The village of Sandy Ground is Anguilla's main port and harbor. It contains a large salt pond that is part of Anguilla's salt industry. While Anguilla's salt resources are smaller than other area islands, it benefits from its more accessible location for shipping.
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Introduction

Background

Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency. On 7 September 2017, the island suffered extensive damage from Hurricane Irma, particularly to communications and residential and business infrastructure.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates

18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean

Area

total: 91 sq km

land: 91 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 226

Area - comparative

about one-half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain

flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation

highest point: Crocus Hill 73 m

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

Natural resources

salt, fish, lobster

Land use

agricultural land: 0% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 61.1% (2018 est.)

other: 38.9% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

most of the population is concentrated in The Valley in the center of the island; settlmement is fairly uniform in the southwest, but rather sparce in the northeast

Natural hazards

frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Geography - note

the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

Map description

Anguilla map showing the major island of Anguilla and its nearby small islands that comprise this UK territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Anguillan(s)

adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups

African/Black 85.3%, Hispanic 4.9%, mixed 3.8%, White 3.2%, East Indian/Indian 1%, other 1.6%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)

note: data represent population by ethnic origin

Languages

English (official)

Religions

Protestant 73.2% (includes Anglican 22.7%, Methodist 19.4%, Pentecostal 10.5%, Seventh Day Adventist 8.3%, Baptist 7.1%, Church of God 4.9%, Presbyterian 0.2%, Brethren 0.1%), Roman Catholic 6.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.1%, other Christian 10.9%, other 3.2%, unspecified 0.3%, none 4.5% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 21.63% (male 1,991/female 1,922)

15-24 years: 13.9% (male 1,269/female 1,246)

25-54 years: 42.27% (male 3,428/female 4,218)

55-64 years: 12.42% (male 993/female 1,254)

65 years and over: 9.78% (2020 est.) (male 874/female 895)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: NA

youth dependency ratio: NA

elderly dependency ratio: NA

potential support ratio: NA

Median age

total: 35.7 years

male: 33.7 years

female: 37.6 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81

Birth rate

12.01 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 156

Death rate

4.64 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 204

Net migration rate

10.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 8

Population distribution

most of the population is concentrated in The Valley in the center of the island; settlmement is fairly uniform in the southwest, but rather sparce in the northeast

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1,000 THE VALLEY (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.07 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.01 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 211

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.2 years

male: 79.59 years

female: 84.89 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 26

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 97.5% of population

total: 97.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.5% of population

total: 2.5% of population (2017 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.1% of population

total: 99.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.9% of population

total: 0.9% of population (2017 est.)

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Environment

Environment - current issues

supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Climate

tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Land use

agricultural land: 0% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 61.1% (2018 est.)

other: 38.9% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Anguilla

etymology: the name Anguilla means "eel" in various Romance languages (Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, French) and likely derives from the island's lengthy shape

Government type

parliamentary democracy (House of Assembly); self-governing overseas territory of the UK

Dependency status

overseas territory of the UK

Capital

name: The Valley

geographic coordinates: 18 13 N, 63 03 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: name derives from the capital's location between several hills

Administrative divisions

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence

none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday

Anguilla Day, 30 May (1967)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest 1 April 1982

amendments: amended 1990, 2012, 2017, 2019

Legal system

common law based on the English model

Citizenship

see United Kingdom

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Dileeni DANIEL-SELVARATNAM
(since 18 January 2021)

head of government: Premier Dr. Ellis WEBSTER (since 30 June 2020); note -  starting in 2019, the title of head of government was changed to premier from chief minister of Anguilla

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among elected members of the House of Assembly

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats; 7 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 2 appointed by the governor, and 2 ex officio members - the attorney general and deputy governor; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 29 June 2020 (next to be held in 2025)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APM 7, AUF 4; composition - men 8, women 3, percent of women 27.3%

Judicial branch

highest courts: the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, travelling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside in the member states, though none on Anguilla

judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court chief justice appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court

