Hungary

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.

Geography

Area

total: 93,028 sq km

land: 89,608 sq km

water: 3,420 sq km

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Natural resources

bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land

People and Society

Population

9,699,577 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Hungarian 85.6%, Romani 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6%, unspecified 14.1% (2011 est.)

Languages

Hungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2%; note - shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers (2011 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, no response 27.2% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.3% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Budapest

Executive branch

chief of state: President Katalin NOVAK (since 10 May 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote, using the d’Hondt method; members serve 4-year terms)

Economy

Economic overview

high-income EU and OECD economy; decreasing government spending; increasing judicial independence concerns; flat income taxation; increasingly dependent on energy imports; strong tourism and automotive manufacturing

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$302.32 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$31,000 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, milk, sunflower seed, barley, rapeseed, sugar beet, apples, pork, grapes

Industries

mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

Exports

$123.83 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 27%, Romania 5%, Italy 5%, Slovakia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, spark-ignition engines, video displays, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Imports

$120.25 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

Germany 25%, China 6%, Poland 6%, Austria 6%, Czechia 5%, Slovakia 5%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, integrated circuits, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment, crude petroleum (2019)


Page last updated: Thursday, May 12, 2022