Country Summary

2023 population pyramid



Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile for nearly a century, and an indigenous people, the Mapuche, inhabited central and southern Chile. Chile declared its independence in 1810 but did not achieve decisive victory over the Spanish until 1818. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.



total: 756,102 sq km
land: 743,812 sq km
water: 12,290 sq km


temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south

Natural resources

copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower

People and Society


total: 18,664,652
male: 9,169,736
female: 9,494,916 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

White and non-Indigenous 88.9%, Mapuche 9.1%, Aymara 0.7%, other Indigenous groups 1% (includes Rapa Nui, Likan Antai, Quechua, Colla, Diaguita, Kawesqar, Yagan or Yamana), unspecified 0.3% (2012 est.)


Spanish 99.5% (official), English 10.2%, Indigenous 1% (includes Mapudungun, Aymara, Quechua, Rapa Nui), other 2.3%, unspecified 0.2%; note - shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2012 est.)


Roman Catholic 42%, Evangelical 14%, other 6%, none 37% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

0.61% (2024 est.)


Government type

presidential republic


name: Santiago; note - Valparaiso is the seat of the national legislature

Executive branch

chief of state: President Gabriel BORIC (since 11 March 2022)
head of government: President Gabriel BORIC (since 11 March 2022)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of:
Senate or Senado (50 seats); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open party-list proportional representation vote to serve 8-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 4 years)
Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (155 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open party-list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)


Economic overview

export-driven economy; leading copper producer; though hit by COVID-19, fairly quick rebound from increased liquidity and rapid vaccine rollouts; decreasing poverty but still lingering inequality; public debt rising but still manageable; recent political violence has had negative economic consequences

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$507.465 billion (2022 est.)
$495.375 billion (2021 est.)
$443.339 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$25,900 (2022 est.)
$25,400 (2021 est.)
$23,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

grapes, milk, apples, wheat, potatoes, chicken, tomatoes, sugar beets, maize, oats (2022)


copper, lithium, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles


$107.078 billion (2022 est.)
$100.747 billion (2021 est.)
$79.579 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

China 39%, US 14%, Japan 8%, South Korea 6%, Brazil 5% (2022)

Exports - commodities

copper ore, refined copper, carbonates, fish, raw copper (2022)


$118.094 billion (2022 est.)
$102.595 billion (2021 est.)
$68.134 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

China 26%, US 22%, Brazil 10%, Argentina 5%, Germany 3% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, crude petroleum, garments, trucks (2022)

Exchange rates

Chilean pesos (CLP) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
873.314 (2022 est.)
758.955 (2021 est.)
792.727 (2020 est.)
702.897 (2019 est.)
641.277 (2018 est.)

Page last updated: Monday, July 08, 2024