Often regarded as the southeastern border of Europe, the Caucasus Mts stretch from the Black Sea (left) to the Caspian Sea (right). The mountain range spans 1,125 km (700 mi), forming part of the southern Russian border, and crossing Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan from left to right respectively. With a snowline of approximately 3,350 m (11,000 ft) and many peaks over 4,500 m (14,760 ft), much of the snow seen in this image is present year round. Also visible in this photo are apparent phytoplankton blooms in the Caspian Sea, marked by blue-green swirls. Image credit: NASA.
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Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, the Ottoman Empire instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in at least 1 million Armenian deaths - actions widely recognized as constituting genocide. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920.

Armenia remains involved in the protracted struggle with Azerbaijan over control of Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily ethnic Armenian region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous oblast within Soviet Azerbaijan. In the late Soviet period, a separatist movement developed that sought to end Azerbaijani control over the region. Fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh began in 1988 and escalated after Armenia and Azerbaijan attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By the time a cease-fire took effect in May 1994, separatists, with Armenian support, controlled Nagorno‑Karabakh and seven surrounding Azerbaijani territories. Following the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War that took place in September-November 2020, Armenia lost control over much of the territory it had captured a quarter century earlier. Under the terms of a cease-fire agreement signed in November 2020, Armenia returned to Azerbaijan the remaining territories it occupied and some parts of the Nagorno-Karabakh region, including the key city that Armenians call Shushi and Azerbaijanis call Shusha.

Turkey closed the common border with Armenia in 1993 in support of Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia over control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas, further hampering Armenian economic growth. In 2009, Armenia and Turkey signed Protocols normalizing relations between the two countries, but neither country ratified the Protocols, and Armenia officially withdrew from the Protocols in March 2018. In 2015, Armenia joined the Eurasian Economic Union alongside Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. In November 2017, Armenia signed a Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA) with the EU.

In spring 2018, former President of Armenia (2008-18) Serzh SARGSIAN of the Republican Party of Armenia (RPA) tried to extend his time in power by becoming prime minister, prompting popular protests that became known as the “Velvet Revolution” after SARGSIAN was forced to resign. The leader of the protests, Civil Contract party chief Nikol PASHINYAN, was elected by the National Assembly as the new prime minister on 8 May 2018. Pashinyan’s party prevailed in an early legislative election in December 2018, and he was reelected as prime minister.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Southwestern Asia, between Turkey (to the west) and Azerbaijan; note - Armenia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both

Geographic coordinates

40 00 N, 45 00 E


total: 29,743 sq km

land: 28,203 sq km

water: 1,540 sq km

country comparison to the world: 142

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

<p>slightly smaller than Maryland</p>

Land boundaries

total: 1,570 km

border countries (4): Azerbaijan 996 km, Georgia 219 km, Iran 44 km, Turkey 311 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


highland continental, hot summers, cold winters


Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley


highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m

lowest point: Debed River 400 m

mean elevation: 1,792 m

Natural resources

small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite

Land use

agricultural land: 59.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 15.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 42% (2018 est.)

forest: 9.1% (2018 est.)

other: 31.2% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

2,740 sq km (2012)

Major lakes (area sq km)

Fresh water lake(s): Lake Sevan - 1,360 sq km

Population distribution

most of the population is located in the northern half of the country; the capital of Yerevan is home to more than five times as many people as Gyumri, the second largest city in the country

Natural hazards

occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Geography - note

landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range

People and Society


noun: Armenian(s)

adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups

Armenian 98.1%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.2%, other 0.7% (2011 est.)


