Ghana

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Ghana in 1957 became the first Sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana has a young age structure, with approximately 57% of the population under the age of 25.

Geography

Area

total: 238,533 sq km

land: 227,533 sq km

water: 11,000 sq km

Climate

tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Natural resources

gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone

People and Society

Population

33,107,275 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Akan 45.7%, Mole-Dagbani 18.5%, Ewe 12.8%, Ga-Dangme 7.1%, Gurma 6.4%, Guan 3.2%, Grusi 2.7%, Mande 2%, other 1.6% (2021 est.)

Languages

Asante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2% (2010 est.)

Religions

Christian 71.3% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 31.6%, Protestant 17.4%, Catholic 10%, other 12.3%), Muslim 19.9%, traditionalist 3.2%, other 4.5%, none 1.1% (2021 est.)

Population growth rate

2.23% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Accra

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (since 7 January 2017); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (since 7 January 2017)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (275 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

West African trade and agrarian economy; COVID-19 reversed nearly 4 decades of continuous growth; major diamond, gold, cocoa, and oil exporter; high public debts; financial and energy sector reform programs adding to fiscal pressures; high remittances

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$164.84 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$5,300 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

cassava, yams, plantains, maize, oil palm fruit, taro, rice, cocoa, oranges, pineapples

Industries

mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building, petroleum

Exports

$25.59 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

Switzerland 23%, India 17%, China 12%, United Arab Emirates 8%, South Africa 8% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, crude petroleum, cocoa products, manganese, cashews (2019)

Imports

$26.91 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

China 24%, Nigeria 22%, United States 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

metal tubing, ships, cars, refined petroleum, rice (2019)


Page last updated: Wednesday, May 11, 2022