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Africa :: ZIMBABWE
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ZIMBABWE
  • Introduction :: ZIMBABWE

  • The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the former British South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 1997 and intensified after 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection.
    In April 2005, the capital city of Harare embarked on Operation Restore Order, ostensibly an urban rationalization program, which resulted in the destruction of the homes or businesses of 700,000 mostly poor supporters of the opposition. MUGABE in June 2007 instituted price controls on all basic commodities causing panic buying and leaving store shelves empty for months. General elections held in March 2008 contained irregularities but still amounted to a censure of the ZANU-PF-led government with the opposition winning a majority of seats in parliament. Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai opposition leader Morgan TSVANGIRAI won the most votes in the presidential poll, but not enough to win outright. In the lead up to a run-off election in June 2008, considerable violence against opposition party members led to the withdrawal of TSVANGIRAI from the ballot. Extensive evidence of violence and intimidation resulted in international condemnation of the process. Difficult negotiations over a power-sharing "government of national unity," in which MUGABE remained president and TSVANGIRAI became prime minister, were finally settled in February 2009, although the leaders failed to agree upon many key outstanding governmental issues. MUGABE was reelected president in June 2013 in balloting that was severely flawed and internationally condemned. As a prerequisite to holding the election, Zimbabwe enacted a new constitution by referendum, although many provisions in the new constitution have yet to be codified in law.
  • Geography :: ZIMBABWE

  • Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
    20 00 S, 30 00 E
    Africa
    total: 390,757 sq km
    land: 386,847 sq km
    water: 3,910 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 61
    slightly larger than Montana
    total: 3,229 km
    border countries (4): Botswana 834 km, Mozambique 1,402 km, South Africa 230 km, Zambia 763 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
    mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east
    mean elevation: 961 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save Rivers 162 m
    highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m
    coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
    agricultural land: 42.5%
    arable land 10.9%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 31.3%
    forest: 39.5%
    other: 18% (2011 est.)
    1,740 sq km (2012)
    20 cu km (2011)
    total: 4.21 cu km/yr (14%/7%/79%)
    per capita: 333.5 cu m/yr (2002)
    recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
    deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
  • People and Society :: ZIMBABWE

  • 14,546,961
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    noun: Zimbabwean(s)
    adjective: Zimbabwean
    African 99.4% (predominantly Shona; Ndebele is the second largest ethnic group), other 0.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2012 est.)
    Shona (official; most widely spoken), Ndebele (official, second most widely spoken), English (official; traditionally used for official business), 13 minority languages (official; includes Chewa, Chibarwe, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Shangani, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa)
    Protestant 75.9% (includes Apostolic 38%, Pentecostal 21.1%, other 16.8%), Roman Catholic 8.4%, other Christian 8.4%, other 1.2% (includes traditional, Muslim), none 6.1% (2011 est.)
    0-14 years: 37.8% (male 2,778,806/female 2,720,033)
    15-24 years: 21.29% (male 1,560,833/female 1,536,110)
    25-54 years: 33.86% (male 2,578,142/female 2,346,993)
    55-64 years: 3.55% (male 188,851/female 327,483)
    65 years and over: 3.5% (male 194,933/female 314,777) (2016 est.)
    population pyramid:
    total dependency ratio: 80.4%
    youth dependency ratio: 75%
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.3%
    potential support ratio: 18.7% (2015 est.)
    total: 20.6 years
    male: 20.5 years
    female: 20.8 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    2.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    31.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    urban population: 32.4% of total population (2015)
    rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
    HARARE (capital) 1.501 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.58 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.62 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    20.5
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010/11 est.)
    443 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    total: 25.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 28.1 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 23.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    total population: 58 years
    male: 57.3 years
    female: 58.7 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    3.5 children born/woman (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    58.5% (2010/11)
    6.4% of GDP (2014)
    0.08 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    1.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    improved:
    urban: 97% of population
    rural: 67.3% of population
    total: 76.9% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 3% of population
    rural: 32.7% of population
    total: 23.1% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 49.3% of population
    rural: 30.8% of population
    total: 36.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 50.7% of population
    rural: 69.2% of population
    total: 63.2% of population (2015 est.)
    14.69% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    1,425,800 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    29,400 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    degree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    8.4% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    11.2% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    2% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
    total population: 86.5%
    male: 88.5%
    female: 84.6% (2015 est.)
    total: 10 years
    male: 10 years
    female: 10 years (2013)
    total: 8.7%
    male: 7.7%
    female: 9.8% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
  • Government :: ZIMBABWE

  • conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
    conventional short form: Zimbabwe
    former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
    etymology: takes its name from the Kingdom of Zimbabwe (13th-15th century) and its capital of Great Zimbabwe, the largest stone structure in pre-colonial southern Africa
    semi-presidential republic
    name: Harare
    geographic coordinates: 17 49 S, 31 02 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
    18 April 1980 (from the UK)
    Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
    previous 1965 (at Rhodesian independence), 1979 (Lancaster House Agreement), 1980 (at Zimbabwean independence); latest final draft completed January 2013, approved by referendum 16 March 2013, approved by Parliament 9 May 2013; amended many times in 2013; note - significant amendments proposed in early 2015 (2016)
    mixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Zimbabwe; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice Presidents Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA and Phelekezela MPHOKO (both since 12 December 2014); note - Vice President Joice MUJURU (since 6 December 2004) was dismissed 9 December 2014
    head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); note - following the 31 July 2013 presidential election, the position of prime minister was abolished
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president, responsible to House of Assembly
    elections/appointments: each presidential candidate nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least 1 candidate from each province) and directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership
    election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE (ZANU-PF) 61.1%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI (MDC-T) 34.4%, Welshman NCUBE (MDC-N) 2.7%, other 1.8%; note - the election process was considered flawed and roundly criticized by election monitors and international bodies; both the African Union and the South African Development Community endorsed the results of the election with some concerns
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (80 seats; 60 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 6 seats in each of the 10 provinces - by proportional representation vote, 16 indirectly elected by the regional governing councils, 2 reserved for the National Council Chiefs, and 2 reserved for members with disabilities; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (270 seats; 210 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 60 seats reserved for women directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 37 MDC-T 21, MDC-N 2, chiefs 18, people with disabilities 2; House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 197, MDC-T 70, MDC-N 2, independent 1
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body consisting of the chief justice, Public Service Commission chairman, attorney general, and 2-3 members appointed by the president; judges normally serve until age 65 but can elect to serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: High Court, regional magistrate courts, and special courts
    Freedom Party [Cosmas MPONDA]
    Movement for Democratic Change - Ncube or MDC-N [Welshman NCUBE]
    Movement for Democratic Change - Renewal or MDC-R [Sekai HOLLAND]; note - has been kicked out of Parliament as of 17 May 2015
    Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai or MDC-T [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]
    Transform Zimbabwe or TZ [Jacob NGARIVHUME]
    United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]
    Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Wilson KUMBULA]
    Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]
    Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Dumiso DABENGWA]
    Crisis in Zimbabwe Coalition
    National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]
    Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenni WILLIAMS]
    Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Japhet MOYO]
    Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights or ZLHR [Irene PETRAS]
    ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ammon MUTEMBWA (since 18 November 2014)
    chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
    FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
    chief of mission: Ambassador Harry THOMAS (since 25 February 2016)
    embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
    mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare
    telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 through 250-594
    FAX: [263] (4) 796-488, or 722-618
    seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long history of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green represents agriculture, yellow mineral wealth, red the blood shed to achieve independence, and black stands for the native people
    Zimbabwe bird symbol, African fish eagle, flame lily; national colors: green, yellow, red, black, white
    name: "Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe" [Northern Ndebele language] "Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe" [Shona] (Blessed Be the Land of Zimbabwe)
    lyrics/music: Solomon MUTSWAIRO/Fred Lecture CHANGUNDEGA
    note: adopted 1994
  • Economy :: ZIMBABWE

