Photos of Monaco

A view of Monte Carlo with the Port of Monaco in the foreground. The ship on the right is that of the prince of Monaco.

Introduction

Background

The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present-day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling GRIMALDI family first seized control in 1297 but was not able to permanently secure its holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, coastal Mediterranean scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world-famous as a tourist and recreation center.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates

43 44 N, 7 24 E

Area

total: 2 sq km

land: 2 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 253

Area - comparative

about three times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 6 km

border countries (1): France 6 km

Coastline

4.1 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 12 nm

Climate

Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain

hilly, rugged, rocky

Elevation

highest point: Chemin des Revoires on Mont Agel 162 m

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

Land use

agricultural land: 1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 99% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2022)

Population distribution

the second most densely populated country in the world (after Macau); its entire population living on 2 square km

Geography - note

second-smallest independent state in the world (after the Holy See); smallest country with a coastline; almost entirely urban

People and Society

Population

total: 31,813

male: 15,366

female: 16,447 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 216; male 216; total 216

Nationality

noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)

adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups

Monegasque 32.1%, French 19.9%, Italian 15.3%, British 5%, Belgian 2.3%, Swiss 2%, German 1.9%, Russian 1.8%, American 1.1%, Dutch 1.1%, Moroccan 1%, other 16.6% (2016 est.)

note: data represent population by country of birth

Languages

French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

French audio sample:

Religions

Roman Catholic 90% (official), other 10%

Age structure

0-14 years: 9.1% (male 1,485/female 1,408)

15-64 years: 53.8% (male 8,620/female 8,490)

65 years and over: 37.1% (2024 est.) (male 5,261/female 6,549)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 95.2

youth dependency ratio: 25

elderly dependency ratio: 70.2

potential support ratio: 1.4 (2021)

Median age

total: 56.9 years (2024 est.)

male: 55 years

female: 58.4 years

comparison ranking: total 1

Population growth rate

0.71% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 124

Birth rate

6.5 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 226

Death rate

11.1 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 25

Net migration rate

11.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 7

Population distribution

the second most densely populated country in the world (after Macau); its entire population living on 2 square km

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

39,000 MONACO (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 1.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.4 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 224

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 89.8 years (2024 est.)

male: 86 years

female: 93.7 years

comparison ranking: total population 1

Total fertility rate

1.54 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 196

Gross reproduction rate

0.76 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

1.7% of GDP (2020)

Physician density

7.51 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density

13.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Education expenditures

1.2% of GDP (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 195

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Environment

Environment - current issues

no serious issues; actively monitors pollution levels in air and water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Climate

Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Land use

agricultural land: 1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 99% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 196

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 9.21 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

methane emissions: 0.05 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 46,000 tons (2012 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 2,484 tons (2012 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5.4% (2012 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 10 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Principality of Monaco

conventional short form: Monaco

local long form: Principaute de Monaco

local short form: Monaco

etymology: founded as a Greek colony in the 6th century B.C., the name derives from two Greek words "monos" (single, alone) and "oikos" (house) to convey the sense of a people "living apart" or in a "single habitation"

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Monaco

geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: founded as a Greek colony in the 6th century B.C., the name derives from two Greek words monos (single, alone) and oikos (house) to convey the sense of a people "living apart" or in a "single habitation"

Administrative divisions

none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo; note - Moneghetti, a part of La Condamine, is sometimes called the 5th quarter of Monaco

Independence

1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of GRIMALDI)

National holiday

National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)

Constitution

history: previous 1911 (suspended 1959); latest adopted 17 December 1962

amendments: proposed by joint agreement of the chief of state (the prince) and the National Council; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of National Council members; amended 2002

Legal system

civil law system influenced by French legal tradition

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Monaco; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen and father unknown

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)

head of government: Minister of State Pierre DARTOUT (since 1 September 2020)

cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 8 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 5 February 2023 (next to be held in February 2028)

election results: percent of vote by coalition - Monegasque National Union 100%; seats by coalition - Monegasque National Union 24; composition - men 13, women 11, percent of women 45.8%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 permanent members and 2 substitutes)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the monarch upon the proposals of the National Council, State Council, Crown Council, Court of Appeal, and Trial Court

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Civil Court of First Instance

Political parties and leaders

Monegasque National Union [Brigitte BOCCONE-PAGES] (includes Horizon Monaco, Primo!, Union Monegasque)
Horizon Monaco [Laurent NOUVION]
Priorite Monaco or Primo! [Stephane VALERI]
Union Monegasque [Jean-Francois ROBILLON]

