Chad

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before peace was restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, but has only held flawed presidential elections since 1996 allowing the incumbent to remain in power.

Geography

Area

total: 1.284 million sq km

land: 1,259,200 sq km

water: 24,800 sq km

Climate

tropical in south, desert in north

Natural resources

petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt

People and Society

Population

17,963,211 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 30.5%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 9.8%, Arab 9.7%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7%, Gorane 5.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.9%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.7%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 3.5%, Mundang 2.7%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 2.5%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.4%, Tupuri/Kera 2%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 1.8%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.2%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 1.1%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.1%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 0.8%, other Chadian ethnicities 3.4%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.9%, foreign nationals 0.3%, unspecified 1.7% (2014-15 est.)

Languages

French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects

Religions

Muslim 52.1%, Protestant 23.9%, Roman Catholic 20%, animist 0.3%, other Christian 0.2%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2014-15 est.)

Population growth rate

3.09% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: N'Djamena

Executive branch

chief of state: Interim President Mahamat Idriss DEBY (since 20 April 2021); note - on 20 April 2021, newly reelected President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. died of injuries he sustained following clashes between government forces he was commanding and insurgents in the northern part of the country; following his death, Mahamat Idriss DEBY took control of the country and dismissed the Chadian parliament, establishing a Transitional Military Council and promising elections within eighteen months

head of government: Interim Prime Minister Albert Pahimi PADACKE (since 26 April 2021); note - PADACKE was appointed interim prime minister by the Transitional Military Council led by Mahamat Idriss DEBY

Legislative branch

description: formerly a unicameral National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale (188 seats; 163 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 25 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms); note - on 5 October 2021, Interim President Mahamat Idriss DEBY installed 93 members of an interim parliament, called the National Transitional Council (NTC), replacing the National Assembly which was disbanded after he took control of the country on 20 April 2021; according to DEBY, the NTC will act as a national assembly of transition until the country’s next elections take place

Economy

Economic overview

primarily oil-based economy, vulnerable to regional competition and international price shocks; increasing extreme poverty and minimal human capital capacities; one of the most environmentally disrupted economies; high maternal and infant mortality rates destabilizing labor force potentials

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$24.97 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$1,500 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sorghum, groundnuts, millet, yams, cereals, sugar cane, beef, maize, cotton, cassava

Industries

oil, cotton textiles, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Exports

$2.464 billion (2017 est.)

Exports - partners

China 32%, United Arab Emirates 21%, India 19%, United States 10%, France 6%, Germany 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, gold, livestock, sesame seeds, gum arabic, insect resins (2019)

Imports

$2.16 billion (2017 est.)

Imports - partners

China 29%, United Arab Emirates 16%, France 10%, United States 8%, India 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

delivery trucks, paints, packaged medicines, aircraft, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Exchange rates

Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -


Page last updated: Friday, September 02, 2022