This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year; in the World entry only, it includes four subfields that describe climate extremes:

ten driest places on earth (average annual precipitation) describes the annual average precipitation measured in both millimeters and inches for selected countries with climate extremes.

ten wettest places on earth (average annual precipitation) describes the annual average precipitation measured in both millimeters and inches for selected countries with climate extremes.

ten coldest places on earth (lowest average monthly temperature) describes temperature measured in both degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit as well as the month of the year for selected countries with climate extremes.

ten hottest places on earth (highest average monthly temperature) describes the temperature measured both in degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit as well the month of the year for selected countries with climate extremes.

  • Afghanistan

    arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

  • Akrotiri

    temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

  • Albania

    mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

  • Algeria

    arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

  • American Samoa

    tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October); little seasonal temperature variation

  • Andorra

    temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

  • Angola

    semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

  • Anguilla

    tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

  • Antarctica

    the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth; severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing; summers characterized by continuous daylight, while winters bring continous darkness; persistent high pressure over the interior brings dry, subsiding air that results in very little cloud cover

  • Antigua and Barbuda

    tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation

  • Arctic Ocean

    polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature range; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

  • Argentina

    mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

  • Armenia

    highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

  • Aruba

    tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

  • Ashmore and Cartier Islands


  • Atlantic Ocean

    tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cabo Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December but are most frequent from August to November

  • Australia

    generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north

  • Austria

    temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers

  • Azerbaijan

    dry, semiarid steppe

  • Bahamas, The

    tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

  • Bahrain

    arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

  • Bangladesh

    tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)

  • Barbados

    tropical; rainy season (June to October)

  • Belarus

    cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime

  • Belgium

    temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

  • Belize

    tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May)

  • Benin

    tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

  • Bermuda

    subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

  • Bhutan

    varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

  • Bolivia

    varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina

    hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

  • Botswana

    semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

  • Bouvet Island


  • Brazil

    mostly tropical, but temperate in south

  • British Indian Ocean Territory

    tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

  • British Virgin Islands

    subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

  • Brunei

    tropical; hot, humid, rainy

  • Bulgaria

    temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

  • Burkina Faso

    three climate zones including a hot tropical savanna with a short rainy season in the southern half, a tropical hot semi-arid steppe climate typical of the Sahel region in the northern half, and small area of hot desert in the very north of the country bordering the Sahara Desert

  • Burma

    tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

  • Burundi

    equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees Celsius but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)

  • Cabo Verde

    temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and erratic

  • Cambodia

    tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

  • Cameroon

    varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north

  • Canada

    varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north

  • Cayman Islands

    tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

  • Central African Republic

    tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

  • Chad

    tropical in south, desert in north

  • Chile

    temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south

  • China

    extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

  • Christmas Island

    tropical with a wet season (December to April) and dry season; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

  • Clipperton Island

    tropical; humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees Celsius, wet season (May to October)

  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    tropical with high humidity, moderated by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year

  • Colombia

    tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

  • Comoros

    tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the

    tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)

  • Congo, Republic of the

    tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator

  • Cook Islands

    tropical oceanic; moderated by trade winds; a dry season from April to November and a more humid season from December to March

  • Coral Sea Islands


  • Costa Rica

    tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands

  • Cote d'Ivoire

    tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)

  • Croatia

    Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

  • Cuba

    tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October)

  • Curacao

    tropical marine climate, ameliorated by northeast trade winds, results in mild temperatures; semiarid with average rainfall of 60 cm/year

  • Cyprus

    temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

  • Czechia

    temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

  • Denmark

    temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers

  • Dhekelia

    temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters

  • Djibouti

    desert; torrid, dry

  • Dominica

    tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

  • Dominican Republic

    tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall

  • Ecuador

    tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

  • Egypt

    desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

  • El Salvador

    tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands

  • Equatorial Guinea

    tropical; always hot, humid

  • Eritrea

    hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands

  • Estonia

    maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers

  • Eswatini

    varies from tropical to near temperate

  • Ethiopia

    tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

  • European Union

    cold temperate; potentially subarctic in the north to temperate; mild wet winters; hot dry summers in the south

  • Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

    cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; average annual rainfall is 60 cm in Stanley; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but typically does not accumulate

  • Faroe Islands

    mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

  • Fiji

    tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

  • Finland

    cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

  • France

    metropolitan France: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as the mistral;

    French Guiana: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation;

    Guadeloupe and Martinique: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average;

    Mayotte: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November);

    Reunion: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April)

  • French Polynesia

    tropical, but moderate

  • French Southern and Antarctic Lands

    Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul: oceanic with persistent westerly winds and high humidity;

    Iles Crozet: windy, cold, wet, and cloudy;

    Iles Kerguelen: oceanic, cold, overcast, windy;

    Iles Eparses: tropical

  • Gabon

    tropical; always hot, humid

  • Gambia, The

    tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May)

  • Gaza Strip

    temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

  • Georgia

    warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

  • Germany

    temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind

  • Ghana

    tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

  • Gibraltar

    Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

  • Greece

    temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

  • Greenland

    arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters

  • Grenada

    tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

  • Guam

    tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season (January to June), rainy season (July to December); little seasonal temperature variation

  • Guatemala

    tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands

  • Guernsey

    temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast

  • Guinea

    generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

  • Guinea-Bissau

    tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

  • Guyana

    tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to August, November to January)

  • Haiti

    tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands


  • Holy See (Vatican City)

    temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)

  • Honduras

    subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

  • Hong Kong

    subtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

  • Hungary

    temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

  • Iceland

    temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers

  • India

    varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

  • Indian Ocean

    northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in the southern Indian Ocean

  • Indonesia

    tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

  • Iran

    mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

  • Iraq

    mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq

  • Ireland

    temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

  • Isle of Man

    temperate; cool summers and mild winters; overcast about a third of the time

  • Israel

    temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

  • Italy

    predominantly Mediterranean; alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

  • Jamaica

    tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

  • Jan Mayen

    arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog

  • Japan

    varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

  • Jersey

    temperate; mild winters and cool summers

  • Jordan

    mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

  • Kazakhstan

    continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid

  • Kenya

    varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

  • Kiribati

    tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

  • Korea, North

    temperate, with rainfall concentrated in summer; long, bitter winters

  • Korea, South

    temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter; cold winters

  • Kosovo

    influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December

  • Kuwait

    dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters

  • Kyrgyzstan

    dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone

  • Laos

    tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to April)

  • Latvia

    maritime; wet, moderate winters

  • Lebanon

    Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; the Lebanon Mountains experience heavy winter snows

  • Lesotho

    temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers

  • Liberia

    tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers

  • Libya

    Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

  • Liechtenstein

    continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

  • Lithuania

    transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers

  • Luxembourg

    modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

  • Macau

    subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

  • Madagascar

    tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

  • Malawi

    sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)

  • Malaysia

    tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons

  • Maldives

    tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

  • Mali

    subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)

  • Malta

    Mediterranean; mild, rainy winters; hot, dry summers

  • Marshall Islands

    tropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November; islands border typhoon belt

  • Mauritania

    desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

  • Mauritius

    tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

  • Mexico

    varies from tropical to desert

  • Micronesia, Federated States of

    tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage

  • Moldova

    moderate winters, warm summers

  • Monaco

    Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

  • Mongolia

    desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

  • Montenegro

    Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland

  • Montserrat

    tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

  • Morocco

    Mediterranean in the north, becoming more extreme in the interior; in the south, hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog and heavy dew

    note:  data does not include former Western Sahara

  • Mozambique

    tropical to subtropical

  • Namibia

    desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

  • Nauru

    tropical with a monsoonal pattern; rainy season (November to February)

  • Navassa Island

    marine, tropical

  • Nepal

    varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

  • Netherlands

    temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

  • New Caledonia

    tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

  • New Zealand

    temperate with sharp regional contrasts

  • Nicaragua

    tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

  • Niger

    desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

  • Nigeria

    varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

  • Niue

    tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

  • Norfolk Island

    subtropical; mild, little seasonal temperature variation

  • North Macedonia

    warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

  • Northern Mariana Islands

    tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July to October

  • Norway

    temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast

  • Oman

    dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

  • Pacific Ocean

    planetary air pressure systems and resultant wind patterns exhibit remarkable uniformity in the south and east; trade winds and westerly winds are well-developed patterns, modified by seasonal fluctuations; tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico from June to October and affect Mexico and Central America; continental influences cause climatic uniformity to be much less pronounced in the eastern and western regions at the same latitude in the North Pacific Ocean; the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow from the Asian landmass back to the ocean; tropical cyclones (typhoons) may strike southeast and east Asia from May to December