Political parties and leaders

Anguilla Progressive Movement or APM [Dr. Ellis WEBSTER]; (formerly Anguilla United Movement or AUM)
Anguilla United Front or AUF [Cora RICHARDSON-HODGE]

International organization participation

Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UNESCO (associate), UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: none (overseas territory of the UK); alternate contact is the US Embassy in Barbados [1] (246) 227-4000

Flag description

blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with a turquoise-blue field below; the white in the background represents peace; the blue base symbolizes the surrounding sea, as well as faith, youth, and hope; the three dolphins stand for endurance, unity, and strength

National anthem

name: "God Bless Anguilla"

lyrics/music: Alex RICHARDSON

note: local anthem adopted 1981; as an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the King" is official (see United Kingdom)

Economy

Economic overview

Anguilla has few natural resources, is unsuited for agriculture, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism industry has spurred the growth of the construction sector contributing to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector, which is small but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend largely on the recovery of the tourism sector and, therefore, on revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on favorable weather conditions.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$175.4 million (2009 est.)

$191.7 million (2008 est.)

$108.9 million (2004 est.)

country comparison to the world: 221

GDP (official exchange rate)

$175.4 million (2009 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3% (2017 est.)

industry: 10.5% (2017 est.)

services: 86.4% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 74.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 18.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 26.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 48.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -67.4% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising

Industries

tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 74.1%

industry: 3%

services: 18%

agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining: 4% (2000 est.)

manufacturing: 3% (2000 est.)

construction: 18% (2000 est.)

transportation and utilities: 10% (2000 est.)

commerce: 36% (2000 est.)

Budget

revenues: 81.92 million (2017 est.)

expenditures: 80.32 million (2017 est.)

Public debt

20.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

20.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 189

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

-$23.2 million (2017 est.)

-$25.3 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Exports

$7.9 million (2017 est.)

$3.9 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 219

Exports - commodities

lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum

Imports

$186.2 million (2017 est.)

$170.1 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 211

Imports - commodities

fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$76.38 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$48.14 million (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 183

Debt - external

$41.04 million (31 December 2013)

$8.8 million (1998)

country comparison to the world: 195

Exchange rates

East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -

2.7 (2017 est.)

2.7 (2016 est.)

2.7 (2015 est.)

2.7 (2014 est.)

2.7 (2013 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 6,000 (2018 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 200

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 26,000 (2018 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 182 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 212

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the telecom sector has seen a decline in subscriber numbers (particularly for prepaid mobile services the mainstay of short term visitors) and revenue; fixed and mobile broadband services are two areas that have benefited from the crisis as employees and students have resorted to working from home; one major casualty may be the region’s second largest telco operator, Digicel; the company filed for bankruptcy in the US in April 2020; it continues to operate in all of its Caribbean markets as it seeks to refinance billions of dollars of debt; the other major telco, regional incumbent Cable & Wireless Communications (CWC), is experiencing similar drops in subscriber numbers and revenue; CWC is expanding and enhancing its fixed and mobile networks in many of the countries it serves around the Caribbean, despite many locations being small islands with very small populations; one area of the telecom market that is not prepared for growth is 5G mobile; governments, regulators, and even the mobile network operators have shown that they have not been investing in 5G opportunities at the present time; network expansion and enhancements remain concentrated around improving LTE coverage. (2021)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 42 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 182 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 1-264; landing points for the SSCS, ECFS, GCN and Southern Caribbean Fiber with submarine cable links to Caribbean islands and to the US; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin/Sint Maarten (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress towards 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

1 private TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; about 10 radio stations, one of which is government-owned

Internet users

total: 12,489 (2019 est.)

percent of population: 82% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 215

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 5,000 (2018 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 35 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 186

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 4

Airports - with paved runways

total: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2021)

Roadways

total: 175 km (2004)

paved: 82 km (2004)

unpaved: 93 km (2004)

country comparison to the world: 209

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Blowing Point, Road Bay

Military and Security

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe