The Jordan Museum is located in the Ras al-‘Ayn area of Amman. The museum’s 10,000 sq m (108,000 sq ft) building covers 1.5 million years of Jordanian history and archaeology, starting from the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) to the present and even projecting into the future. Using over 2,000 artifacts, graphics, and specially designed materials, the exhibits explore Jordan’s history through nine major themes: the environment, food production and processing, visual art and architecture, cultural exchange and trade, politics and the military, communication and writing, industry, religion, and daily domestic life in Jordan throughout the ages. Besides its exhibitions, the Jordan Museum also serves as a research center.
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Introduction

Background

Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations awarded Britain the mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain demarcated a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine in 1921 and recognized ABDALLAH I from the Hashemite family as the country's first leader. The Hashemites also controlled Hijaz, or the western coastal area of modern day Saudi Arabia until 1925, when they were pushed out by Ibn SAUD and Wahhabi tribes. The country gained its independence in 1946 and thereafter became The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

The country has had four kings. Jordan's long-time ruler, King HUSSEIN (1953-99), successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and Palestinian militants, which led to a brief civil war in 1970 referred to as "Black September" and ended in King HUSSEIN's ouster of the militants from Jordan. Jordan's borders also have changed. In 1948, Jordan took control of the West Bank and East Jerusalem, eventually annexing those territories in 1950 and granting its new Palestinian residents Jordanian citizenship. In 1967, Jordan lost the West Bank and East Jerusalem to Israel in the Six-Day War but retained administrative claims until 1988 when King HUSSEIN permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the West Bank in favor of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). King HUSSEIN signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1994, after Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo Accords in 1993.

Jordanian kings continue to claim custodianship of the holy sites in Jerusalem by virtue of their Hashemite heritage as descendants of the Prophet Mohammad and agreements with Israel and Jerusalem-based religious and Palestinian leaders. After Israel captured East Jerusalem in the 1967 War, it authorized the Jordanian-controlled Islamic Trust, or Waqf, to continue administering affairs in the Al Haram ash Sharif/Temple Mount holy compound, and the Jordan-Israel peace treaty reaffirmed Jordan's "special role" in administering the Muslim holy shrines in Jerusalem.

King HUSSEIN died in 1999 and was succeeded by his eldest son, ABDALLAH II, who remains the current king. In 2009, King ABDALLAH II designated his son HUSSEIN as the Crown Prince. During his reign, ABDALLAH II has contended with a series of challenges, including the Arab Spring influx of refugees from neighboring states and a perennially weak economy.

 

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia, between Israel (to the west) and Iraq

Geographic coordinates

31 00 N, 36 00 E

Map references

Middle East

Area

total: 89,342 sq km

land: 88,802 sq km

water: 540 sq km

country comparison to the world: 112

Area - comparative

about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Indiana

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 1,744 km

border countries (5): Iraq 179 km; Israel 307 km; Saudi Arabia 731 km; Syria 379 km; West Bank 148 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate

mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain

mostly arid desert plateau; a great north-south geological rift along the west of the country is the dominant topographical feature and includes the Jordan River Valley, the Dead Sea, and the Jordanian Highlands

Elevation

highest point: Jabal Umm ad Dami 1,854 m

lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m

mean elevation: 812 m

Natural resources

phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use

agricultural land: 11.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 8.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 1.1% (2018 est.)

other: 87.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

964 sq km (2012)

Major lakes (area sq km)

Salt water lake(s): Dead Sea (shared with Israel and West Bank) - 1,020 sq km
note - endorheic hypersaline lake; 9.6 times saltier than the ocean; lake shore is 431 meters below sea level

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Indian Ocean drainage: (Persian Gulf) Tigris and Euphrates (918,044 sq km)

Major aquifers

Arabian Aquifer System

Population distribution

population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba

Natural hazards

droughts; periodic earthquakes; flash floods

Geography - note

strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank; the Dead Sea, the lowest point in Asia and the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lac Assal in Djibouti), lies on Jordan's western border with Israel and the West Bank; Jordan is almost landlocked but does have a 26 km southwestern coastline with a single port, Al 'Aqabah (Aqaba)

Map description

Jordan map showing major cities as well as parts of surrounding countries.

People and Society

Population

10,998,531 (2022 est.)

note: increased estimate reflects revised assumptions about the net migration rate due to the increased flow of Syrian refugees

country comparison to the world: 85

Nationality

noun: Jordanian(s)

adjective: Jordanian

Ethnic groups

Jordanian 69.3%, Syrian 13.3%, Palestinian 6.7%, Egyptian 6.7%, Iraqi 1.4%, other 2.6% (includes Armenian, Circassian) (2015 est.)

note: data represent population by self-identified nationality

Languages

Arabic (official), English (widely understood among upper and middle classes)

major-language sample(s):
كتاب حقائق العالم، المصدر الذي لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه للمعلومات الأساسية (Arabic)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Arabic audio sample:

Religions

Muslim 97.1% (official; predominantly Sunni), Christian 2.1% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), Buddhist 0.4%, Hindu 0.1%, Jewish <0.1%, folk <0.1%, other <0.1%, unaffiliated <0.1% (2020 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 33.05% (male 1,837,696/female 1,738,935)

15-24 years: 19.77% (male 1,126,567/female 1,012,812)

25-54 years: 38.39% (male 2,250,328/female 1,903,996)

55-64 years: 5.11% (male 290,633/female 262,827)

65 years and over: 3.67% (2020 est.) (male 194,464/female 202,386)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 58.2

youth dependency ratio: 52

elderly dependency ratio: 6.3

potential support ratio: 16 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 23.5 years

male: 23.9 years

female: 22.9 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 175

Birth rate

22.58 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Death rate

3.45 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 220

Net migration rate

-11.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 224

Population distribution

population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba

Urbanization

urban population: 91.8% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.98% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

2.210 million AMMAN (capital) (2022)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.17 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female

total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

24.6 years (2017/18 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

46 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

Infant mortality rate

total: 13.9 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 15.04 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 12.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.01 years

male: 74.51 years

female: 77.6 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.2% of population

rural: 97.9% of population

total: 99.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.8% of population

rural: 2.1% of population

total: 0.9% of population (2020 est.)

Physicians density

2.66 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

1.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 98.8% of population

rural: 97.8% of population

total: 98.7% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.2% of population

rural: 2.2% of population

total: 1.3% of population (2020 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

(2020 est.) <100

Major infectious diseases

note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Jordan; as of 18 August 2022, Jordan has reported a total of 1,726,717 cases of COVID-19 or 16,923.39 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with a total of 14,095 cumulative deaths or a rate of 138.14 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 7 August 2022, 43.21% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.25 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.06 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.19 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Tobacco use

total: 34.8% (2020 est.)

male: 56.8% (2020 est.)

female: 12.8% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 16

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 1.5%

women married by age 18: 9.7%

men married by age 18: 0.1% (2018 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.2%

male: 98.6%

female: 97.8% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 10 years

female: 11 years (2020)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 37.3%

male: 34.8%

female: 49.4% (2019 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

limited natural freshwater resources; declining water table; salinity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; biodiversity and ecosystem damage/loss

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 32.09 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 25.11 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.04 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Land use

agricultural land: 11.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 8.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 1.1% (2018 est.)

other: 87.5% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 91.8% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 0.98% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Major infectious diseases

note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Jordan; as of 18 August 2022, Jordan has reported a total of 1,726,717 cases of COVID-19 or 16,923.39 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with a total of 14,095 cumulative deaths or a rate of 138.14 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 7 August 2022, 43.21% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,529,997 tons (2013 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 177,100 tons (2014 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 7% (2014 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

