Aruba

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the Dutch in 1636. Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a separate, semi-autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in 1990.

Geography

Area

total: 180 sq km
land: 180 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Climate

tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Natural resources

NEGL; white sandy beaches foster tourism

People and Society

Population

123,702 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Dutch 78.7%, Colombian 6.6%, Venezuelan 5.5%, Dominican 2.8%, Haitian 1.3%, other 5.1% (2020 est.)

Languages

Papiamento (official) (a creole language that is a mixture of Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, English, and, to a lesser extent, French, as well as elements of African languages and the language of the Arawak) 69.4%, Spanish 13.7%, English (widely spoken) 7.1%, Dutch (official) 6.1%, Chinese 1.5%, other 1.7%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 75.3%, Protestant 4.9% (includes Methodist 0.9%, Adventist 0.9%, Anglican 0.4%, other Protestant 2.7%), Jehovah's Witness 1.7%, other 12%, none 5.5%, unspecified 0.5% (2010 est.)

Population growth rate

1.11% (2023 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary democracy; part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Capital

name: Oranjestad

Executive branch

chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER of the Netherlands (since 30 April 2013); represented by Governor General Alfonso BOEKHOUDT (since 1 January 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Evelyn WEVER-CROES (since 17 November 2017)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

small, tourism-dependent, territorial-island economy; very high public debt; COVID-19 crippled economic activity; partial recovery underway via tourism, benefitting from its high amount of timeshare residences; considering reopening oil refinery

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$4.141 billion (2021 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$38,900 (2021 est.)

Agricultural products

aloes; livestock; fish

Industries

tourism, petroleum transshipment facilities, banking

Exports

$2.201 billion (2021 est.)

Exports - partners

Malaysia 57%, United States 11%, Netherlands 6%, Jordan 6%, Venezuela 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, liquors, scrap iron, soap, tobacco (2019)

Imports

$1.947 billion (2021 est.)

Imports - partners

United States 48%, Netherlands 16% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, jewelry, cars, vehicle parts, tobacco products (2019)

Exchange rates

Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar -
1.79 (2021 est.)


Page last updated: Wednesday, February 22, 2023