Armenian (official) 97.9%, Kurdish (spoken by Yezidi minority) 1%, other 1%; note - Russian is widely spoken (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):
Աշխարհի Փաստագիրք, Անփոխարինելի Աղբյւր Հիմնական Տեղեկատվւթյան. (Armenian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Armenian audio sample:


Armenian Apostolic 92.6%, Evangelical 1%, other 2.4%, none 1.1%, unspecified 2.9% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 18.64% (male 297,320/female 265,969)

15-24 years: 11.63% (male 184,258/female 167,197)

25-54 years: 43.04% (male 639,101/female 661,421)

55-64 years: 14.08% (male 195,754/female 229,580)

65 years and over: 12.6% (male 154,117/female 226,607) (2020 est.)

This is the population pyramid for Armenia. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. <br/><br/>For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 48.4

youth dependency ratio: 30.9

elderly dependency ratio: 17.5

potential support ratio: 5.7 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 36.6 years

male: 35.1 years

female: 38.3 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 78

Birth rate

11.45 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 167

Death rate

9.48 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 46

Net migration rate

-5.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 206

Population distribution

most of the population is located in the northern half of the country; the capital of Yerevan is home to more than five times as many people as Gyumri, the second largest city in the country


urban population: 63.4% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.23% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.089 million YEREVAN (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.12 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

25.2 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

26 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 119

Infant mortality rate

total: 12.47 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 14.02 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 116

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.86 years

male: 72.58 years

female: 79.44 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

4.4 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

4.2 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 84.5% of population

total: 93.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 15.5% of population

total: 6.4% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<100 (2020 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.7% (2020)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 13 years

female: 14 years (2020)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 32.6%

male: 31.2%

female: 34.4% (2019 est.)


Environment - current issues

soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; deforestation; pollution of Hrazdan and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 30.48 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 5.16 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 2.91 megatons (2020 est.)


highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Land use

agricultural land: 59.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 15.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 42% (2018 est.)

forest: 9.1% (2018 est.)

other: 31.2% (2018 est.)


urban population: 63.4% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.23% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 58

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 492,800 tons (2014 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

Fresh water lake(s): Lake Sevan - 1,360 sq km

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 616.4 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 122.4 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 2.127 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

7.769 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Armenia

conventional short form: Armenia

local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun

local short form: Hayastan

former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic

etymology: the etymology of the country's name remains obscure; according to tradition, the country is named after Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and the great-great-grandson of Noah; Hayk's descendant, Aram, purportedly is the source of the name Armenia

Government type

parliamentary democracy; note - constitutional changes adopted in December 2015 transformed the government to a parliamentary system


name: Yerevan

geographic coordinates: 40 10 N, 44 30 E

time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: name likely derives from the ancient Urartian fortress of Erebuni established on the current site of Yerevan in 782 B.C. and whose impressive ruins still survive

Administrative divisions

11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan


21 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 321 B.C. (Kingdom of Armenia established under the Orontid Dynasty), A.D. 884 (Armenian Kingdom reestablished under the Bagratid Dynasty); 1198 (Cilician Kingdom established); 28 May 1918 (Democratic Republic of Armenia declared)

National holiday

Independence Day, 21 September (1991)


history: previous 1915, 1978; latest adopted 5 July 1995

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires approval by the president, by the National Assembly, and by a referendum with at least 25% registered voter participation and more than 50% of votes; constitutional articles on the form of government and democratic procedures are not amendable; amended 2005, 2015, last in 2020; note - a constitutional referendum originally scheduled for 4 May 2020 was indefinitely postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic that began in early 2020, the Nagorno-Karabakh war in the fall of 2020, and the postwar political crisis of early 2021

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Armenia

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Armen SARKISSIAN (since 9 April 2018)

head of government: Prime Minister Nikol PASHINYAN (since 10 September 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Mher GRIGORYAN (since 3 August 2021) and Hambardzum MATEVOSYAN (since 25 November 2021); note - Prime Minister Nikol PASHINYAN resigned on 25 April 2021; he was reappointed by the president on 2 August 2021 and sworn in on 10 September 2021

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly in 3 rounds if needed for a single 7-year term; election last held on 2 March 2018; prime minister elected by majority vote in 2 rounds if needed by the National Assembly; election last held 2 August 2021

election results: Armen SARKISSIAN elected president in first round; note - Armen SARKISSIAN ran unopposed and won the Assembly vote 90-10

note: Nikol PASHINYAN was first elected prime minister on 8 May 2018 and reelected on January 2019; in response to a political crisis that followed Armenia's defeat in the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War in late 2020, PASHINYAN called an early legislative election for June 2021; his party won the election and PASHINYAN was elected to the prime ministership for a third time; his election was confirmed by the president on 2 August 2021, and he was sworn in on 10 September 2021

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (minimum 101 seats, with additional seats allocated as necessary and generally changing with each parliamentary convocation; current - 107; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms; four mandates are reserved for national minorities; no more than 70% of the top membership of a party list can belong to the same sex; political parties must meet a 5% threshold and alliances a 7% threshold to win seats; at least three parties must be seated in the parliament)

elections: last held early on 20 June 2021 (next to be held in June 2026)

election results: percent of vote by party - Civil Contract 53.9%, Armenia Alliance 21.0%, I Have Honour Alliance 5.2%; seats by party - Civil Contract 71 of 107 seats, Armenia Alliance 29, I Have Honour Alliance 7; composition - men 73, women 34, percent of women 31.8%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Court of Cassation (consists of the Criminal Chamber with a chairman and 5 judges and the Civil and Administrative Chamber with a chairman and 10 judges – with both civil and administrative specializations); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges nominated by the Supreme Judicial Council, a 10-member body of selected judges and legal scholars; judges appointed by the president; judges can serve until age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 4 appointed by the president, and 5 elected by the National Assembly; judges can serve until age 70

subordinate courts: criminal and civil appellate courts; administrative appellate court; first instance courts; specialized administrative and bankruptcy courts

Political parties and leaders

twenty-five political parties or alliances competed in the June 2021 election; the top three parties or alliances that entered parliament garnered 80% of the vote; the below parties received 1% or more of the vote:
5165 National Conservative Movement Party [Karin TONOYAN]
Alliance of Democrats [Arman BABAJANYAN]
Armenia Alliance or HD (alliance of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation and the Reborn Armenia Party) [Robert KOCHARYAN]
Armenian National Congress or ANC (bloc of independent and opposition parties) [Levon TER-PETROSSIAN]
Bright Armenia [Edmon MARUKYAN]
Civil Contract or KP [Nikol PASHINYAN]
Homeland Party [Artur VANETSYAN]
Homeland of Armenians [Artak GALSTYAN]
I Have Honor Alliance (alliance of the RPA and the Homeland Party, co-led by the two allied parties' leaders)
Liberal Party [Samvel BABAYAN]
National Democratic Party [Vahe GASPARYAN]
Prosperous Armenia or BHK [Gagik TSARUKYAN]
Republic Party [Aram SARGSYAN]
Republican Party of Armenia or RPA [Serzh SARGSIAN]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Lilit MAKUNTS (since 2 August 2021)

chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976

FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982

email address and website:


consulate(s) general: Glendale (CA)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Lynne M. TRACEY (since 5 March 2019)


1 American Ave., Yerevan 0082

mailing address: 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC  20521-7020

telephone: [374] (10) 464-700

FAX: [374] (10) 464-742

email address and website:


Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange; the color red recalls the blood shed for liberty, blue the Armenian skies as well as hope, and orange the land and the courage of the workers who farm it

National symbol(s)

Mount Ararat, eagle, lion; national colors: red, blue, orange

National anthem

name: "Mer Hayrenik" (Our Fatherland)

lyrics/music: Mikael NALBANDIAN/Barsegh KANACHYAN

note: adopted 1991; based on the anthem of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (1918-1922) but with different lyrics


Economic overview

Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics, in exchange for raw materials and energy. Armenia has since switched to small-scale agriculture and away from the large agro industrial complexes of the Soviet era. Armenia has only two open trade borders - Iran and Georgia - because its borders with Azerbaijan and Turkey have been closed since 1991 and 1993, respectively, as a result of Armenia's ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region.

Armenia joined the World Trade Organization in January 2003. The government has made some improvements in tax and customs administration in recent years, but anti-corruption measures have been largely ineffective. Armenia will need to pursue additional economic reforms and strengthen the rule of law in order to raise its economic growth and improve economic competitiveness and employment opportunities, especially given its economic isolation from Turkey and Azerbaijan.

Armenia's geographic isolation, a narrow export base, and pervasive monopolies in important business sectors have made it particularly vulnerable to volatility in the global commodity markets and the economic challenges in Russia. Armenia is particularly dependent on Russian commercial and governmental support, as most key Armenian infrastructure is Russian-owned and/or managed, especially in the energy sector. Remittances from expatriates working in Russia are equivalent to about 12-14% of GDP. Armenia joined the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union in January 2015, but has remained interested in pursuing closer ties with the EU as well, signing a Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement with the EU in November 2017. Armenia’s rising government debt is leading Yerevan to tighten its fiscal policies – the amount is approaching the debt to GDP ratio threshold set by national legislation.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$37.31 billion note: data are in 2017 dollars (2020 est.)

$40.38 billion note: data are in 2017 dollars (2019 est.)

$37.53 billion note: data are in 2017 dollars (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 125

Real GDP growth rate

7.5% (2017 est.)

0.3% (2016 est.)

3.3% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 11

Real GDP per capita

$12,600 note: data are in 2017 dollars (2020 est.)

$13,700 note: data are in 2017 dollars (2019 est.)

$12,700 note: data are in 2017 dollars (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 118

GDP (official exchange rate)

$13.694 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.4% (2019 est.)

2.5% (2018 est.)

0.9% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 80

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: B+ (2020)

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2019)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 16.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)

services: 54.8% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 76.7% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 14.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 17.3% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 4.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 38.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -50.4% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, grapes, vegetables, tomatoes, watermelons, wheat, apples, cabbages, barley


brandy, mining, diamond processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging and pressing machines, electric motors, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry, software, food processing

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 36.3%

industry: 17%

services: 46.7% (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 25.7% (2014)


revenues: 2.644 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 3.192 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

53.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

51.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 89

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$328 million (2017 est.)

-$238 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 111


$3.82 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2020 est.)

$5.64 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2019 est.)

$4.91 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 137

Exports - partners

Russia 22%, Switzerland 20%, China 7%, Bulgaria 6%, Iraq 5%, Serbia 5%, Netherlands 5%, Germany 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

copper ore, gold, tobacco, liquors, iron alloys (2019)


$5 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2020 est.)

$7.47 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2019 est.)

$6.61 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 139

Imports - partners

Russia 29%, China 10%, Georgia 8%, Iran 6%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

natural gas, cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, diamonds (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.314 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$2.204 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 119

Debt - external

$11.637 billion (2019 est.)

$10.785 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 111

Exchange rates

drams (AMD) per US dollar -

487.9 (2017 est.)

480.49 (2016 est.)

480.49 (2015 est.)

477.92 (2014 est.)

415.92 (2013 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 32.6%

male: 31.2%

female: 34.4% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 29


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 427,539 (2020)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14.43 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 3,488,797 (2020)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 117.7 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: telecom market struggles to provide an effective national telecom service; country remains dependent on the economic health of  Russian and EU economies; fixed-line penetration falling, driven by growth in mobile and fixed-line broadband; growth of 4G networks and falling prices due to growing competition; fixed broadband is growing but remains low by international comparisons; flat mobile market; strong growth predicted for mobile broadband market; government participating in a project to ensure eventual nationwide 5G network; government approved plans for a new data center built via public-private partnership; communication technologies sectors have attracted foreign investment; top importer of broadcast equipment from China  (2020)

domestic: 15 per 100 fixed-line, 122 per 100 mobile-cellular; reliable fixed-line and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan and in major cities and towns; mobile-cellular coverage available in most rural areas (2019)

international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Caucasus Cable System fiber-optic cable through Georgia and Iran to Europe; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

