Country Summary



Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. In 1867, Luxembourg attained full independence under the condition that it promise perpetual neutrality. The country became one of the six founding countries of the EEC (later the EU), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency zone.



total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km


modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Natural resources

iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

People and Society


660,924 (2023 est.)

Ethnic groups

Luxembourger 52.9%, Portuguese 14.5%, French 7.6%, Italian 3.7%, Belgian 3%, German 2%, Spanish 1.3%, Romania 1%, other 14% (2022 est.)


Luxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 55.8%, Portuguese 15.7%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 12.1%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 3.1%, Italian 2.9%, English 2.1%, other 8.4% (2011 est.)


Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 70.6%, Muslim 2.3%, other (includes Buddhist, folk religions, Hindu, Jewish) 0.4%, unaffiliated 26.7% (2020 est.)

Population growth rate

1.58% (2023 est.)


Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Luxembourg

Executive branch

chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Francois BAUSCH (since 11 October 2019); Deputy Prime Minister Daniel KERSCH (since 4 February 2020)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies


Economic overview

high-income, EU-member European economy; global financial and information storage leader; high government spending; one of highest GDP per capita countries; unique audit accountancy based on company sizing; aging labor force; hit by COVID-19

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$74.045 billion (2021 est.)
$70.45 billion (2020 est.)
$71.016 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$115,700 (2021 est.)
$111,800 (2020 est.)
$114,500 (2019 est.)

Agricultural products

milk, wheat, barley, triticale, potatoes, pork, beef, grapes, rapeseed, oats


banking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology


2.66% of GDP (2021 est.)
2.96% of GDP (2020 est.)
2.92% of GDP (2019 est.)


$177.831 billion (2021 est.)
$145.417 billion (2020 est.)
$139.559 billion (2019 est.)

Exports - partners

Germany 23%, France 13%, Belgium 12%, Netherlands 6%, Italy 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

iron products, cars and vehicle parts, tires, gas turbines, adhesive plastics (2021)


$148.15 billion (2021 est.)
$121.328 billion (2020 est.)
$116.803 billion (2019 est.)

Imports - partners

Belgium 27%, Germany 24%, France 11%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, scrap iron, aircraft (2019)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
Exchange rates:
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)
0.885 (2017 est.)

Page last updated: Monday, September 25, 2023