Salt water lake(s): Dead Sea (shared with Israel and West Bank) - 1,020 sq km
note - endorheic hypersaline lake; 9.6 times saltier than the ocean; lake shore is 431 meters below sea level

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Indian Ocean drainage: (Persian Gulf) Tigris and Euphrates (918,044 sq km)

Major aquifers

Arabian Aquifer System

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 456.9 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 32.5 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 554.7 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

937 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

conventional short form: Jordan

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah

local short form: Al Urdun

former: Transjordan

etymology: named for the Jordan River, which makes up part of Jordan's northwest border

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Amman

geographic coordinates: 31 57 N, 35 56 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in February; ends last Friday in October

etymology: in the 13th century B.C., the Ammonites named their main city "Rabbath Ammon"; "rabbath" designated "capital," so the name meant "The Capital of [the] Ammon[ites]"; over time, the "Rabbath" came to be dropped and the city became known simply as "Ammon" and then "Amman"

Administrative divisions

12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); 'Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Al ‘Asimah (Amman), At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba

Independence

25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday

Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Constitution

history: previous 1928 (preindependence); latest initially adopted 28 November 1947, revised and ratified 1 January 1952

amendments: constitutional amendments require at least a two-thirds majority vote of both the Senate and the House and ratification by the king; no amendment of the constitution affecting the rights of the king and the succession to the throne is permitted during the king's reign; amended several times, last in 2016

Legal system

mixed system developed from codes instituted by the Ottoman Empire (based on French law), British common law, and Islamic law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Jordan

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HUSSEIN (eldest son of the monarch, born on 28 June 1994)

head of government: Prime Minister Bisher AL-KHASAWNEH (since 7 October 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch prime minister in consultation with the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of:
Senate or the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (65 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (130 seats; 115 members directly elected in 23 multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote and 15 seats for women; 12 of the 115 seats reserved for Christian, Chechen, and Circassian candidates; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last appointments on 27 Sep 2020 (next appointments in 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 10 November 2020 (next to be held in November 2024)

election results: Senate - composition men 58, women 7, percent of women 10.8%
Chamber of Deputies - note - tribal, centrist, and pro-government candidates dominated in the 130-seat election; the Islamic Action Front, the political wing of the Muslim Brotherhood, garnered only 10 seats, down from 15 in the previous election; women, who are guaranteed 15 seats by Jordan’s legislative quota system, won 16 seats, down from 20 seats won in the previous election; composition - men 114, women 16, percent of women 12.3%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 11.8%

 

Judicial branch

highest courts: Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of 15 members, including the chief justice); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the king; other judges nominated by the Judicial Council, an 11-member judicial policymaking body consisting of high-level judicial officials and judges, and approved by the king; judge tenure generally not limited; Constitutional Court members appointed by the king for 6-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Great Felonies Court; religious courts; military courts; juvenile courts; Land Settlement Courts; Income Tax Court; Higher Administrative Court; Customs Court; special courts including the State Security Court

Political parties and leaders

Jordan has 54 registered political parties, four of which currently have seats in the elected Chamber of Deputies including the Islamic Action Front, the Islamic Centrist Party, the United Jordanian Front Party, and the National Loyalty Party

International organization participation

ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA, EBRD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, NATO (partner), OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Dina Khalil Tawfiq KAWAR (since 27 June 2016)

chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664

FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110

email address and website:
hkjconsular@jordanembassyus.org

http://www.jordanembassyus.org/

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Henry T. WOOSTER (since 8 October 2020)

embassy: Abdoun, Al-Umawyeen St., Amman

mailing address: 6050 Amman Place, Washington DC  20521-6050

telephone: [962] (6) 590-6000

FAX: [962] (6) 592-0163

email address and website:
Amman-ACS@state.gov

https://jo.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of black (top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate, white, representing the Ummayyad Caliphate, and green, representing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I

National symbol(s)

eagle; national colors: black, white, green, red

National anthem

name: "As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni" (Long Live the King of Jordan)

lyrics/music: Abdul-Mone'm al-RIFAI'/Abdul-Qader al-TANEER

note: adopted 1946; the shortened version of the anthem is used most commonly, while the full version is reserved for special occasions

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 6 (5 cultural, 1 mixed)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Petra (c); Quseir Amra (c); Um er-Rasas (Kastrom Mefa'a) (c); Wadi Rum Protected Area (m); Baptism Site “Bethany Beyond the Jordan” (Al-Maghtas) (c); As-Salt - The Place of Tolerance and Urban Hospitality (c)

Economy

Economic overview

Jordan's economy is among the smallest in the Middle East, with insufficient supplies of water, oil, and other natural resources, underlying the government's heavy reliance on foreign assistance. Other economic challenges for the government include chronic high rates of unemployment and underemployment, budget and current account deficits, and government debt.

 

King ABDALLAH, during the first decade of the 2000s, implemented significant economic reforms, such as expanding foreign trade and privatizing state-owned companies that attracted foreign investment and contributed to average annual economic growth of 8% for 2004 through 2008. The global economic slowdown and regional turmoil contributed to slower growth from 2010 to 2017 - with growth averaging about 2.5% per year - and hurt export-oriented sectors, construction/real estate, and tourism. Since the onset of the civil war in Syria and resulting refugee crisis, one of Jordan’s most pressing socioeconomic challenges has been managing the influx of approximately 660,000 UN-registered refugees, more than 80% of whom live in Jordan’s urban areas. Jordan’s own official census estimated the refugee number at 1.3 million Syrians as of early 2016.

 

Jordan is nearly completely dependent on imported energy—mostly natural gas—and energy consistently makes up 25-30% of Jordan’s imports. To diversify its energy mix, Jordan has secured several contracts for liquefied and pipeline natural gas, developed several major renewables projects, and is currently exploring nuclear power generation and exploitation of abundant oil shale reserves. In August 2016, Jordan and the IMF agreed to a $723 million Extended Fund Facility that aims to build on the three-year, $2.1 billion IMF program that ended in August 2015 with the goal of helping Jordan correct budgetary and balance of payments imbalances.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$100.16 billion (2020 est.)

$101.74 billion (2019 est.)

$99.79 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 89

Real GDP growth rate

2% (2019 est.)

1.94% (2018 est.)

2.12% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136

Real GDP per capita

$9,800 (2020 est.)

$10,100 (2019 est.)

$10,000 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 142

GDP (official exchange rate)

$44.568 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.3% (2019 est.)

4.4% (2018 est.)

3.3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 33

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB- (2019)

Moody's rating: B1 (2013)

Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2017)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.5% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.8% (2017 est.)

services: 66.6% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.5% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 19.8% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 22.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 34.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -58% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

tomatoes, poultry, olives, milk, potatoes, cucumbers, vegetables, watermelons, green chillies/peppers, peaches/nectarines

Industries

tourism, information technology, clothing, fertilizer, potash, phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2%

industry: 20%

services: 78% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate

19.1% (2019 est.)

18.61% (2018 est.)

note: official rate; unofficial rate is approximately 30%

country comparison to the world: 187

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 37.3%

male: 34.8%

female: 49.4% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%

highest 10%: 28.7% (2010 est.)

Budget

revenues: 9.462 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 11.51 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

95.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

95.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover central government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

country comparison to the world: 22

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$1.222 billion (2019 est.)

-$2.964 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 152

Exports

$16.29 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$15.09 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 89

Exports - partners

United States 21%, Saudi Arabia 13%, India 8%, Iraq 7%, United Arab Emirates 5%, China 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

fertilizers, calcium phosphates, packaged medicines, clothing and apparel, phosphoric acid (2019)

Imports

$22.04 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$22.92 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 79

Imports - partners

China 17%, Saudi Arabia 15%, United States 6%, United Arab Emirates 6%, Egypt 5%, India 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, natural gas, crude petroleum, clothing and apparel (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$15.56 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$15.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67

Debt - external

$32.088 billion (2019 est.)