  • Zimbabwe's economy depends heavily on its mining and agriculture sectors. Following a decade of contraction from 1998 to 2008, the economy recorded real growth of more than 10% per year in the period 2010-13, before slowing to roughly 3% in 2014 due to poor harvests, low diamond revenues, and decreased investment. Lower mineral prices, infrastructure and regulatory deficiencies, a poor investment climate, a large public and external debt burden, and extremely high government wage expenses impede the country’s economic performance.
    Until early 2009, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) routinely printed money to fund the budget deficit, causing hyperinflation. Dollarization in early 2009 - which allowed currencies such as the Botswana pula, the South Africa rand, and the US dollar to be used locally - ended hyperinflation and reduced inflation below 10% per year. The RBZ introduced bond coins denominated in 1, 5, 10, and 25 cent increments on a par with the US dollar in December 2014, more than five years after the Zimbabwe dollar was taken out of circulation. In January 2015, as part of the government’s effort to boost trade and attract foreign investment, the RBZ announced that the Chinese renmimbi, Indian rupee, Australian dollar, and Japanese yen would be accepted as legal tender in Zimbabwe.
    Zimbabwe’s government entered a second Staff Monitored Program with the IMF in 2014 and undertook other measures to reengage with international financial institutions. Foreign and domestic investment continues to be hindered by the lack of clarity regarding the government’s Indigenization and Economic Empowerment Act. In 2015 the depreciation of the South African rand against the US dollar has led to deflation in Zimbabwe as prices for South African imports decline while the costs of domestic production in US dollars remains stable.
    $28.1 billion (2015 est.)
    $27.69 billion (2014 est.)
    $26.66 billion (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 132
    $14.27 billion (2015 est.)
    1.5% (2015 est.)
    3.9% (2014 est.)
    4.5% (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    $2,100 (2015 est.)
    $2,100 (2014 est.)
    $2,000 (2013 est.)
    note: data are in 2015 US dollars
    country comparison to the world: 202
    -4.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    -5.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    -11% of GDP (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    household consumption: 68.9%
    government consumption: 32.2%
    investment in fixed capital: 22.5%
    investment in inventories: -0.1%
    exports of goods and services: 68.8%
    imports of goods and services: -92.3% (2015 est.)
    agriculture: 20%
    industry: 26%
    services: 53.3% (2015 est.)
    tobacco, corn, cotton, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; sheep, goats, pigs
    mining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, diamonds, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
    4.2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    5.777 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    agriculture: 66%
    industry: 10%
    services: 24% (1996)
    95% (2009 est.)
    80% (2005 est.)
    note: figures include unemployment and underemployment; true unemployment is unknown and, under current economic conditions, unknowable
    country comparison to the world: 208
    72.3% (2012 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2%
    highest 10%: 40.4% (1995)
    50.1 (2006)
    50.1 (1995)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    revenues: $3.732 billion
    expenditures: $4.615 billion (2014)
    26.8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    -6.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    205.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    184.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    calendar year
    0.1% (2015 est.)
    1.63% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    7.17% (31 December 2010)
    975% (31 December 2007)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    18% (31 December 2015 est.)
    22% (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    $76.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $41.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    note: Zimbabwe's central bank no longer publishes data on monetary aggregates, except for bank deposits, which amounted to $2.1 billion in November 2010; the Zimbabwe dollar stopped circulating in early 2009; since then, the US dollar and South African rand have been the most frequently used currencies; there are no reliable estimates of the amount of foreign currency circulating in Zimbabwe
    country comparison to the world: 41
    $47.64 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    $101.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    $9.902 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $9.474 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    $4.073 billion (13 April 2015 est.)
    $11.82 billion (31 December 2012)
    $10.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    -$2.466 billion (2015 est.)
    -$2.639 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    $3.301 billion (2015 est.)
    $3.263 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    platinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing
    China 27.8%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 14%, Botswana 12.5%, South Africa 7.6% (2015)
    $5.207 billion (2015 est.)
    $5.135 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    machinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels, food products
    South Africa 48.1%, China 12.1%, India 5.2%, Zambia 4.6% (2015)
    $457 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $448 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    $9.13 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $8.193 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    $NA
    $NA
    Zimbabwean dollars (ZWD) per US dollar -
    NA (2013)
    234.25 (2010)
    234.25 (2009)
    9,686.8 (2007)
    note: the dollar was adopted as a legal currency in 2009; since then the Zimbabwean dollar has experienced hyperinflation and is essentially worthless
  • Energy :: ZIMBABWE

