Bosnia and Herzegovina

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia in March 1992. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995).

Geography

Area

total: 51,197 sq km

land: 51,187 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Climate

hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Natural resources

coal, iron ore, antimony, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower

People and Society

Population

3,816,459 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Bosniak 50.1%, Serb 30.8%, Croat 15.4%, other 2.7%, not declared/no answer 1% (2013 est.)

Languages

Bosnian (official) 52.9%, Serbian (official) 30.8%, Croatian (official) 14.6%, other 1.6%, no answer 0.2% (2013 est.)

Religions

Muslim 50.7%, Orthodox 30.7%, Roman Catholic 15.2%, atheist 0.8%, agnostic 0.3%, other 1.2%, undeclared/no answer 1.1% (2013 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.22% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Sarajevo

Executive branch

chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Sefik DZAFEROVIC (chairman since 20 March 2022; presidency member since 20 November 2018 - Bosniak seat); Zeljko KOMSIC  (presidency member since 20 November 2018 - Croat seat); Milorad DODIK (presidency member since 20 November 2018 - Serb seat)

head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Zoran TEGELTIJA  (since 5 December 2019)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of:
House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members designated by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's House of Peoples and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve 4-year terms)
House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats to include 28 seats allocated to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 to the Republika Srpska; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature that consists of the House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other) and the House of Representatives (98 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); Republika Srpska's unicameral legislature is the National Assembly (83 directly elected delegates serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

import-dominated economy; remains consumption-heavy; lack of private sector investments and diversification; jointly addressing structural economic challenges; Chinese energy infrastructure investments; high unemployment; tourism industry impacted by COVID-19

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$47.05 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$14,300 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, milk, vegetables, potatoes, wheat, plums/sloes, apples, barley, cabbages, poultry

Industries

steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining

Exports

$6.81 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 14%, Italy 12%, Croatia 11%, Serbia 11%, Austria 9%, Slovenia 8% (2019)

Exports - commodities

electricity, seating, leather shoes, furniture, insulated wiring (2019)

Imports

$9.71 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Croatia 15%, Serbia 13%, Germany 10%, Italy 9%, Slovenia 7%, China 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, packaged medicines, coal, electricity (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, May 11, 2022