Armenia’s government-run Public Television network operates alongside 100 privately owned TV stations that provide local to near nationwide coverage; three Russian TV companies are broadcast in Armenia under interstate agreements; subscription cable TV services are available in most regions; several major international broadcasters are available, including CNN; Armenian TV completed conversion from analog to digital broadcasting in late 2016; Public Radio of Armenia is a national, state-run broadcast network that operates alongside 18 privately owned radio stations


Internet users

total: 2.02 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 66.54% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 128

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 430,407 (2020)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14.52 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 94


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5

Airports - with paved runways

total: 10

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)


3838 km gas (high and medium pressure) (2017)


total: 780 km (2014)

broad gauge: 780 km 1.520-m gauge (780 km electrified) (2014)

note: 726 km operational

country comparison to the world: 99


total: 7,700 km (2019)

urban: 3,780 km

non-urban: 3,920 km

country comparison to the world: 140

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armenian Armed Forces: Armenian Army (includes land, air, air defense forces) (2021)

Military expenditures

5% of GDP (2020 est.)

4.3% of GDP (2019)

4.3% of GDP (2018)

3.8% of GDP (2017)

4.1% of GDP (2016)

country comparison to the world: 8

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 45,000 active troops (42,000 ground; 3,000 air/defense) (2021)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Armenian Armed Forces includes mostly Russian and Soviet-era equipment (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for voluntary or compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, which can be served as an officer upon deferment for university studies if enrolled in officer-producing program; 17-year-olds are eligible to become cadets at military higher education institutes, where they are classified as military personnel (2021)

Military - note

since November 2020, Russia has deployed about 2,000 peacekeeping troops to the area in and around Nagorno-Karabakh as part of a cease-fire agreement between Armenia and Azerbaijan; fighting erupted between the two countries over the Nagorno-Karabakh region in September of 2020; Nagorno-Karabakh lies within Azerbaijan but has been under control of ethnic Armenian forces (the "Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army") backed by Armenia since a separatist war there ended in 1994; six weeks of fighting resulted in about 6,000 deaths and ended after Armenia ceded swathes of Nagorno-Karabakh territory; tensions remained high through 2021, and both sides have accused the other of provocations since the fighting ended; Armenia has accused Azerbaijani forces of a series of border intrusions and of seizing pockets of territory 

Armenia has been a member of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) since 1994 and contributes troops to CSTO's rapid reaction force

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; ethnic Armenian groups in the Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian Government

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 91,766 (Armenia), 14,741 (Syria - ethnic Armenians) (2020)

stateless persons: 1,000 (2020)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Armenians may be exploited domestically or abroad, and foreigners may be subjected to sex trafficking or forced labor in Armenia; Armenian women and children are exploited in sex and labor trafficking domestically, as well as sex trafficking in the UAE and Turkey; Armenian migrants experience forced labor in Russia, the UAE, and Turkey; Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Russian women working as dancers are vulnerable to sex trafficking, while Indian employment seekers are subjected to forced labor in Armenia

tier rating:

Tier 2 Watch List — Armenia does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; law enforcement authorities did not conduct proactive investigations and relied on victims to self-identify; prevention efforts decreased and protection efforts were weak, with the government continuing to lack a formal victim-witness protection program; the government had no convictions, including convictions of complicit government employees, for the second consecutive year and has not had a forced labor conviction since 2014; legislation was passed to strengthen the health and labor body and training was provided to law enforcement officials; government and local NGOs provided legal, medical, and psychological assistance, housing, and monetary compensation to victims; however, civil society continued to provide reintegration and long-term support services without government funding (2020)

Illicit drugs

a transit country for illicit drugs with its location between source countries Afghanistan and Iran and the markets of Europe and Russia