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Middle East :: Yemen
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  • Introduction :: YEMEN

  • North Yemen became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement and brief civil war in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to delineate their border. Fighting in the northwest between the government and the Huthis, a Zaydi Shia minority, began in 2004 and has since resulted in six rounds of fighting that ended in early 2010 with a cease-fire. The southern secessionist movement was revitalized in 2008. Public rallies in Sana'a against then President SALIH - inspired by similar demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt - slowly built momentum starting in late January 2011 fueled by complaints over high unemployment, poor economic conditions, and corruption. By the following month, some protests had resulted in violence, and the demonstrations had spread to other major cities. By March the opposition had hardened its demands and was unifying behind calls for SALIH's immediate ouster. In in late April 2011. the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), in an attempt to mediate the crisis in Yemen, proposed the GGC Initiative, an agreement in which the president would step down in exchange for immunity from prosecution. SALIH's refusal to sign an agreement led to further violence. The UN Security Council passed Resolution 2014 in October 2011 calling for an end to the violence and completing a power transfer deal. In late November 2011, SALIH signed the GCC Initiative to step down and to transfer some of his powers to Vice President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI. Following HADI's election victory in February 2012, SALIH formally transferred his powers. In accordance with the GCC initiative, Yemen launched a National Dialogue Conference (NDC) in March 2013 to discuss key constitutional, political, and social issues. HADI concluded the NDC in January 2014. Subsequent steps in the transition process include constitutional drafting, a constitutional referendum, and national elections. Since the Arab Awakening in 2011, the Huthis have expanded their influence, culminating in a major offensive against military units and tribes affiliated with their Yemeni rivals and enabling their forces to overrun the capital, Sana'a, in September 2014. In January 2015, the Huthis attacked the presidential palace and President HADI's residence and surrounded key government facilities, prompting HADI and the cabinet to submit their resignations. HADI fled to Aden, and in late February he rescinded his resignation. He subsequently escaped to Saudi Arabia and asked the GCC to intervene militarily in Yemen to protect the legitimate government from the Huthis. In late March, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia launched Operation Decisive Storm, a series of airstrikes against Huthi and Huthi-affiliated forces. In late April, the Saudi Government announced completion of the operation and initiated Operation Restoring Hope, which focuses on humanitarian aid and a return to political dialogue. As of late April 2015, the Huthis controlled much of western Yemen.
  • Geography :: YEMEN

  • Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
    15 00 N, 48 00 E
    Middle East
    total: 527,968 sq km
    land: 527,968 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)
    almost four times the size of Alabama; slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming
    Area comparison map:
    total: 1,601 km
    border countries (2): Oman 294 km, Saudi Arabia 1,307 km
    1,906 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east
    narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula
    lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
    highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m
    petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west
    agricultural land: 44.5%
    arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 41.7%
    forest: 1%
    other: 54.5% (2011 est.)
    6,801 sq km (2004)
    2.1 cu km (2011)
    total: 3.57 cu km/yr (7%/2%/91%)
    per capita: 162.4 cu m/yr (2005)
    sandstorms and dust storms in summer
    volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Jebel at Tair (Jabal al-Tair, Jebel Teir, Jabal al-Tayr, Jazirat at-Tair) (elev. 244 m), which forms an island in the Red Sea, erupted in 2007 after awakening from dormancy; other historically active volcanoes include Harra of Arhab, Harras of Dhamar, Harra es-Sawad, and Jebel Zubair, although many of these have not erupted in over a century
    limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes
  • People and Society :: YEMEN

  • noun: Yemeni(s)
    adjective: Yemeni
    predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans
    Arabic (official)
    Muslim 99.1% (official; virtually all are citizens, an estimated 65% are Sunni and 35% are Shia), other 0.9% (includes Jewish, Baha'i, Hindu, and Christian; many are refugees or temporary foreign residents) (2010 est.)
    26,052,966 (July 2014 est.)
    0-14 years: 41.7% (male 5,523,744/female 5,336,795)
    15-24 years: 21.1% (male 2,789,510/female 2,709,263)
    25-54 years: 30.9% (male 4,106,917/female 3,933,852)
    55-64 years: 3.7% (male 450,185/female 515,255)
    65 years and over: 2.6% (male 320,426/female 367,019) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 74.1%
    youth dependency ratio: 69%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.1%
    potential support ratio: 19.7% (2014 est.)
    total: 18.6 years
    male: 18.5 years
    female: 18.7 years (2014 est.)
    2.72% (2014 est.)
    31.02 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    6.45 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    2.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    urban population: 34% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 4.03% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    SANAA (capital) 2.833 million; Aden 855,000 (2014)
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    270 deaths/100,000 live births (2013 est.)
    total: 50.41 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 54.71 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 45.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    total population: 64.83 years
    male: 62.72 years
    female: 67.04 years (2014 est.)
    4.09 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    27.7% (2006)
    5.4% of GDP (2013)
    0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    0.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    urban: 72% of population
    rural: 46.5% of population
    total: 54.9% of population
    urban: 28% of population
    rural: 53.5% of population
    total: 45.1% of population (2012 est.)
    urban: 92.5% of population
    rural: 34.1% of population
    total: 53.3% of population
    urban: 7.5% of population
    rural: 65.9% of population
    total: 46.7% of population (2012 est.)
    0.04% (2013 est.)
    6,000 (2013 est.)
    400 (2013 est.)
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2013)
    14.2% (2014)
    35.5% (2011)
    4.6% of GDP (2008)
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 70.1%
    male: 85.1%
    female: 55% (2015 est.)
    total: 9 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 8 years (2011)
    total number: 1,334,288
    percentage: 23% (2006 est.)
    total: 33.7%
    male: 26%
    female: 74% (2010 est.)
  • Government :: YEMEN

  • conventional long form: Republic of Yemen
    conventional short form: Yemen
    local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
    local short form: Al Yaman
    former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]
    name: Sanaa
    geographic coordinates: 15 21 N, 44 12 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    21 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah) and 1 municipality*; Abyan, 'Adan (Aden), Ad Dali', Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Amanat al 'Asimah (Sanaa City)*, 'Amran, Arkhabil Suqutra (Socotra Archipelago), Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Raymah, Sa'dah, San'a' (Sanaa), Shabwah, Ta'izz
    22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note - previously North Yemen became independent in November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and became a republic with the overthrow of the theocratic Imamate in 1962; South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)
    Unification Day, 22 May (1990)
    adopted by referendum 16 May 1991 (following unification); amended several times, last in 2009; note - between March 2014 and January 2015, a presidentially-formed Constitutional Drafting Committee drafted a new constitution and President Hadi reviewed it; the draft was slated for final revision by the National Authority, followed by a national referendum; however, with the resignation of the government in late January 2015, constitutional formation has been stalled (2015)
    mixed legal system of Islamic law, Napoleonic law, English common law, and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: vacant: note - President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI submitted his resignation in late January 2015, but Parliament did not convene to accept his resignation; HADI later rescinded his resignation and remains the internationally recognized President of Yemen; he fled to Saudi Arabia in late March 2015 and has been in exile since then; Vice President and Prime Minister Khalid Mahfuz BAHAH (since 13 April 2015)
    head of government: Prime Minister - vacant; note Khalid Mahfuz BAHAH submitted his resignation in late January 2015, but Parliament did not convene to accept it; BAHAH later rescinded his resignation and remains prime minister; on 13 April he was named vice president, but continues to be the prime minister
    cabinet: appointed by the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a 7-year term based on constitution; however a special election held on 21 February 2012 to remove Ali Abdallah SALIH was based on a GCC-mediated deal during the political crisis of 2011(next election NA); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI elected as a consensus president with about 50% popular participation; no other candidates
    description: bicameral Parliament or Majlis consists of the Shura Council or Majlis Alshoora (111 seats; members appointed by the president; member tenure NA) and the House of Representatives or Majlis al Nuwaab (301 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 6-year terms)
    elections: last held on 27 April 2003 (scheduled April 2009 election postponed until February 2015)
    election results: House of Representatives percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GPC 238, Islah 47, YSP 6, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party 2, independents 5
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president of the Court, 2 deputies, and nearly 50 judges; court organized into constitutional, civil, commercial, family, administrative, criminal, military, and appeals scrutiny divisions)
    judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the Supreme Judicial Council, chaired by the president of the republic and consisting of 10 high-ranking judicial officers; judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65
    subordinate courts: appeal courts; district or first instance courts; commercial courts
    General People's Congress or GPC [Ali Abdallah SALIH]
    Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Muhammed Abdallah al-YADUMI, Abdul Wahab al-ANSI]
    Nasserite Unionist Party [Abdallah NU'MAN]
    Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Dr. Abd al-Rahman Umar al-SAQQAF]
    note: there are at least seven more active political parties
    Muslim Brotherhood
    Women National Committee
    other: conservative tribal groups; southern secessionist groups; al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Adel Ali Ahmed AL-SUNAINI (since 5 July 2012)
    chancery: 2319 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760
    FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017
    note: US embassy operations suspended on 10 February 2015 amid growing violence, and in March a team of US diplomats established the Yemen Affairs Unit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
    chief of mission: Ambassador Matthew H. TUELLER (since 10 June 2014)
    embassy: Sa'awan Street, Sanaa
    mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa
    telephone: [967] (1) 755-2000 ext. 2153 or 2266
    FAX: [967] (1) 303-182
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)
    note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, and of Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band
    golden eagle; national colors: red, white, black
    name: "al-qumhuriyatu l-muttahida" (United Republic)
    lyrics/music: Abdullah Abdulwahab NOA'MAN/Ayyoab Tarish ABSI
    note: adopted 1990; the music first served as the anthem for South Yemen before unification with North Yemen in 1990
  • Economy :: YEMEN

  • Yemen is a low income country that is highly dependent on declining oil resources for revenue. Oil and gas revenues account for roughly 25% of GDP and 65% of government revenue. Yemen has tried to counter the effects of its declining oil resources and continuing attacks on its oil pipelines by diversifying its economy through an economic reform program initiated in 2006 that is designed to bolster non-oil sectors of the economy and foreign investment. In October 2009, Yemen exported its first liquefied natural gas as part of this diversification effort. In January 2010, the international community established the Friends of Yemen group that aims to support Yemen's efforts toward economic and political reform. In 2012, the Friends of Yemen pledged nearly $7 billion in assistance to Yemen. The Yemeni Government also endorsed a Mutual Accountability Framework to facilitate the efficient implementation of donor aid. The unrest that began in early 2011 caused GDP to plunge almost 11% in that year. Availability of basic services, including electricity, water, and fuel, has improved since the transition, but progress toward achieving more sustainable economic stability has been slow and uneven. Yemen continues to face difficult long-term challenges, including declining water resources, high unemployment, severe food scarcity, and a high population growth rate. The Yemeni Government regularly faces annual budget shortfalls. In July 2014, the government eliminated some fuel subsidies that accounted for approximately 25% of government spending in 2013; and in August 2014, the IMF approved a three-year, $570 million Extended Credit Facility for Yemen. Declining security continues to hinder economic growth and the provision of government services.
    $106 billion (2014 est.)
    $104 billion (2013 est.)
    $99.26 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    $45.45 billion (2014 est.)
    1.9% (2014 est.)
    4.8% (2013 est.)
    2.4% (2012 est.)
    $3,900 (2014 est.)
    $3,900 (2013 est.)
    $3,800 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 178
    7% of GDP (2014 est.)
    5% of GDP (2013 est.)
    7% of GDP (2012 est.)
    household consumption: 70.6%
    government consumption: 15.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 19.6%
    investment in inventories: 4%
    exports of goods and services: 18.5%
    imports of goods and services: -28.5%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 9.2%
    industry: 26.8%
    services: 64% (2014 est.)
    grain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat, coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), poultry; fish
    crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles, leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; aluminum products; cement; commercial ship repair; natural gas production
    -1.5% (2014 est.)
    7.262 million (2014 est.)
    note: most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force
    27% (2014 est.)
    35% (2003 est.)
    54% (2014 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.9%
    highest 10%: 30.8% (2005)
    37.7 (2005)
    33.4 (1998)
    revenues: $10.26 billion
    expenditures: $14.34 billion (2014 est.)
    22.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    51% of GDP (2014 est.)
    49.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
    calendar year
    11% (2014 est.)
    11% (2013 est.)
    20% (31 December 2014 est.)
    22% (31 December 2013 est.)
    $5.845 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.196 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $16.02 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $14.04 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $14.61 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $12.17 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $-2.45 billion (2014 est.)
    $-1.422 billion (2013 est.)
    $7.041 billion (2014 est.)
    $8.136 billion (2013 est.)
    crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish, liquefied natural gas
    China 29.4%, South Korea 16%, Thailand 14.7%, India 8.8%, Japan 6.2%, UAE 5% (2013)
    $10.39 billion (2014 est.)
    $11 billion (2013 est.)
    food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals
    China 15.5%, UAE 13.4%, India 9.5%, Saudi Arabia 6.3%, Kuwait 4.7%, Turkey 4.4% (2013)
    $4.688 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.349 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $8.002 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $7.708 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    Yemeni rials (YER) per US dollar -
    214.9 (2014 est.)
    214.89 (2013 est.)
    214.35 (2012 est.)
    213.8 (2011 est.)
    219.59 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: YEMEN

