012)
    $715.3 million (31 December 2006)
    $1.311 billion (2014 est.)
    $1.339 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    $13.32 billion (2014 est.)
    $12.83 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
    China 28%, Russia 19.3%, Kazakhstan 12.6%, Turkey 11.9%, Bangladesh 8.2% (2013)
    $12.5 billion (2014 est.)
    $11.43 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
    China 20.5%, Russia 19.9%, South Korea 15.4%, Kazakhstan 11.1%, Germany 4.3%, Turkey 4% (2013)
    $18 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $17 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    $8.751 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $8.517 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
    2,313.6 (2014 est.)
    2,095.6 (2013 est.)
    1,890.1 (2012 est.)
    1,715.8 (2011 est.)
    1,587.2 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: UZBEKISTAN

  • 52.53 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    45.07 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    12.25 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    12.16 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    12.35 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    86% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    14% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    100,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    594 million bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    92,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    105,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    4,968 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    656 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    62.9 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    52.7 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    10.2 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    123.2 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: UZBEKISTAN

  • 1.963 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    20.274 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas
    domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 3 private and 1 state-owned operator with a total subscriber base of 19 million as of January 2014
    international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008 (2009)
    government controls media; 14 state-owned broadcasters - 10 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2013, the government closed TV and radio broadcasters affiliated with the National Association of Electronic Mass Media of Uzbekistan, a government-sponsored NGO for private broadcast media
    AM 20, FM 24, shortwave 3 (2008)
    28 (includes 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent and approximately 20 stations in regional capitals) (2006)
    56,075 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    4.689 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 48
  • Transportation :: UZBEKISTAN

  • 53 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    total: 33
    over 3,047 m: 6
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
    914 to 1,523 m: 4
    under 914 m: 4 (2013)
    total: 20
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    under 914 m:
    18 (2013)
    gas 10,401 km; oil 944 km (2013)
    total: 4,230 km
    broad gauge: 4,200 km 1.520-m gauge (930 km electrified) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    total: 86,496 km
    paved: 75,511 km
    unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    1,100 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    river port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)
  • Military :: UZBEKISTAN

  • Uzbek Armed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces (2013)
    18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-month or 1-year conscript service obligation for males; moving toward a professional military, but conscription in some form will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities (2013)
    males age 16-49: 7,887,292
    females age 16-49: 7,886,459 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 6,566,118
    females age 16-49: 6,745,818 (2010 est.)
    male: 306,404
    female: 295,456 (2010 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: UZBEKISTAN

  • prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
    current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; adults and children are victims of government-compelled forced labor during Uzbekistan’s annual cotton harvest, as well as for the construction and cleaning of parks; the government in 2013 for the first time cooperated with the ILO to monitor the cotton harvest for compliance with the Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention; the ILO recorded 53 violations but concluded that forced child labor was not used on a systematic basis during the 2013 cotton harvest; Uzbekistani women and children are sex trafficked domestically and in countries in Central Asia, the Middle East, Asia, and Europe; Uzbekistani men and women are subjected to forced labor in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Russia, the UAE, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Ukraine in domestic service, agriculture, construction, and the oil industry
    tier rating: Tier 3 – Uzbekistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government in 2013 did not openly acknowledge forced labor in the cotton sector, which remained prevalent, but it took an encouraging step in allowing the ILO to monitor the cotton harvest for forced child labor; authorities continued to address transnational sex and labor trafficking, implementing anti-trafficking awareness campaigns; the government operated a shelter to help sex and labor trafficking victims and strengthened its ties with NGOs to repatriate victims and provide services, although no systematic procedures for assisting trafficking victims were in place; NGOs unaffiliated with the government faced additional scrutiny in 2013, hampering their efforts to protect victims (2014)
    transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan