Chad

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured six decades of internal conflicts with armed rebel groups, including a period of civil war in 1979-1982 and a Libyan invasion in the 1980s. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution but has held flawed presidential elections since 1996. The country has struggled with poverty, a weak economy, and terrorist insurgencies.

Geography

Area

total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km

Climate

tropical in south, desert in north

Natural resources

petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt

People and Society

Population

total: 19,093,595
male: 9,464,699
female: 9,628,896 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 30.5%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 9.8%, Arab 9.7%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7%, Gorane 5.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.9%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.7%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 3.5%, Mundang 2.7%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 2.5%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.4%, Tupuri/Kera 2%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 1.8%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.2%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 1.1%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.1%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 0.8%, other Chadian ethnicities 3.4%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.9%, foreign nationals 0.3%, unspecified 1.7% (2014-15 est.)

Languages

French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects

Religions

Muslim 52.1%, Protestant 23.9%, Roman Catholic 20%, animist 0.3%, other Christian 0.2%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2014-15 est.)

Population growth rate

3.01% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: N'Djamena

Executive branch

chief of state: President Mahamat Idriss DÉBY (since 6 May 2024)
head of government: Prime Minister Allamaye HALINA (since 23 May 2024)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament to replace unicameral National Assembly and to consist of:
Senate - representing the Autonomous Communities - NA seats (members indirectly elected by electoral college of provincial and communal councilors for 6-year renewable terms)
National Assembly NA seats (members directly elected by popular vote to serve 5-year renewable terms)

Economy

Economic overview

primarily oil-based economy, vulnerable to regional competition and international price shocks; increasing extreme poverty and minimal human capital capacities; one of the most environmentally disrupted economies; high maternal and infant mortality rates destabilizing labor force potentials

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$25.037 billion (2022 est.)
$24.49 billion (2021 est.)
$24.787 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$1,400 (2022 est.)
$1,400 (2021 est.)
$1,500 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sorghum, groundnuts, millet, cereals, beef, sugarcane, yams, maize, cassava, milk (2022)

Industries

oil, cotton textiles, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Exports

$6.503 billion (2022 est.)
$4.565 billion (2021 est.)
$2.863 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 25%, China 21%, UAE 20%, Taiwan 12%, France 10% (2022)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, gold, oil seeds, gum resins, cotton (2022)

Imports

$5.028 billion (2022 est.)
$5.211 billion (2021 est.)
$4.502 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 25%, UAE 20%, France 7%, US 7%, Belgium 7% (2022)

Imports - commodities

vaccines, jewelry, electric generating sets, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicine (2022)

Exchange rates

Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
623.76 (2022 est.)
554.531 (2021 est.)
575.586 (2020 est.)
585.911 (2019 est.)
555.446 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Monday, July 15, 2024