  • Pakistan

    mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

  • Palau

    tropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November

  • Panama

    tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)

  • Papua New Guinea

    tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

  • Paracel Islands


  • Paraguay

    subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west

  • Peru

    varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

  • Philippines

    tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

  • Pitcairn Islands

    tropical; hot and humid; modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season (November to March)

  • Poland

    temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

  • Portugal

    maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south

  • Puerto Rico

    tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation

  • Qatar

    arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

  • Romania

    temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

  • Russia

    ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

  • Rwanda

    temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

  • Saint Barthelemy

    tropical, with practically no variation in temperature; has two seasons (dry and humid)

  • Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha

    Saint Helena: tropical marine; mild, tempered by trade winds;

    Ascension Island: tropical marine; mild, semi-arid;

    Tristan da Cunha: temperate marine; mild, tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena)

  • Saint Kitts and Nevis

    tropical, tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

  • Saint Lucia

    tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season January to April, rainy season May to August

  • Saint Martin

    temperature averages 27-29 degrees Celsius all year long; low humidity, gentle trade winds, brief, intense rain showers; hurricane season stretches from July to November

  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon

    cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windy

  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

    tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

  • Samoa

    tropical; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October)

  • San Marino

    Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

  • Sao Tome and Principe

    tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

  • Saudi Arabia

    harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes

  • Senegal

    tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind

  • Serbia

    in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)

  • Seychelles

    tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

  • Sierra Leone

    tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)

  • Singapore

    tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms

  • Sint Maarten

    tropical marine climate, ameliorated by northeast trade winds, results in moderate temperatures; average rainfall of 150 cm/year; hurricane season stretches from July to November

  • Slovakia

    temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

  • Slovenia

    Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

  • Solomon Islands

    tropical monsoon; few temperature and weather extremes

  • Somalia

    principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

  • South Africa

    mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights

  • South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands

    variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow

  • South Sudan

    hot with seasonal rainfall influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone; rainfall heaviest in upland areas of the south and diminishes to the north

  • Southern Ocean

    sea temperatures vary from about 10 degrees Celsius to -2 degrees Celsius; cyclonic storms travel eastward around the continent and frequently are intense because of the temperature contrast between ice and open ocean; the ocean area from about latitude 40 south to the Antarctic Circle has the strongest average winds found anywhere on Earth; in winter the ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees south latitude in the Pacific sector and 55 degrees south latitude in the Atlantic sector, lowering surface temperatures well below 0 degrees Celsius; at some coastal points intense persistent drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free throughout the winter

  • Spain

    temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

  • Spratly Islands


  • Sri Lanka

    tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)

  • Sudan

    hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)

  • Suriname

    tropical; moderated by trade winds

  • Svalbard

    arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year

  • Sweden

    temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

  • Switzerland

    temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers

  • Syria

    mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus

  • Taiwan

    tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); persistent and extensive cloudiness all year

  • Tajikistan

    mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

  • Tanzania

    varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

  • Thailand

    tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

  • Timor-Leste

    tropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons

  • Togo

    tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

  • Tokelau

    tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

  • Tonga

    tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)

  • Trinidad and Tobago

    tropical; rainy season (June to December)

  • Tunisia

    temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south

  • Turkey

    temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

  • Turkmenistan

    subtropical desert

  • Turks and Caicos Islands

    tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry

  • Tuvalu

    tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

  • Uganda

    tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

  • Ukraine

    temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south

  • United Arab Emirates

    desert; cooler in eastern mountains

  • United Kingdom

    temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast

  • United States

    mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains

    note: many consider Denali, the highest peak in the US, to be the world’s coldest mountain because of its combination of high elevation and its subarctic location at 63 degrees north latitude; permanent snow and ice cover over 75 percent of the mountain, and enormous glaciers, up to 45 miles long and 3,700 feet thick, spider out from its base in every direction; it is home to some of the world’s coldest and most violent weather, where winds of over 150 miles per hour and temperatures of -93˚F have been recorded.  

