Lake Toba is located in the middle of the northern part of the island of Sumatra, occupying the caldera of a supervolcano. The lake is about 100 km (62 mi) long, 30 km (19 mi) wide, and up to 505 m (1,657 ft) deep. It is the largest lake in Indonesia and the largest volcanic lake in the world. 
Lake Toba is the site of a supervolcanic eruption estimated at a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 8, the largest recorded value on the index. Recent advances in dating methods suggest the date was 74,000 years ago and that it represented a climate-changing event. It is the largest-known explosive eruption on earth in the last 25 million years.
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Introduction

Background

The archipelago was once largely under the control of Buddhist and Hindu rulers. By around the 7th century, a Buddhist kingdom arose on Sumatra and expanded into Java and the Malay Peninsula until it was conquered in the late 13th century by the Hindu Majapahit Empire from Java. Majapahit (1290-1527) united most of modern-day Indonesia and Malaysia. Traders introduced Islam in the trade ports around the 11th century, and Indonesians gradually adopted Islam over the next 500 years. The Portuguese conquered parts of Indonesia in the 16th century, but they were ousted by the Dutch (except in East Timor), who began colonizing the islands in the early 17th century. It would be the early 20th century before Dutch colonial rule was established across the entirety of what would become the boundaries of the modern Indonesian state.

Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates

5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references

Southeast Asia

Area

total: 1,904,569 sq km

land: 1,811,569 sq km

water: 93,000 sq km

country comparison to the world: 16

Area - comparative

slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,958 km

border countries (3): Malaysia 1,881 km; Papua New Guinea 824 km; Timor-Leste 253 km

Coastline

54,716 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines

Climate

tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain

mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation

highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 367 m

Natural resources

petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use

agricultural land: 31.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 13% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 12.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 51.7% (2018 est.)

other: 17.1% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

67,220 sq km (2012)

Major lakes (area sq km)

Fresh water lake(s): Danau Toba - 1,150 sq km
note - located in the caldera of a super volcano that erupted more than 70,000 years ago; it is the largest volcanic lake in the World

Major rivers (by length in km)

Sepik (shared with Papua New Guinea [s]) - 1,126 km; Fly (shared with Papua New Guinea [s]) - 1,050 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Population distribution

major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated

Natural hazards

occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires

volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; on 22 December 2018, a large explosion and flank collapse destroyed most of the 338 m high island of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) and generated a deadly tsunami inundating portions of western Java and southern Sumatra leaving more than 400 dead; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, Sinabung, and Tambora; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

Geography - note

note 1: according to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean

note 2: Indonesia is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire; 80% of tsunamis, caused by volcanic or seismic events, occur within the "Pacific Ring of Fire"

note 3: despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon

note 4: two major food crops apparently developed on the island of New Guinea: bananas and sugarcane

Map description

Indonesia map showing major cities and islands of this archipelagic country as well as parts of surrounding countries.

 

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Indonesian(s)

adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups

Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)

Languages

Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese); note - more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia

major-language sample(s):
Fakta Dunia, sumber informasi dasar yang sangat diperlukan. (Indonesian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions

Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile

Indonesia has the world’s fourth-largest population.  It is predominantly Muslim and has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world.  The population is projected to increase to as much as 320 million by 2045.  A government-supported family planning program.  The total fertility rate (TFR) – the average number of births per woman – from 5.6 in the mid-1960s to 2.7 in the mid-1990s.  The success of the program was also due to the social acceptance of family planning, which received backing from influential Muslim leaders and organizations.

The fertility decline slowed in the late 1990’s when responsibility for family planning programs shifted to the district level, where the programs were not prioritized.  Since 2012 the national government revitalized the national family planning program, and Indonesia’s TFR has slowly decreased to 2.3 in 2020.  The government may reach its goal of achieving replacement level fertility – 2.1 children per woman – but the large number of women of childbearing age ensures significant population growth for many years. 

Indonesia is a source country for labor migrants, a transit country for asylum seekers, and a destination mainly for highly skilled migrant workers.  International labor migration, both legal and illegal, from Indonesia to other parts of Asia (most commonly Malaysia) and the Middle East has taken place for decades because of high unemployment and underemployment, poverty, and low wages domestically.  Increasing numbers of migrant workers are drawn to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the US.  The majority of Indonesian labor migration is temporary and consists predominantly of low-skilled workers, mainly women working as domestics.

Indonesia’s strategic location between Asia and Australia and between the Pacific and Indian Oceans – and its relatively easy accessibility via boat – appeal to asylum seekers.  It is also an attractive transit location because of its easy entry requirements and the ability to continue on to Australia.  Recent asylum seekers have come from Afghanistan, Burma (Rohingyas), Iraq, Somalia, and Sri Lanka.  Since 2013, when Australia tightening its immigration policy, thousands of migrants and asylum seekers have been stranded in Indonesia, where they live in precarious conditions and receive only limited support from international organizations.  The situation for refugees in Indonesia has also worsened because Australia and the US, which had resettled the majority of refugees in Indonesia, have significantly lowered their intake.

Age structure

0-14 years: 23.87% (male 32,473,246/female 31,264,034)

15-24 years: 16.76% (male 22,786,920/female 21,960,130)

25-54 years: 42.56% (male 58,249,570/female 55,409,579)

55-64 years: 8.99% (male 11,033,838/female 12,968,005)

65 years and over: 7.82% (2020 est.) (male 9,099,773/female 11,781,271)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.5

youth dependency ratio: 38.3

elderly dependency ratio: 9.2

potential support ratio: 10.8 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 31.1 years

male: 30.5 years

female: 31.8 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Birth rate

15.32 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 112

Death rate

6.75 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 128

Net migration rate

-0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132

Population distribution

major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated

Urbanization

urban population: 57.9% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

11.075 million JAKARTA (capital), 3.622 million Bekasi, 3.005 million Surabaya, 2.942 million Depok, 2.638 million Bandung, 2.456 million Tangerang (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.4 years (2017 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

177 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 52

Infant mortality rate

total: 19.73 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 22.15 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 73.08 years

male: 70.86 years

female: 75.4 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 149

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 98.2% of population

rural: 86.8% of population

total: 93.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.8% of population

rural: 13.2% of population

total: 6.7% of population (2020 est.)

Physicians density

0.62 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

1 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 97.2% of population

rural: 86.5% of population

total: 92.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.8% of population

rural: 13.5% of population

total: 7.5% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

note: a new coronavirus is causing sustained community spread of respiratory illness (COVID-19) in Indonesia; as of 18 August 2022, Indonesia has reported a total of 6,301,523 cases of COVID-19 or 2,303.83 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with a total of 157,317 cumulative deaths or a rate 57.51 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 9 August 2022, 74.09% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.08 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.06 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.01 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.02 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 178

Tobacco use

total: 37.6% (2020 est.)

male: 71.4% (2020 est.)

female: 3.7% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 9

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 2%

women married by age 18: 16.3% (2017 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96%

male: 97.4%

female: 94.6% (2020)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 14.8%

male: 15.1%

female: 14.3% (2020 est.)

People - note

Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the World after China, India, and the United States; more than half of the Indonesian population - roughly 150 million people or 55% - live on the island of Java (about the size of California) making it the most crowded island on earth

Environment

Environment - current issues

large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires cause heavy smog; over-exploitation of marine resources; environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 15.58 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 563.32 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 244.5 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Land use

agricultural land: 31.2% (2018 est.)

arable land: 13% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 12.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 6.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 51.7% (2018 est.)

other: 17.1% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 57.9% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 1.06% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 5

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

note: a new coronavirus is causing sustained community spread of respiratory illness (COVID-19) in Indonesia; as of 18 August 2022, Indonesia has reported a total of 6,301,523 cases of COVID-19 or 2,303.83 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with a total of 157,317 cumulative deaths or a rate 57.51 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 9 August 2022, 74.09% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 65.2 million tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 4.564 million tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 7% (2016 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

Fresh water lake(s): Danau Toba - 1,150 sq km
note - located in the caldera of a super volcano that erupted more than 70,000 years ago; it is the largest volcanic lake in the World

Major rivers (by length in km)

Sepik (shared with Papua New Guinea [s]) - 1,126 km; Fly (shared with Papua New Guinea [s]) - 1,050 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 23.8 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 9.135 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 189.7 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

2.019 trillion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia

conventional short form: Indonesia

local long form: Republik Indonesia

local short form: Indonesia

former: Netherlands East Indies (Dutch East Indies), Netherlands New Guinea

etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct of two Greek words, "Indos" (India) and "nesoi" (islands), meaning "Indian islands"

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Jakarta; note - Indonesian lawmakers on 18 January 2022 approved the relocation of the country’s capital from Jakarta to a site in East Kalimantan, a jungle area of Borneo; the move to Nusantara, the name of the new capital, will take several years

geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E

time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

time zone note: Indonesia has three time zones

etymology: "Jakarta" derives from the Sanscrit "Jayakarta" meaning "victorious city" and refers to a successful defeat and expulsion of the Portuguese in 1527; previously the port had been named "Sunda Kelapa"

Administrative divisions

31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**

note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services

Independence

17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)

National holiday

Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution

history: drafted July to August 1945, effective 18 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions; 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959

amendments: proposed by the People’s Consultative Assembly, with at least two thirds of its members present; passage requires simple majority vote by the Assembly membership; constitutional articles on the unitary form of the state cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2002

Legal system

civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years

Suffrage

17 years of age; universal; married persons regardless of age

Executive branch

chief of state: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 April 2019 (next election 2024)

election results: 2019: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 55.5%, PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo (GERINDRA) 44.5%

2014: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 53.15%, PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo (GERINDRA) 46.85%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR) consists of:
Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (136 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 4 each from the country's 34 electoral districts - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the Regional Representative Council has no legislative authority
House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (575 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms) (2019)

elections: Regional Representative Council - last held on 17 April 2019 (next to be held 2024)
House of Representatives - last held on 17 April 2019 (next to be held 2024) (2019)

election results: Regional Representative Council - all seats elected on a non-partisan basis; composition - men 102, women 34, percent of women 25%
House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19.3%, Gerindra 12.6%, Golkar 12.3%,  PKB 9.7%, Nasdem 9.1%, PKS 8.2%, PD 7.8%, PAN 6.8%, PPP 4.5%, other 9.6%; seats by party - PDI-P 128, Golkar 85, Gerindra 78, Nasdem 59, PKB 58, PD 54, PKS 50, PAN 44, PPP 19; composition - men 449, women 126, percent of women 21.9%; total People's Consultative Assembly percent of women 22.5% (2019)

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts

Political parties and leaders

Berkarya Party [Muchdi PURWOPRANJONO]
Crescent Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA]
Democrat Party or PD [Agus Harimurti YUDHOYONO]
Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Airlangga HARTARTO]
Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
Garuda Party or Change Indonesia Movement Party [Ahmad Ridha SABANA]
Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
Indonesian Justice and Unity Party or PKPI [Yussuf SOLICHIEN]
Indonesian Solidarity Party or PSI [GIRING GANESHA]
National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
National Democratic Party or NasDem [Surya PALOH]
National Mandate Party or PAN [Zulkifli HASAN]
People's Conscience Party or Hanura [Oesman Sapta ODANG]
Perindo Party [Hary TANOESOEDIBJO]
Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Ahmad SYAIKHU]
United Development Party or PPP [Suharso MONOARFA] (2021)

International organization participation

ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IORA, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, MSG (associate member), NAM, OECD (enhanced engagement), OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Rosan Perkasa ROESLANI (since 13 January 2022)

chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200

FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365

email address and website:
http://www.embassyofindonesia.org/

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Sung Y. KIM (since 21 October 2020)

embassy: Jl. Medan Merdeka Selatan No. 3-5, Jakarta 10110

mailing address: 8200 Jakarta Place, Washington DC  20521-8200

telephone: [62] (21) 5083-1000

FAX: [62] (21) 385-7189

email address and website:
jakartaacs@state.gov

https://id.usembassy.gov/

consulate(s) general: Surabaya

consulate(s): Medan

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity

note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

National symbol(s)

garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)

lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN

note: adopted 1945

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 9 (5 cultural, 4 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Borobudur Temple Compounds (c); Komodo National Park (n); Prambanan Temple Compounds (c); Ujung Kulon National Park (n); Sangiran Early Man Site (c); Lorentz National Park (n); Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (n); Cultural Landscape of Bali Province (c); Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto (c)

Economy

Economic overview

Indonesia, the largest economy in Southeast Asia, has seen a slowdown in growth since 2012, mostly due to the end of the commodities export boom. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. Indonesia’s annual budget deficit is capped at 3% of GDP, and the Government of Indonesia lowered its debt-to-GDP ratio from a peak of 100% shortly after the Asian financial crisis in 1999 to 34% today. In May 2017 Standard & Poor’s became the last major ratings agency to upgrade Indonesia’s sovereign credit rating to investment grade.

 

Poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among its regions are still part of Indonesia’s economic landscape. President Joko WIDODO - elected in July 2014 – seeks to develop Indonesia’s maritime resources and pursue other infrastructure development, including significantly increasing its electrical power generation capacity. Fuel subsidies were significantly reduced in early 2015, a move which has helped the government redirect its spending to development priorities. Indonesia, with the nine other ASEAN members, will continue to move towards participation in the ASEAN Economic Community, though full implementation of economic integration has not yet materialized.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$3,130,470,000,000 (2020 est.)

$3,196,620,000,000 (2019 est.)

