Estonia

Country Summary

2023 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union and has since joined NATO, the EU, and the OECD.

Geography

Area

total: 45,228 sq km
land: 42,388 sq km
water: 2,840 sq km

Climate

maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Natural resources

oil shale, peat, rare earth elements, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud

People and Society

Population

total: 1,193,791
male: 563,079
female: 630,712 (2024 est.)

Ethnic groups

Estonian 69.1%, Russian 23.7%, Ukrainian 2.1%, other 4.6%, unspecified 0.5% (2021 est.)

Languages

Estonian (official) 67.2%, Russian 28.5%, other 3.7%, unspecified 0.6% (2021est.)

Religions

Orthodox 16.5%, Protestant 9.2% (Lutheran 7.7%, other Protestant 1.5%), other 3% (includes Roman Catholic, Muslim, Jehovah's Witness, Pentecostal, Buddhist, and Taara Believer), none 58.4%, unspecified 12.9% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.76% (2024 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Tallinn

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alar KARIS (since 11 October 2021)
head of government: Prime Minister Kaja KALLAS (since 26 January 2021)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by open- list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

advanced, service-based EU and eurozone economy; economic downturn due to inflation, trade, and energy impacts of Ukraine war; decline in intra-EU trade; low public debt relative to EU members; recovery depends on improving private investment and productivity rates

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$50.867 billion (2022 est.)
$51.531 billion (2021 est.)
$47.708 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$37,700 (2022 est.)
$38,700 (2021 est.)
$35,900 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

wheat, milk, barley, rapeseed, oats, peas, potatoes, rye, pork, beans (2022)

Industries

food, engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textiles; information technology, telecommunications

Exports

$32.461 billion (2022 est.)
$29.522 billion (2021 est.)
$21.721 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Finland 13%, Latvia 12%, Sweden 8%, Lithuania 7%, Russia 6% (2022)

Exports - commodities

electricity, broadcasting equipment, refined petroleum, wood, coal tar oil (2022)

Imports

$32.671 billion (2022 est.)
$29.937 billion (2021 est.)
$21.966 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Finland 13%, Germany 10%, Lithuania 8%, Latvia 8%, Russia 8% (2022)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, cars, electricity, natural gas, coal tar oil (2022)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Tuesday, July 16, 2024