Photos of Grenada

Introduction

Background

Carib Indians inhabited Grenada when Christopher COLUMBUS discovered the island in 1498, but it remained uncolonized for more than a century. The French settled Grenada in the 17th century, established sugar estates, and imported large numbers of African slaves. Britain took the island in 1762 and vigorously expanded sugar production. In the 19th century, cacao eventually surpassed sugar as the main export crop; in the 20th century, nutmeg became the leading export. In 1967, Britain gave Grenada autonomy over its internal affairs. Full independence was attained in 1974 making Grenada one of the smallest independent countries in the Western Hemisphere. In 1979, a leftist New Jewel Movement seized power under Maurice BISHOP ushering in the Grenada Revolution. On 19 October 1983, factions within the revolutionary government overthrew and killed BISHOP and members of his party. Six days later the island was invaded by US forces and those of six other Caribbean nations, which quickly captured the ringleaders and their hundreds of Cuban advisers. The rule of law was restored and democratic elections were reinstituted the following year and have continued since then.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates

12 07 N, 61 40 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean

Area

total: 344 sq km

land: 344 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 207

Area - comparative

twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Coastline

121 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

Terrain

volcanic in origin with central mountains

Elevation

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m

Natural resources

timber, tropical fruit

Land use

agricultural land: 32.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 20.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 2.9% (2018 est.)

forest: 50% (2018 est.)

other: 17.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

20 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

200 million cubic meters NA (2017 est.)

Population distribution

approximately one-third of the population is found in the capital of St. George's; the island's population is concentrated along the coast

Natural hazards

lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November

volcanism: Mount Saint Catherine (840 m) lies on the island of Grenada; Kick 'em Jenny, an active submarine volcano (seamount) on the Caribbean Sea floor, lies about 8 km north of the island of Grenada; these two volcanoes are at the southern end of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends up to the Netherlands dependency of Saba in the north

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Grenadian(s)

adjective: Grenadian

Ethnic groups

African descent 82.4%, mixed 13.3%, East Indian 2.2%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.9% (2011 est.)

Languages

English (official), French patois

Religions

Protestant 49.2% (includes Pentecostal 17.2%, Seventh Day Adventist 13.2%, Anglican 8.5%, Baptist 3.2%, Church of God 2.4%, Evangelical 1.9%, Methodist 1.6%, other 1.2%), Roman Catholic 36%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, Rastafarian 1.2%, other 5.5%, none 5.7%, unspecified 1.3% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 23.23% (male 13,709/female 12,564)

15-24 years: 14.14% (male 8,034/female 7,959)

25-54 years: 40.05% (male 23,104/female 22,187)

55-64 years: 11.69% (male 6,734/female 6,490)

65 years and over: 10.89% (male 5,774/female 6,539) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.5

youth dependency ratio: 35.8

elderly dependency ratio: 14.7

potential support ratio: 6.8 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 33.3 years

male: 33.1 years

female: 33.4 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

Birth rate

14.27 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 127

Death rate

8.29 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 75

Net migration rate

-2.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 173

Population distribution

approximately one-third of the population is found in the capital of St. George's; the island's population is concentrated along the coast

Urbanization

urban population: 36.7% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

39,000 SAINT GEORGE'S (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

25 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 122

Infant mortality rate

total: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.11 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 141

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.48 years

male: 72.86 years

female: 78.36 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 121

Drinking water source

improved: total: 96.8% of population

unimproved: total: 3.2% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

1.41 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

3.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: total: 93.7% of population

unimproved: total: 6.3% of population (2017 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.6%

male: 98.6%

female: 98.6% (2014 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 19 years

male: 18 years

female: 19 years (2018)

Environment

Environment - current issues

deforestation causing habitat destruction and species loss; coastal erosion and contamination; pollution and sedimentation; inadequate solid waste management

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 21.56 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.27 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 2.04 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 12 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 2.1 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

200 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Climate

tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

Land use

agricultural land: 32.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 20.6% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 2.9% (2018 est.)

forest: 50% (2018 est.)

other: 17.7% (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 104

Urbanization

urban population: 36.7% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 29,536 tons (2012 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Grenada

etymology: derivation of the name remains obscure; some sources attribute the designation to Spanish influence (most likely named for the Spanish city of Granada), with subsequent French and English interpretations resulting in the present-day Grenada; in Spanish "granada" means "pomegranate"

Government type

parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Capital

name: Saint George's

geographic coordinates: 12 03 N, 61 45 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the 1763 Treaty of Paris transferred possession of Grenada from France to Great Britain; the new administration renamed Ville de Fort Royal (Fort Royal Town) to Saint George's Town, after the patron saint of England; eventually the name became simply Saint George's

Administrative divisions

6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petite Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick

Independence

7 February 1974 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 7 February (1974)

Constitution

history: previous 1967; latest presented 19 December 1973, effective 7 February 1974, suspended 1979 following a revolution but restored in 1983

amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the membership in both houses and assent of the governor general; passage of amendments to constitutional sections, such as personal rights and freedoms, the structure, authorities, and procedures of the branches of government, the delimitation of electoral constituencies, or the procedure for amending the constitution, also requires two-thirds majority approval in a referendum; amended 1991, 1992

Legal system

common law based on English model

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: yes

citizenship by descent only: yes

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years for persons from a non-Caribbean state and 4 years for a person from a Caribbean state

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Cecile LA GRENADE (since 7 May 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 20 February 2013)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (13 seats; members appointed by the governor general - 10 on the advice of the prime minister and 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms)
House of Representatives (15 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last appointments on 27 April 2018 (next no later than2023)
House of Representatives - last held on 13 March 2018 (next no later than 2023)

election results: Senate - percent by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 11, women 2 percent of women 15.4%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NNP 58.9%, NDC 40.5%; other 0.6% seats by party - NNP 15; composition - men 8, women 7, percent of women 46.7%; note - total Parliament percent of women 32.1%

Judicial branch

highest courts: regionally, the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, traveling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside in the member states, with 2 in Grenada; appeals beyond the ECSC in civil and criminal matters are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, and independent body of judicial officials; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; Court of Magisterial Appeals

Political parties and leaders

National Democratic Congress or NDC [Nazim BURKE]
New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]

International organization participation

ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Yolande Yvonne SMITH (since 8 April 2019)

chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561

FAX: [1] (202) 265-2468

consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: the US does not have an official embassy in Grenada; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Grenada

telephone: [1] (473) 444-1173 through 1176

embassy: Lance-aux-Epines Stretch, Saint George's

mailing address: P. O. Box 54, Saint George's

FAX: [1] (473) 444-4820

Flag description

a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side), with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow, five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is a leading nutmeg producer); the seven stars stand for the seven administrative divisions, with the central star denoting the capital, St. George's; yellow represents the sun and the warmth of the people, green stands for vegetation and agriculture, and red symbolizes harmony, unity, and courage

National symbol(s)

Grenada dove, bougainvillea flower; national colors: red, yellow, green

National anthem

name: Hail Grenada

lyrics/music: Irva Merle BAPTISTE/Louis Arnold MASANTO

note: adopted 1974

Economy

Economic overview

Grenada relies on tourism and revenue generated by St. George’s University - a private university offering degrees in medicine, veterinary medicine, public health, the health sciences, nursing, arts and sciences, and business - as its main source of foreign exchange. In the past two years the country expanded its sources of revenue, including from selling passports under its citizenship by investment program. These projects produced a resurgence in the construction and manufacturing sectors of the economy.

In 2017, Grenada experienced its fifth consecutive year of growth and the government successfully marked the completion of its five-year structural adjustment program that included among other things austerity measures, increased tax revenue and debt restructuring. Public debt-to-GDP was reduced from 100% of GDP in 2013 to 71.8% in 2017.

Real GDP growth rate

5.1% (2017 est.)

3.7% (2016 est.)

6.4% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Credit ratings

Standard & Poors rating: SD (2013)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.908 billion (2019 est.)

$1.872 billion (2018 est.)

$1.798 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 200

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.119 billion (2017 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$17,039 (2019 est.)

$16,801 (2018 est.)

$16,218 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 101

Gross national saving

11.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

17% of GDP (2016 est.)

13.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 167

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 6.8% (2017 est.)

industry: 15.5% (2017 est.)

services: 77.7% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 63% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 12% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 60% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -55% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores

Overall score: 53.4 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 88 (2020)

Trading score: 61.5 (2020)

Enforcement score: 59.3 (2020)

Agricultural products

bananas, watermelons, sweet potatoes, sugar cane, tomatoes, plantains, coconuts, melons, cucumbers, cabbages

Industries

food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction, education, call-center operations

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 11%

industry: 20%

services: 69% (2008 est.)

Budget

revenues: 288.4 million (2017 est.)

expenditures: 252.3 million (2017 est.)

Public debt

70.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

82% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$77 million (2017 est.)

-$34 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84

Exports

$39.9 million (2017 est.)

$44.2 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 206

Exports - partners

United States 40%, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 7%, Saint Lucia 7%, France 6%, Netherlands 5%, Germany 5%, Ireland 5%, Antigua and Barbuda 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

fish, nutmeg, cocoa beans, fruits, wheat, toilet paper (2019)

Imports

$316 million (2017 est.)

$314.7 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 205

Imports - partners

United States 35%, Canada 24%, China 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

aircraft, poultry meat, cars, refined petroleum, food preparation materials (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$199.1 million (31 December 2017 est.)

$198 million (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 175

Debt - external

$793.5 million (2017 est.)

$682.3 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 169

Exchange rates

East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -

2.7 (2017 est.)

2.7 (2016 est.)

2.7 (2015 est.)

2.7 (2014 est.)

2.7 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 95.3% (2018)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 33,011

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29.3 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 115,008

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 102.08 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 192

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: adequate, island-wide telephone system; lack of local competition, but telecoms are a high contributors to overall GDP; growth sectors include the mobile telephony and data segments (2020)

domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links; 29 per 100 for fixed-line and 102 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2019)

international: country code - 1-473; landing points for the ECFS, Southern Caribbean Fiber and CARCIP submarine cables with links to 13 Caribbean islands extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad & Tobago including Puerto Rico and Barbados; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

multiple publicly and privately owned television and radio stations; Grenada Information Service (GIS) is government-owned and provides television and radio services; the Grenada Broadcasting Network, jointly owned by the government and the Caribbean Communications Network of Trinidad and Tobago, operates a TV station and 2 radio stations; Meaningful Television (MTV) broadcasts island-wide and is part of a locally-owned media house, Moving Target Company, that also includes an FM radio station and a weekly newspaper; multi-channel cable TV subscription service is provided by Columbus Communications Grenada (FLOW GRENADA) and is available island wide; approximately 25 private radio stations also broadcast throughout the country (2019)

Internet users

total: 66,281

percent of population: 59.07% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 191

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 22,235

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 151

Transportation

Airports - with paved runways

total: 3 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)

under 914 m: 1 (2017)

Roadways

total: 1,127 km (2017)

paved: 902 km (2017)

unpaved: 225 km (2017)

country comparison to the world: 182

Merchant marine

total: 6

by type: general cargo 3, other 3 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 164

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Saint George's

Military and Security

Military and security forces

no regular military forces; the Royal Grenada Police Force includes a Coast Guard and a paramilitary Special Services Unit (2021)

Military - note

Grenada is a member of the Regional Security System (RSS), an international agreement for the defense and security of the eastern Caribbean region

Transnational Issues

Illicit drugs

small-scale cannabis cultivation; lesser transshipment point for marijuana and cocaine to US