Fiji

Country Summary

Introduction

Background

Fiji became independent in 1970 after nearly a century as a British colony. Coups and a 1990 constitution that cemented native iTaukei control of Fiji led to heavy Indian emigration. The population loss resulted in economic difficulties but ensured that ethnic iTaukei became the majority. A new constitution enacted in 1997 was more equitable.

Geography

Area

total: 18,274 sq km
land: 18,274 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Climate

tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Natural resources

timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower

People and Society

Population

947,760 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

iTaukei 56.8% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indo-Fijian 37.5%, Rotuman 1.2%, other 4.5% (European, part European, other Pacific Islanders, Chinese) (2007 est.)

Languages

English (official), iTaukei (official), Fiji Hindi (official)

Religions

Protestant 45% (Methodist 34.6%, Assembly of God 5.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 3.9%, and Anglican 0.8%), Hindu 27.9%, other Christian 10.4%, Roman Catholic 9.1%, Muslim 6.3%, Sikh 0.3%, other 0.3%, none 0.8% (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

0.42% (2023 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Suva (on Viti Levu)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ratu Wiliame KATONIVERE (since 12 November 2021)
head of government: Prime Minister Sitiveni Ligamamada RABUKA (since 24 December 2022)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (55 seats; members directly elected in a nationwide, multi-seat constituency by open-list proportional representation vote with a 5% electoral threshold; members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

upper-middle income, tourism-based Pacific island economy; susceptible to ocean rises; key energy and infrastructure investments; post-pandemic tourism resurgence; improved debt standing; limited workforce

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$11.518 billion (2022 est.)
$9.597 billion (2021 est.)
$10.09 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$12,400 (2022 est.)
$10,400 (2021 est.)
$11,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

sugar cane, cassava, taro, poultry, vegetables, coconuts, eggs, milk, ginger, sweet potatoes

Industries

tourism, sugar processing, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber

Exports

$2.376 billion (2022 est.)
$1.171 billion (2021 est.)
$1.23 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

United States 34%, Australia 14%, China 7%, New Zealand 7%, Tonga 4% (2021)

Exports - commodities

water, fuel wood, gold, sugar, refined petroleum, fish (2021)

Imports

$3.434 billion (2022 est.)
$2.344 billion (2021 est.)
$1.977 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

New Zealand 18%, China 16%, Singapore 14%, Australia 13%, United States 9% (2021)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, aircraft, cars, dentistry devices, broadcasting equipment (2021)

Exchange rates

Fijian dollars (FJD) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
2.201 (2022 est.)
2.071 (2021 est.)
2.169 (2020 est.)
2.16 (2019 est.)
2.087 (2018 est.)


Page last updated: Wednesday, April 17, 2024