$3,043,880,000,000 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 7

Real GDP growth rate

5.03% (2019 est.)

5.17% (2018 est.)

5.07% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 45

Real GDP per capita

$11,400 (2020 est.)

$11,800 (2019 est.)

$11,400 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 132

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1,119,720,000,000 (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.8% (2019 est.)

3.2% (2018 est.)

3.8% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 141

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB (2017)

Moody's rating: Baa2 (2018)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB (2019)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.7% (2017 est.)

industry: 41% (2017 est.)

services: 45.4% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 57.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 9.1% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 32.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 20.4% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -19.2% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

oil palm fruit, rice, maize, sugar cane, coconuts, cassava, bananas, eggs, poultry, rubber

Industries

petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 32%

industry: 21%

services: 47% (2016 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 14.8%

male: 15.1%

female: 14.3% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 111

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 28.2% (2010)

Budget

revenues: 131.7 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 159.6 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

28.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 166

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$30.359 billion (2019 est.)

-$30.633 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 200

Exports

$178.26 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$200.1 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$211.93 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 33

Exports - partners

China 15%, United States 10%, Japan 9%, Singapore 8%, India 7%, Malaysia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

coal, palm oil, natural gas, cars, gold (2019)

Imports

$159.64 billion (2020 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$204.23 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$218.65 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 33

Imports - partners

China 27%, Singapore 12%, Japan 8%, Thailand 5%, United States 5%, South Korea 5%, Malaysia 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, crude petroleum, vehicle parts, telephones, natural gas (2019)

Debt - external

$393.252 billion (2019 est.)

$360.945 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 31

Exchange rates

Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -

14,110 (2020 est.)

14,015 (2019 est.)

14,470 (2018 est.)

13,389.4 (2014 est.)

11,865.2 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 99% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 100% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 99% (2019)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 69.065 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 256,742,190,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 1.553 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 25.08 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 82.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 6.8% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 5.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 563.728 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 132.548 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 409.892 million metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 8.95 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 39.891 billion metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 842,300 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 1.649 million bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 204,000 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 309,700 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 2.48 billion barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 62,612,013,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 38,673,953,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 23,938,060,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 1,408,478,000,000 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

563.543 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 267.326 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 209.279 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 86.938 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 11

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 9,662,135 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 355,620,388 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 4

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Indonesia faces more than the usual number of obstacles in terms of enabling widespread access to quality telecommunications services for its population of more than 270 million; the geographical challenges have been further compounded by a variety of social, political, and economic problems over the years that have kept the country’s wealth distributed very thinly; the fixed-line (fiber) and mobile operators have continued to expand and upgrade their networks across the country; Indonesia’s 18,000 islands (many of which, however, are sparsely populated) makes the deployment of fixed-line infrastructure on a broad scale largely impractica; the relatively low subscription rate of 4.6% is also a by-product of years of under-investment by the previously state-owned incumbent Telkom; there has been renewed activity in fiber optic cable, but the bundling of fixed-line telephony with TV and internet services will see the country’s teledensity stabilize; mobile subscriptions have reached more than 130% and is projected to exceed 150% by 2026; with 4G LTE universally available, the major mobile companies have been busy launching 5G services in selected areas; Telkomsel was the first to go live in Jakarta in May 2021, followed by Indosat Ooredoo’s launch in the city of Solo a month later; the rollout of 5G will be hampered by the lack of availability of suitable frequencies; Telkomsel, for example, was forced to launch using limited frequencies in the 2.3-2.4GHz band, which is only supported by a small number of handsets; the 4G had to be reallocated from broadcasting services, and indications are that the same process is going to have to be followed in order to allow the expansion of 5G into its core frequency bands (3.3 to 4.2GHz). (2022)

domestic: fixed-line subscribership roughly 3 per 100 and mobile-cellular 130 per 100 persons; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly (2020)

international: country code - 62; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3 & 5, DAMAI, JASUKA, BDM, Dumai-Melaka Cable System, IGG, JIBA, Link 1, 3, 4,  & 5, PGASCOM, B3J2, Tanjung Pandam-Sungai Kakap Cable System, JAKABARE, JAYABAYA, INDIGO-West, Matrix Cable System, ASC, SJJK, Jaka2LaDeMa, S-U-B Cable System, JBCS, MKCS, BALOK, Palapa Ring East, West and Middle, SMPCS Packet-1 and 2, LTCS, TSCS, SEA-US and Kamal Domestic Submarine Cable System, 35 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, Australia, Southeast Asia, Africa and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress towards 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 1 public broadcaster, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2019)

Internet users

total: 147,702,755 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 54% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 5

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 11,722,218 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 17

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 25 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 611

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,154,100 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,131,910,000 (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 186

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 51

914 to 1,523 m: 72

under 914 m: 37 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 487

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 23

under 914 m: 460 (2021)

Heliports

76 (2021)

Pipelines

1,064 km condensate, 150 km condensate/gas, 11,702 km gas, 119 km liquid petroleum gas, 7,767 km oil, 77 km oil/gas/water, 728 km refined products, 53 km unknown, 44 km water (2013)

Railways

total: 8,159 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 8,159 km (2014) 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified)

note: 4,816 km operational

country comparison to the world: 27

Roadways

total: 496,607 km (2011)

paved: 283,102 km (2011)

unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 15

Merchant marine

total: 10,427

by type: bulk carrier 148, container ship 226, general cargo 2,238, oil tanker 676, other 7,139 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 1

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

container port(s) (TEUs): Tanjung Perak (3,900,000), Tanjung Priok (7,600,000) (2019)

LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh

LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL), includes Marine Corps (Korps Marinir, KorMar), Naval Aviation Center (PUSPENERBAL)), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Komando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)), Armed Forces Special Operations Command (Kopassus), Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad), National Army Reserve Component (Komcad) (2022)

note 1: in 2014, Indonesia created a Maritime Security Agency (Bakamla) to coordinate the actions of all maritime security agencies, including the Navy, the Indonesian Sea and Coast Guard (Kesatuan Penjagaan Laut dan Pantai, KPLP), the Water Police (Polair), Customs (Bea Cukai), and Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries

note 2: the Indonesian National Police includes a paramilitary Mobile Brigade Corps (BRIMOB); following the Bali terror bombing in 2002, the National Police formed a special counter-terrorism force called Detachment 88 (Densus or Detasemen Khusus 88 Antiteror)

Military expenditures

0.8% of GDP (2021 est.)

0.8% of GDP (2020)

0.8% of GDP (2019) (approximately $15.5 billion)

0.7% of GDP (2018) (approximately $14.5 billion)

0.9% of GDP (2017) (approximately $15.5 billion)

country comparison to the world: 143

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 400,000 active duty troops (300,000 Army; 60,000 Navy, including about 20,000 marines; 30,000 Air Force) (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Indonesian military inventory comes from a wide variety of sources; since 2010, the top suppliers have included China, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, South Korea, the UK, and the US; the TNI has been engaged in a long-term modernization program since 2010 with uneven success; Indonesia has a growing defense industry fueled by technology transfers and cooperation agreements with several countries; in 2019, the Indonesian Government said that growing its domestic defense industry was a national priority over the next 5-10 years (2022)

Military service age and obligation

18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized (males, age 18), but not utilized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers) (2021)

Military deployments

225 (plus about 140 police) Central African Republic (MINUSCA); 1,025 Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO); 1,225 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (May 2022)

Military - note

as of 2022, Indonesian military and police forces were engaged in counter-insurgency operations in Papua against the West Papua Liberation Army, the military wing of the Free Papua Organization, which has been fighting a low-level insurgency since the 1960s when Indonesia annexed the former Dutch colony; since 2019, there has been an increase in militant activity in Papua and a larger Indonesian military presence; Papua was formally incorporated into Indonesia in 1969; in addition, the Indonesian military has been assisting police in Sulawesi in countering the Mujahideen Indonesia Timur (MIT; aka East Indonesia Mujahideen), a local militant group affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

Indonesia is not a formal claimant in the South China Sea, although some of its waters lie within China's “nine-dash line” maritime claims, resulting in some stand offs in recent years; since 2016, the Indonesian military has bolstered its presence on Great Natuna Island (aka Pulau Natuna Besar), the main island of the Middle Natuna Archipelago, which is part of the Riau Islands Province, held military exercises in surrounding waters, and increased security cooperation (2022)

Maritime threats

the International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; the number of attacks decreased from 26 incidents in 2020 to nine in 2021 due to aggressive maritime patrolling by regional authorities; vessels continue to be boarded while anchored or berthed at Indonesian ports with seven vessels attacked; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (aka Jemaah Anshorut Daulah); Jemaah Islamiyah

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 5,792 (Afghanistan) (mid-year 2021)

IDPs: 73,000 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2007 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2021)

stateless persons: 668 (mid-year 2021)

Illicit drugs

a transit and destination point for illicit narcotics; consumer of crystal methamphetamine trafficked in Burma and Pakistan and also transit to Australia and New Zealand; significant consumer of ecstasy from China and the Netherlands and domestically grown cannabis