  • population without electricity: 8.5 million
    electrification - total population: 40 %
    electrification - urban areas: 80 %
    electrification - rural areas: 21 % (2013)
    7.736 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    6.831 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    653 million kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    1.201 billion kWh (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    2.038 million kW (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    63.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    36.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    0 bbl (1 January 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    14,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    14,730 bbl/day (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    10.12 million Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
  • Communications :: ZIMBABWE

  • total subscriptions: 333,702
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    total: 12.757 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 90 (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    general assessment: privatization and competition have driven rapid expansion of telecommunications, particularly cellular voice and mobile broadband, in recent years; continued economic instability and infrastructure limitations, such as reliable power, hinder progress
    domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, fiber-optic cable, VSAT terminals, and a substantial mobile-cellular network; Internet connection is most readily available in Harare and major towns; 1 government owned and 3 private cellular providers; 3G and VoIP services are widely available with 4G/LTE service being deployed
    international: country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 5 international digital gateway exchanges; fiber-optic connections to neighboring states provide access to international networks via undersea cable (2015)
    government owns all local radio and TV stations; foreign shortwave broadcasts and satellite TV are available to those who can afford antennas and receivers; in rural areas, access to TV broadcasts is extremely limited (2007)
    AM 7, FM 20 (plus 17 repeater stations), shortwave 1 (1998)
    16 (1997)
    .zw
    30,615 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    total: 2.328 million
    percent of population: 16.4% (July 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
  • Transportation :: ZIMBABWE

  • 196 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    total: 17
    over 3,047 m: 3
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
    914 to 1,523 m: 7 (2013)
    total: 179
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
    914 to 1,523 m: 104
    under 914 m: 72 (2013)
    refined products 270 km (2013)
    total: 3,427 km
    narrow gauge: 3,427 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    total: 97,267 km
    paved: 18,481 km
    unpaved: 78,786 km (2002)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    (some navigation possible on Lake Kariba) (2011)
    river port(s): Binga, Kariba (Zambezi)
  • Military and Security :: ZIMBABWE

  • Zimbabwe Defense Forces (ZDF): Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA), Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ) (2012)
    18-24 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women are eligible to serve (2012)
    2.79% of GDP (2014)
    2.64% of GDP (2013)
    2.94% of GDP (2012)
    2.05% of GDP (2011)
    2.94% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 22
  • Transnational Issues :: ZIMBABWE

  • Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
    refugees (country of origin): 5,414 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (2015)
    IDPs: undetermined (political violence, violence in association with the 2008 election, human rights violations, land reform, and economic collapse) (2015)
    stateless persons: 300,000 (2015)
    current situation: Zimbabwe is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Zimbabwean women and girls from towns bordering South Africa, Mozambique, and Zambia are subjected to forced labor, including domestic servitude, and prostitution catering to long-distance truck drivers; Zimbabwean men, women, and children experience forced labor in agriculture and domestic servitude in rural areas; family members may recruit children and other relatives from rural areas with promises of work or education in cities and towns where they end up in domestic servitude and sex trafficking; Zimbabwean women and men are lured into exploitative labor situations in South Africa and other neighboring countries
    tier rating: Tier 3 - Zimbabwe does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government passed an anti-trafficking law in 2014 defining trafficking in persons as a crime of transportation and failing to capture the key element of the international definition of human trafficking – the purpose of exploitation – which prevents the law from being comprehensive or consistent with the 2000 UN TIP Protocol that Zimbabwe acceded to in 2013; the government did not report on anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts during 2014, and corruption in law enforcement and the judiciary remain a concern; authorities made minimal efforts to identify and protect trafficking victims, relying on NGOs to identify and assist victims; Zimbabwe’s 2014 anti-trafficking law required the opening of 10 centers for trafficking victims, but none were established during the year; five existing shelters for vulnerable children and orphans may have accommodated child victims; in January 2015, an inter-ministerial anti-trafficking committee was established, but it is unclear if the committee ever met or initiated any activities (2015)
    transit point for cannabis and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines en route to South Africa