$29.916 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81

Exchange rates

Jordanian dinars (JOD) per US dollar -

0.709 (2020 est.)

0.709 (2019 est.)

0.70925 (2018 est.)

0.71 (2014 est.)

0.71 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 5.644 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 17,366,400,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 98 million kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 239 million kWh (2019 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 2.249 billion kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 83.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 11.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 4.6% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 219,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 219,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 114,800 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 47,400 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 1 million barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 115.872 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

consumption: 4,650,978,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 375.849 million cubic meters (2019 est.)

imports: 4,910,954,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

proven reserves: 6.031 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

23.47 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 381,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 15.786 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 7.303 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 391,486 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 101

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 6,987,891 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 68 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 106

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Jordan’s government has focused on the use of ICT in a range of sectors, aimed at transforming the relatively small economy through the use of digital services; this policy has helped the country rise in the league tables for digital connectivity and internet readiness, and it has also attracted investment from foreign companies; during the ongoing global pandemic, the start-up sector has been further encouraged to develop solutions to combat the crisis, while other efforts have facilitated e-government services and encouraged businesses to adapt to new methods of working through their own digital transformation; these developments have been supported by the highly developed mobile sector, led by three major regional players which have near-comprehensive LTE network coverage; Orange Jordan has also focused on building up its FttP infrastructure, with the network covering about 618,000 premises by mid-2021. (2022)

domestic: 1995 a telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; in 2005, the monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; currently fixed-line stands at nearly 4 per 100 persons and multiple mobile-cellular providers with subscribership over 68 per 100 persons (2020)

international: country code - 962; landing point for the FEA and Taba-Aqaba submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Asia; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress towards 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

radio and TV dominated by the government-owned Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV) that operates a main network, a sports network, a film network, and a satellite channel; first independent TV broadcaster aired in 2007; international satellite TV and Israeli and Syrian TV broadcasts are available; roughly 30 radio stations with JRTV operating the main government-owned station; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are available

Internet users

total: 6,768,137 (2019 est.)

percent of population: 67% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 80

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 630,545 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 85

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 54

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,383,805 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 175.84 million (2018) mt-km

Airports - with paved runways

total: 16

over 3,047 m: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2021)

Heliports

1 (2021)

Pipelines

473 km gas, 49 km oil (2013)

Railways

total: 509 km (2020)

narrow gauge: 509 km (2014) 1.050-m gauge

country comparison to the world: 113

Roadways

total: 7,203 km (2011)

paved: 7,203 km (2011)

country comparison to the world: 141

Merchant marine

total: 35

by type: general cargo 6, oil tanker 1, other 28 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 128

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Al 'Aqabah

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordanian Army (includes Special Operations Forces, Border Guards, Royal Guard), Royal Jordanian Air Force, Royal Jordanian Coast Guard; Ministry of Interior: Public Security Directorate (includes national police, the Gendarmerie, and the Civil Defense Directorate) (2022)

note: the armed forces report administratively to the minister of defense and have a support role for internal security; there is no separate Ministry of Defense; the prime minister also serves as defense minister

Military expenditures

5% of GDP (2021 est.)

5% of GDP (2020 est.)

5.6% of GDP (2019 est.) (approximately $5.18 billion)

5.6% of GDP (2018 est.) (approximately $5.14 billion)

5.7% of GDP (2017 est.) (approximately $5.18 billion)

country comparison to the world: 12

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 94,500 active duty armed forces personnel (80,000 Army; 14,000 Air Force; 500 Coast Guard); approximately 15,000 Gendarmerie Forces (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the JAF inventory is comprised of a wide mix of imported equipment from Europe, some Gulf States, Russia, and the US; since 2010, the Netherlands and the US have been the leading suppliers (2022)

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for voluntary male military service (women can volunteer to serve in noncombat military positions in the Royal Jordanian Arab Army Women's Corps and RJAF); initial service term 2 years, with option to reenlist for 18 years; conscription abolished in 1991; however, in 2020, Jordan announced the reinstatement of compulsory military service for jobless men aged between 25 and 29 with 12 months of service, made up of 3 months of military training and 9 months of professional and technical training; in 2019, announced a voluntary 4-month National Military Service program for men and women aged between 18-25 years who have been unemployed for at least 6 months; service would include 1 month for military training with the remaining 3 months dedicated to vocational training in the sectors of construction and tourism (2022)

note: most women serve in the medical service; outside the medical service, women comprised about 1.5% of the military as of 2019

Military deployments

330 Mali (MINUSMA) (May 2022)

Military - note

the Jordanian military traces its origins back to the Arab Legion, which was formed under the British protectorate of Transjordan in the 1920s

due largely to its proximity to regional conflicts in Iraq and Syria, the presence of major terrorist organizations in both of those countries, and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the highest priorities of Jordan’s military and security services in 2022 included securing its borders and the potential for domestic terrorist attacks; the terrorist group Hizballah and Iranian-backed militia forces were operating in southwestern Syria near Jordan’s border while fighters from the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) terrorist group continued operating in both Iraq and Syria; ISIS fighters included Jordanian nationals, some of whom have returned to Jordan; meanwhile, individuals and groups sympathetic to Palestine have planned and conducted terrorist attacks in Jordan

Jordan has Major Non-NATO Ally (MNNA) status with the US; MNNA is a designation under US law that provides foreign partners with certain benefits in the areas of defense trade and security cooperation; while MNNA status provides military and economic privileges, it does not entail any security commitments

Jordan signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1994 (2022)

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Jordan-Iraq: the two countries signed a border agreement in 1984; Jordan has ratified the treaty, but it has not been confirmed that Iraq has ratified it; as of 2010, the agreement had not been registered with the UN

Jordan-Israel: none identified

Jordan-Saudi Arabia: Jordan and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement to demarcate their maritime borders in 2007

Jordan-Syria: the two countries signed an agreement in 2005 to settle the border dispute based on a 1931 demarcation accord; the two countries began demarcation in 2006

Jordan-West Bank: none identified

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 2,307,011 (Palestinian refugees) (2020); 66,665 (Iraq), 12,866 (Yemen), 6,013 Sudan (2021); 676,496 (Syria) (2022)

stateless persons: 63 (mid-year 2021)

Trafficking in persons

current situation:

human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Jordan and Jordanians abroad; victims are primarily from South and Southeast Asia, East Africa, Egypt, and Syria; foreign migrants, many undocumented, working in construction, agriculture, textiles, and domestic work are the most vulnerable to trafficking because of informal work agreements and frequently changing employers; forced labor victims experience withheld or unpaid wages, confiscation of identity documents, restricted freedom of movement, unsafe living conditions, long hours without rest, isolation, and verbal and physical abuse; child labor and potential forced child labor increased; traffickers exploit Lebanese, North African, and Eastern European women who have migrated to Jordan to work in restaurants and nightclubs are subject to sex trafficking



tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Jordan does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; the government increased the training of law enforcement personnel and victim advocates, maintained a trafficking shelter offering a wide range of services, partnered with civil society actors to proactively identify and protect trafficking victims, and conducted anti-trafficking awareness campaigns; the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts as fewer traffickers were investigated, prosecuted, and convicted; fewer victims were identified and assisted, and victims were still arrested, detained, and deported for unlawful acts traffickers compelled them to commit; under Jordan’s anti-trafficking law, penalties for sex trafficking offenses were not commensurate with penalties for other serious crimes (2020)

Illicit drugs

primarily a transshipment country for amphetamine tablets originating in Lebanon and Syria and destined for Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Gulf countries; the government is increasingly concerned about domestic consumption of illicit drugs