Photos of Jersey

Introduction

Background

Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II. The Bailiwick of Jersey is a British Crown dependency, which means that it is not part of the UK but is rather a self-governing possession of the British Crown. However, the UK Government is constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France

Geographic coordinates

49 15 N, 2 10 W

Area

total: 116 sq km

land: 116 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 224

Area - comparative

about two-thirds the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm

Climate

temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Terrain

gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast

Elevation

highest point: Les Platons 136 m

lowest point: English Channel 0 m

Land use

agricultural land: 66% (2018 est.)

arable land: 66% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 34% (2018 est.)

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; no notable trends

Natural hazards

very large tidal variation can be hazardous to navigation

Geography - note

largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier

People and Society

Population

102,785 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 193

Nationality

noun: Channel Islander(s)

adjective: Channel Islander

Ethnic groups

Jersey 44.4%, British 30.5%, Portuguese/Madeiran 9.4%, Polish 3%, Irish 2.1%, other 10.6% (2021 est.)

Languages

English (official) 94.5%, Portuguese 4.6%, other 0.9% (includes French (official) and Jerriais)

(2001 est.)

note: data represent main spoken language; the traditional language of Jersey is Jerriais or Jersey French (a Norman language), which was spoken by fewer than 3,000 people as of 2001;  two thirds of Jerriais speakers are aged 60 and over

Religions

Protestant (Anglican, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian), Roman Catholic

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.89% (male 8,958/female 8,405)

15-64 years: 65.19% (male 33,888/female 33,121)

65 years and over: 17.91% (2023 est.) (male 7,871/female 10,542)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 44.5

youth dependency ratio: 21.3

elderly dependency ratio: 23.2

potential support ratio: 4.3 (2021 est.)

note: data represent Guernsey and Jersey

Median age

total: 38 years (2023 est.)

male: 36.7 years

female: 39.5 years

comparison ranking: total 73

Population growth rate

0.61% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 140

Birth rate

12.3 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 143

Death rate

7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 98

Net migration rate

1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 60

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; no notable trends

Urbanization

urban population: 31.2% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.68% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Guernsey and Jersey

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

34,000 SAINT HELIER (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 191

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.8 years (2023 est.)

male: 80.3 years

female: 85.5 years

comparison ranking: total population 17

Total fertility rate

1.66 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 170

Drinking water source

improved: total: 94.2% of population

unimproved: total: 5.9% of population (2017 est.)

note: includes data for Guernsey

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 98.5% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 1.5% of population (2017)

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Environment

Environment - current issues

habitat and species depletion due to human encroachment; water pollution; improper solid waste disposal

Climate

temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Land use

agricultural land: 66% (2018 est.)

arable land: 66% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 34% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 31.2% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.68% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Guernsey and Jersey

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 178,933 tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 50,871 tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 28.4% (2016 est.)

note: data include combined totals for Guernsey and Jersey.

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey

conventional short form: Jersey

former: Norman Isles

etymology: the name is of Old Norse origin, but the meaning of the root "Jer(s)" is uncertain; the "-ey" ending means "island"

Government type

parliamentary democracy (Assembly of the States of Jersey)

Dependency status

British crown dependency

Capital

name: Saint Helier

geographic coordinates: 49 11 N, 2 06 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: named after Saint HELIER, the patron saint of Jersey, who was reputedly martyred on the island in A.D. 555

Administrative divisions

none (British crown dependency); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 12 parishes; Grouville, Saint Brelade, Saint Clement, Saint Helier, Saint John, Saint Lawrence, Saint Martin, Saint Mary, Saint Ouen, Saint Peter, Saint Saviour, Trinity

Independence

none (British Crown dependency)

National holiday

Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Constitution

history: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

amendments: proposed by a government minister to the Assembly of the States of Jersey, by an Assembly member, or by an elected parish head; passage requires several Assembly readings, a majority vote by the Assembly, review by the UK Ministry of Justice, and approval of the British monarch (Royal Assent)

Legal system

the laws of the UK apply where applicable; includes local statutes

Citizenship

see United Kingdom

Suffrage

16 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Lieutenant Governor Jerry KYD (since 8 October 2022)

head of government: Chief Minister Kristina MOORE (since 12 July 2022); Bailiff Timothy Le COCQ (since 17 October 2019)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed individually by the states