International organization participation

CD, CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Maguy MACCARIO DOYLE (since 3 December 2013)

chancery: 888 17th Street NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 234-1530

FAX: [1] (202) 244-7656

email address and website:
info@monacodc.org

https://monacodc.org/index.html

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US Ambassador to France, handles diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco; +(33)(1) 43-12-22-22, enter zero "0" after the automated greeting; US Embassy Paris, 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75008 Paris, France

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors are those of the ruling House of Grimaldi and have been in use since 1339, making the flag one of the world's oldest national banners

note: similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

National symbol(s)

red and white lozenges (diamond shapes); national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "A Marcia de Muneghu" (The March of Monaco)

lyrics/music: Louis NOTARI/Charles ALBRECHT

note: music adopted 1867, lyrics adopted 1931; although French is commonly spoken, only the Monegasque lyrics are official; the French version is known as "Hymne Monegasque" (Monegasque Anthem); the words are generally only sung on official occasions

Economy

Economic overview

high-income European economy; non-EU euro user; considered a tax haven; tourism and banking are largest sectors; negatively impacted by COVID-19; major oceanographic museum; among most expensive real estate; major state-owned enterprises

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$7.672 billion (2015 est.)
$7.279 billion (2014 est.)
$6.79 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 dollars

comparison ranking: 170

Real GDP growth rate

11.1% (2022 est.)
21.87% (2021 est.)
-13.01% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 11

Real GDP per capita

$115,700 (2015 est.)
$109,200 (2014 est.)
$101,900 (2013 est.)

comparison ranking: 3

GDP (official exchange rate)

$8.784 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0% (2013)

industry: 14% (2013)

services: 86% (2013)

comparison rankings: services 16; industry 187; agriculture 221

Industries

banking, insurance, tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

Industrial production growth rate

4.3% (2014 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 86

Labor force

52,000 (2014 est.)

note: includes all foreign workers

comparison ranking: 192

Unemployment rate

2% (2012)

comparison ranking: 22

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 26.6% (2016 est.)

male: 25.7%

female: 27.9%

comparison ranking: total 54

Budget

revenues: $896.3 million (2011 est.)

expenditures: $953.6 million (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1% (of GDP) (2011 est.)

comparison ranking: 81

Taxes and other revenues

14.9% (of GDP) (2011 est.)

comparison ranking: 144

Exports

$964.6 million (2017 est.)
$1.115 billion (2011)

note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

comparison ranking: 183

Exports - partners

Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Spain

(2021)

Exports - commodities

jewelry, perfumes, watches, packaged medicines, cars (2021)

Imports

$1.371 billion (2017 est.)
$1.162 billion (2011 est.)

note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

comparison ranking: 186

Imports - partners

Italy, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Germany, China  (2021)

Imports - commodities

jewelry, cars and vehicle parts, recreational boats, plastic products, artwork (2021)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.95 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.876 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

note: while not an EU member state, Monaco, due to its preexisting monetary and banking agreements with France, has a 1998 monetary agreement with the EU to produce limited euro coinage—but not banknotes—that began enforcement in January 2002 and superseded by a new EU agreement in 2012

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2022 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 45,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 122 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 159

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 39,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 209

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: modern automatic telephone system: the country's sole fixed-line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers; competitive mobile telephony market; 4G LTE widely available (2020)

domestic: fixed-line a little over 117 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is 99 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 377; landing points for the EIG and Italy-Monaco submarine cables connecting Monaco to Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system (2019)

Broadcast media

TV Monte-Carlo operates a TV network; cable TV available; Radio Monte-Carlo has extensive radio networks in France and Italy with French-language broadcasts to France beginning in the 1960s and Italian-language broadcasts to Italy beginning in the 1970s; other radio stations include Riviera Radio and Radio Monaco

Internet users

total: 31,820 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 86% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 208

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 20,877 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 53 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 166

Transportation

Heliports

3 (2024)

Railways

note: Monaco has a single railway station but does not operate its own train service;  the French operator SNCF operates rail services in Monaco

Merchant marine

total: 1

comparison ranking: total 185

Ports

total ports: 1 (2024)

large: 0

medium: 0

small: 0

very small: 1

ports with oil terminals: 0

key ports: Monaco

Military and Security

Military and security forces

no regular military forces; Ministry of Interior: Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Prince’s Company of Carabiniers), Corps des Sapeurs-pompiers de Monaco (Fire and Emergency), Police Department (2024)

note: the primary responsibility for the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince is guarding the palace; the Police maintain public order

Military service age and obligation

the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince is staffed by French nationals (2024)

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of France