  • United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges

    Baker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun;

    Johnston Atoll and Kingman Reef: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation;

    Midway Islands: subtropical with cool, moist winters (December to February) and warm, dry summers (May to October); moderated by prevailing easterly winds; most of the 107 cm of annual rainfall occurs during the winter;

    Palmyra Atoll: equatorial, hot; located within the low pressure area of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) where the northeast and southeast trade winds meet, it is extremely wet with between 400-500 cm of rainfall each year

  • Uruguay

    warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

  • Uzbekistan

    mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east

  • Vanuatu

    tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds from May to October; moderate rainfall from November to April; may be affected by cyclones from December to April

  • Venezuela

    tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

  • Vietnam

    tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)

  • Virgin Islands

    subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season September to November

  • Wake Island


  • Wallis and Futuna

    tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May to October); rains 250-300 cm per year (80% humidity); average temperature 26.6 degrees Celsius

  • West Bank

    temperate; temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

  • World

    a wide equatorial band of hot and humid tropical climates, bordered north and south by subtropical temperate zones that separate two large areas of cold and dry polar climates

    Ten Driest Places on Earth (Average Annual Precipitation): McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica 0 mm (0 in)
    Arica, Chile 0.76 mm (0.03 in)
    Al Kufrah, Libya 0.86 mm (0.03 in)
    Aswan, Egypt 0.86 mm (0.03 in)
    Luxor, Egypt 0.86 mm (0.03 in)
    Ica, Peru 2.29 mm (0.09 in)
    Wadi Halfa, Sudan 2.45 mm (0.1 in)
    Iquique, Chile 5.08 mm (0.2 in)
    Pelican Point, Namibia 8.13 mm (0.32 in)
    El Arab (Aoulef), Algeria 12.19 mm (0.48 in)

    Ten Wettest Places on Earth (Average Annual Precipitation): Mawsynram, India 11,871 mm (467.4 in)
    Cherrapunji, India 11,777 mm (463.7 in)
    Tutunendo, Colombia 11,770 mm (463.4 in)
    Cropp River, New Zealand 11,516 mm (453.4 in)
    San Antonia de Ureca, Equatorial Guinea 10,450 mm (411.4 in)
    Debundsha, Cameroon 10,299 mm (405.5 in)
    Big Bog, US (Hawaii) 10,272 mm (404.4 in)
    Mt Waialeale, US (Hawaii) 9,763 mm (384.4 in)
    Kukui, US (Hawaii) 9,293 mm (365.9 in)
    Emeishan, China 8,169 mm (321.6 in)

    Ten Coldest Places on Earth (Lowest Average Monthly Temperature): Verkhoyansk, Russia (Siberia) -47°C (-53°F) January
    Oymyakon, Russia (Siberia) -46°C (-52°F) January
    Eureka, Canada -38.4°C (-37.1°F) February
    Isachsen, Canada -36°C (-32.8°F) February
    Alert, Canada -34°C (-28°F) February
    Kap Morris Jesup, Greenland -34°C (-29°F) March
    Cornwallis Island, Canada -33.5°C (-28.3°F) February
    Cambridge Bay, Canada -33.5°C (28.3°F) February
    Ilirnej, Russia -33°C (-28°F) January
    Resolute, Canada -33°C (-27.4°F) February

    Ten Hottest Places on Earth (Highest Average Monthly Temperature): Death Valley, US (California) 39°C (101°F) July
    Iranshahr, Iran 38.3°C (100.9°F) June
    Ouallene, Algeria 38°C (100.4°F) July
    Kuwait City, Kuwait 37.7°C (100°F) July
    Medina, Saudi Arabia 36°C (97°F) July
    Buckeye, US (Arizona) 34°C (93°F) July
    Jazan, Saudi Arabia 33°C (91°F) June
    Al Kufrah, Libya 31°C (87°F) July
    Alice Springs, Australia 29°C (84°F) January
    Tamanrasset, Algeria 29°C (84°F) June

  • Yemen

    mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east

  • Zambia

    tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

  • Zimbabwe

    tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)