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; Council of Ministers, including the chief minister, indirectly elected by the Assembly of States; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the States of Jersey (49 elected members; 8 senators to serve 4-year terms, and 29 deputies and 12 connetables, or heads of parishes, to serve 4-year terms; 5 non-voting members appointed by the monarch include the bailiff, lieutenant governor, dean of Jersey, attorney general, and the solicitor general)

elections:
last held on 22 June 2022 (next to be held in 2026)

election results:
percent of vote by party - BW 66.8%, RJ 12.3%, JA 2.0%, PP 2%, JLC 4.1%; seats by party - BW 35, RJ 10, JLC 2, JA 1, PP 1; composition as of April 2024 - men 28, women 21, percentage women 42.9%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Jersey Court of Appeal (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, and 12 judges); Royal Court (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, 6 commissioners and lay people referred to as jurats, and is organized into Heritage, Family, Probate, and Samedi Divisions); appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: Jersey Court of Appeal bailiffs and judges appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; bailiffs and judges appointed for "extent of good behavior;" Royal Court bailiffs appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; commissioners appointed by the bailiff; jurats appointed by the Electoral College; bailiffs and commissioners appointed for "extent of good behavior;" jurats appointed until retirement at age 72

subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Youth Court; Petty Debts Court; Parish Hall Enquiries (a process of preliminary investigation into youth and minor adult offenses to determine need for presentation before a court)

Political parties and leaders

Better Way or BW (group of independent candidates)
Jersey Alliance or JA [Mark BOLEAT]
Jersey Liberal Conservatives or JLC [Sir Philip BAILHACHE]
Progress Party or PP [Steve PALLETT]
Reform Jersey or RJ [Sam MEZEC]

note: most deputies sit as independents

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: none (British Crown dependency)

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: none (British Crown dependency)

Flag description

white with a diagonal red cross extending to the corners of the flag; in the upper quadrant, surmounted by a yellow crown, a red shield with three lions in yellow; according to tradition, the ships of Jersey - in an attempt to differentiate themselves from English ships flying the horizontal cross of St. George - rotated the cross to the "X" (saltire) configuration; because this arrangement still resembled the Irish cross of St. Patrick, the yellow Plantagenet crown and Jersey coat of arms were added

National symbol(s)

Jersey cow; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Isle de Siez Nous" (Island Home)

lyrics/music: Gerard LE FEUVRE

note: adopted 2008; serves as a local anthem; as a British Crown dependency, "God Save the King" is official (see United Kingdom)

Economy

Economic overview

British territorial island economy; strong offshore banking and finance sectors; low asset taxation; strong tourism sector prior to COVID-19 and Brexit; one of the most expensive places to live; minimal welfare system; historical cider industry

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$5.569 billion (2016 est.)
$5.514 billion (2015 est.)
$4.98 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2015 dollars

comparison ranking: 176

Real GDP growth rate

8.65% (2021 est.)
-7.97% (2020 est.)
1.33% (2019 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency; entry includes Jersey and Guernsey

comparison ranking: 29

Real GDP per capita

$56,600 (2016 est.)
$49,500 (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 21

GDP (official exchange rate)

$11.736 billion (2021 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate; entry includes Jersey and Guernsey

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2% (2010)

industry: 2% (2010)

services: 96% (2010)

comparison rankings: services 2; industry 223; agriculture 173

Agricultural products

potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes; beef, dairy products

Industries

tourism, banking and finance, dairy, electronics

Industrial production growth rate

25.3% (2021 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency; entry includes Jersey and Guernsey

comparison ranking: 3

Labor force

86,000 (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work;entry includes Jersey and Guernsey

comparison ranking: 185

Unemployment rate

6.03% (2022 est.)
6.73% (2021 est.)
6.72% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment; entry includes Jersey and Guernsey

comparison ranking: 125

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 15.8% (2021 est.)

male: 15.9%

female: 15.6%

comparison ranking: total 109

Budget

revenues: $829 million (2005)

expenditures: $851 million (2005)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.4% (of GDP) (2005)

comparison ranking: 56

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Exports - partners

almost entirely United Kingdom (2022)

Exports - commodities

refined petroleum, beverages, ships, jewelry, artwork (2022)

Imports - partners

almost entirely United Kingdom (2022)

Imports - commodities

artwork, ships, vegetables, fruits, jewelry (2022)

Exchange rates

Jersey pounds (JEP) per US dollar

Exchange rates:
0.811 (2022 est.)
0.727 (2021 est.)
0.78 (2020 est.)
0.783 (2019 est.)
0.75 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Carbon dioxide emissions

450,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2012 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 190

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 48,122 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 156

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 124,083 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 120 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 190

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the telecommunication services comprise of Internet, telephone, broadcasting and postal services, which allow islanders to contact people and receive information; Internet connectivity to the rest of the world is provided by undersea cables linked to Guernsey, the UK and France; (2021)

domestic: fixed-line 47 per 100 and mobile-cellular 120 per 100 subscriptions (2021)

international: country code - 44; landing points for the INGRID, UK-Channel Islands-8, and Guernsey-Jersey-4, submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey, the UK, and France (2019)

Broadcast media

multiple UK terrestrial TV broadcasts are received via a transmitter in Jersey; satellite packages available; BBC Radio Jersey and 1 other radio station operating

Internet users

total: 96,038 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 93% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 188

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 39,699 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 145

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020) (registered in UK)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 4 (registered in UK)

Airports

1 (2024)

comparison ranking: 233

Roadways

total: 576 km (2010)

comparison ranking: total 193

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier

Military and Security

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues