Library

 
View Text Low Bandwidth Version
Download Publication
Africa :: Zambia
Page last updated on April 21, 2015
 
view 4 photos of
Zambia
  • Introduction :: ZAMBIA

  • The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the [British] South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his abrupt death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who subsequently won a special presidential by-election in October 2008. Michael SATA was elected president in September 2011 but died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, who served as interim president, until special elections were held in January 2015. Edgar LUNGU won the election and will complete SATA’s term, which expires in September 2016.
  • Geography :: ZAMBIA

  • Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    15 00 S, 30 00 E
    Africa
    total: 752,618 sq km
    land: 743,398 sq km
    water: 9,220 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 39
    slightly larger than Texas
    total: 6,043.15 km
    border countries (8): Angola 1,065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
    mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
    lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
    highest point: unnamed elevation in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
    copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
    arable land: 5.11%
    permanent crops: 0.05%
    other: 94.84% (2012 est.)
    1,559 sq km (2003)
    105.2 cu km (2011)
    total: 1.57 cu km/yr (18%/8%/73%)
    per capita: 147 cu m/yr (2002)
    periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
    air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
  • People and Society :: ZAMBIA

  • noun: Zambian(s)
    adjective: Zambian
    Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
    Bembe 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.2%, unspecified 0.4%
    note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family (2010 est.)
    Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
    14,638,505
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    0-14 years: 46.2% (male 3,393,388/female 3,362,850)
    15-24 years: 20% (male 1,465,009/female 1,467,555)
    25-54 years: 28.5% (male 2,105,768/female 2,072,314)
    55-64 years: 2.9% (male 199,098/female 222,214)
    65 years and over: 2.4% (male 151,471/female 198,838) (2014 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 96.4%
    youth dependency ratio: 91.3%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.1%
    potential support ratio: 19.6% (2014 est.)
    total: 16.7 years
    male: 16.6 years
    female: 16.8 years (2014 est.)
    2.88% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    42.46 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    12.92 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    -0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    urban population: 40.5% of total population (2014)
    rate of urbanization: 4.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    LUSAKA (capital) 2.078 million (2014)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
    19.1
    note: median age at first birth among women 20-24 (2007 est.)
    440 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    total: 66.62 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 72.15 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 60.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    total population: 51.83 years
    male: 50.24 years
    female: 53.48 years (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    5.76 children born/woman (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    40.8% (2007)
    6.5% of GDP (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
    2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    improved:
    urban: 84.8% of population
    rural: 49.2% of population
    total: 63.3% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 15.2% of population
    rural: 50.8% of population
    total: 36.7% of population (2012 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 56.4% of population
    rural: 33.9% of population
    total: 42.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 43.6% of population
    rural: 66.1% of population
    total: 57.2% of population (2012 est.)
    12.5% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    1,110,400 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    27,000 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2013)
    3.6% (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    14.9% (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    1.3% of GDP (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
    total population: 61.4%
    male: 71.9%
    female: 51.8% (2007 est.)
    total number: 1,000,850
    percentage: 41%
    note: data represents children ages 7-14 (2005 est.)
    total: 23.4% (2005 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
  • Government :: ZAMBIA

  • conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
    conventional short form: Zambia
    former: Northern Rhodesia
    republic
    name: Lusaka
    geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
    24 October 1964 (from the UK)
    Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
    several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991; amended 1996; note - in late 2013, a constitution committee submitted a draft constitution to the government, but in April 2014 the government rejected it (2014)
    mixed legal system of English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly, along with eight unelected members
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); a special election was held on 20 January 2015 to elect a president to complete SATA's term in office; SATA died 28 October 2014 (next to be held on September 2016); vice president appointed by the president
    election results: Edgar LUNGU elected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU 48.8%, Hakainde HICHILEMA 47.2%
    description: unicameral National Assembly (158 seats; 150 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 20 September 2011 (next to be held in 2016); note - over 25 by-elections, prompted by resignation, death, change of party or legal nullification have taken place since September 2011
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PF 60, MMD 55, UPND 28, ADD 1, FDD 1, independent 3; seats not determined 2; note - seats as of 4 March 2014 - PF 69, MMD 41, UPND 31, ADD 1, FDD 1, independent 2, other 5
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president and ratified by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA
    subordinate courts: High Court; magistrate's courts and local courts
    Alliance for a Better Zambia or ABZ [Frank BWALYA]
    Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI]
    Christian Democratic Party or CDP [Daniel PULE]
    Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]
    Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]
    Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA]
    National Restoration Party or NAREP [Elias CHIPIMO]
    National Revolution Party or NRP [Cosmo MUMBA]
    Party of Unity for Democracy and Development or PUDD [Dan PULE]
    Patriotic Front or PF
    Republican Progressive Party or RPP [James LUKUKU]
    United National Independence Party or UNIP [Tilyenji KAUNDA]
    United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Palan MULONDA (since 8 January 2013)
    chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
    FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
    chief of mission: Ambassador Eric T. SCHULTZ (since 20 October 2014)
    embassy: Ibex Hill, Lusaka
    mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
    telephone: [260] (211) 357-000
    FAX: [260] ) (211) 357-224
    green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag; green stands for the country's natural resources and vegetation, red symbolizes the struggle for freedom, black the people of Zambia, and orange the country's mineral wealth; the eagle represents the people's ability to rise above the nation's problems
    African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
    name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
    lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA
    note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
  • Economy :: ZAMBIA

  • Zambia has had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the past ten years, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 5.5% per annum. Privatization of government-owned copper mines in the 1990s relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly increased copper mining output and profitability, spurring economic growth. Copper output has increased steadily since 2004, due to higher copper prices and foreign investment. Zambia's dependency on copper makes it vulnerable to depressed commodity prices, but record high copper prices and a bumper maize crop in 2010 helped Zambia rebound quickly from the world economic slowdown that began in 2008. Despite strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market distorting agricultural policies. Economic policy inconsistency and poor budget execution in recent years has hindered the economy. Zambia has raised $1.75 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in September 2012 and April 2014, significantly increasing the country’s public debt as a share of GDP. On January 1, 2015, a new mining tax regime dramatically increased taxes, and may result in the loss of thousands of jobs and stifle Zambia’s ability to attract additional foreign investment.
    $61.79 billion (2014 est.)
    $58.03 billion (2013 est.)
    $54.39 billion (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2014 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 100
    $25.61 billion (2014 est.)
    6.5% (2014 est.)
    6.7% (2013 est.)
    6.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    $4,100 (2014 est.)
    $4,000 (2013 est.)
    $3,900 (2012 est.)
    note: data are in 2013 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 177
    33.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    34.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
    37.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    household consumption: 51.7%
    government consumption: 21.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 26.1%
    investment in inventories: 0.3%
    exports of goods and services: 44.3%
    imports of goods and services: -43.6%
    (2014 est.)
    agriculture: 10.8%
    industry: 32.9%
    services: 56.3% (2014 est.)
    corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
    copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
    3.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    6.338 million (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    agriculture: 85%
    industry: 6%
    services: 9% (2004)
    15% (2008 est.)
    50% (2000 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    60.5% (2010)
    lowest 10%: 1.5%
    highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
    57.5 (2010)
    50.8 (2004)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    revenues: $5.233 billion
    expenditures: $6.751 billion (2014 est.)
    20.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    -5.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    37.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
    31.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    calendar year
    7.8% (2014 est.)
    7% (2013 est.)
    8.39% (31 December 2009)
    14.49% (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    14% (31 December 2014 est.)
    9.52% (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    $2.466 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.369 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    $5.682 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.437 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    $5.325 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.155 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    $3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $4.009 billion (31 December 2011)
    $2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    -$1.7 million (2014 est.)
    -$224.6 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    $9.214 billion (2014 est.)
    $8.908 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
    China 38.7%, South Africa 11.6%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 10.5%, Zimbabwe 6.2% (2013)
    $8.081 billion (2014 est.)
    $7.762 billion (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
    South Africa 36%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 15.7%, China 9.5%, Kuwait 6.5%, India 4.5% (2013)
    $3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $2.684 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    $7.384 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $5.943 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    $NA
    $NA
    Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar -
    6.1 (2014 est.)
    5.4 (2013 est.)
    5.1 (2012 est.)
    4,860.7 (2011 est.)
    4,797.1 (2010 est.)
  • Energy :: ZAMBIA

  • 11.34 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    8.06 billion kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    586 million kWh (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    23 million kWh (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    1.819 million kW (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    0.4% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 210
    99.6% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    0 bbl (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    12,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    21,260 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    254 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    1,272 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    0 cu m (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    3.054 million Mt (2012 est.)
  • Communications :: ZAMBIA

  • 82,500 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    10.525 million (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    general assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa
    domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
    international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2010)
    state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 1 TV station and is the principal local-content provider; several private TV stations; multi-channel subscription TV services are available; ZNBC operates 3 radio networks; about 2 dozen private radio stations; relays of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible in Lusaka and Kitwe (2007)
    AM 19, FM 5, shortwave 4 (2001)
    9 (2001)
    .zm
    16,571 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    816,200 (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 103
  • Transportation :: ZAMBIA

  • 88 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    total: 8
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    total: 80
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
    914 to 1,523 m: 53
    under 914 m:
    21 (2013)
    oil 771 km (2013)
    total: 2,922 km
    narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge
    note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    total: 40,454 km
    paved: 9,403 km
    unpaved: 31,051 km
    country comparison to the world: 86
    2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    river port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
  • Military :: ZAMBIA

  • Zambian National Defense Force (ZNDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, National Service (paramilitary youth organization) (2012)
    national registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)
    males age 16-49: 3,041,069
    females age 16-49: 2,948,291 (2010 est.)
    males age 16-49: 1,745,656
    females age 16-49: 1,688,670 (2010 est.)
    male: 158,592
    female: 158,805 (2010 est.)
    1.55% of GDP (2012)
    1.59% of GDP (2011)
    1.55% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 59
  • Transnational Issues :: ZAMBIA

  • in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
    refugees (country of origin): 17,652 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2014)
    transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis
GO TOP