  • 5.834 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    4.137 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    1.533 million kW (2011 est.)
    100% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    130,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    43,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    3 billion bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    86,330 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    144,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    14,330 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    59,050 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    7.652 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    968.5 million cu m (2012 est.)
    6.684 billion cu m (2012 est.)
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    478.5 billion cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    21.28 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: YEMEN

  • 1.1 million (2012)
    13.9 million (2012)
    general assessment: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network
    domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, GSM and CDMA mobile-cellular telephone systems; fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains low by regional standards
    international: country code - 967; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti (2006)
    state-run TV with 2 stations; state-run radio with 2 national radio stations and 5 local stations; stations from Oman and Saudi Arabia can be accessed (2007)
    AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 2 (1998)
    3 (including one Egypt-based station that broadcasts in Yemen); plus several repeaters (2007)
    33,206 (2012)
    2.349 million (2009)
  • Transportation :: YEMEN

  • 57 (2013)
    total: 17
    over 3,047 m: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 40
    over 3,047 m: 3
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
    914 to 1,523 m: 16
    under 914 m:
    9 (2013)
    gas 641 km; liquid petroleum gas 22 km; oil 1,370 km (2013)
    total: 71,300 km
    paved: 6,200 km
    unpaved: 65,100 km (2005)
    total: 5
    by type: chemical tanker 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
    registered in other countries: 14 (Moldova 4, Panama 4, Sierra Leone 2, Togo 1, unknown 3) (2010)
    major seaport(s): Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Mukalla
    the International Maritime Bureau reports offshore waters in the Gulf of Aden are high risk for piracy; numerous vessels, including commercial shipping and pleasure craft, have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crew, passengers, and cargo are held for ransom; the presence of several naval task forces in the Gulf of Aden and additional anti-piracy measures on the part of ship operators reduced the incidence of piracy in that body of water by more than half in 2010
  • Military :: YEMEN

  • Land Forces, Naval and Coastal Defense Forces (includes Marines), Air and Air Defense Force (al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Yemeniya), Border Guards, Strategic Reserve Forces (2013)
    18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 2-year service obligation (2012)
    males age 16-49: 5,652,256
    females age 16-49: 5,387,160 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 4,056,944
    females age 16-49: 4,116,895 (2010 est.)
    male: 287,141
    female: 277,612 (2010 est.)
    4.02% of GDP (2012)
    3.48% of GDP (2011)
    4.02% of GDP (2010)
    a Coast Guard was established in 2002
  • Transnational Issues :: YEMEN

  • Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities
    refugees (country of origin): 5,934 (Ethiopia) (2014); 244,404 (Somalia) (2015)
    IDPs: 1,019,762 (conflict in Sa'ada governorate; clashes between AQAP and government forces) (2015)
    current situation: Yemen is a source and, to a lesser extent, transit and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; some Yemeni children, mostly boys, migrate to Yemeni cities or across the border to Saudi Arabia and, less frequently Oman, where they end up as beggars, prostitutes, or forced laborers in domestic service or small shops; other Yemeni children were recruited as combatants or checkpoint guards by armed groups and continues to be used in the government’s military forces; Yemen is also a source country for girls sex trafficked within country or to Saudi Arabia; thousands of Yemeni migrant workers deported from Saudi Arabia and Syrian refugees are vulnerable to trafficking; additionally, Yemen is a destination and transit country for women and children from the Horn of Africa who are looking for work or receive fraudulent job offers in the Gulf states but are subjected to sexual exploitation or forced labor upon arrival; reports indicate that adults and children are still sold or inherited as slaves in Yemen
    tier rating: Tier 3 – Yemen does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; prolonged political, economic, and security crises, as well as the continued conflation of trafficking and smuggling, impeded the government’s modest anti-trafficking efforts; authorities did not institute formal procedures to identify and protect trafficking victims in 2013, nor did they investigate or prosecute officials complicit in trafficking-related crimes; the government did not report efforts to investigate, prosecute, or convict trafficking offenses, and no known efforts were made to investigate or punish persons practicing chattel slavery; officials acknowledged the use of child soldiers and agreed to a UN action plan to eliminate it but did not make efforts to remove child soldiers from the military; draft anti-trafficking legislation still awaits parliamentary endorsement (2014)