Photos of Monaco

A view of Monte Carlo with the Port of Monaco in the foreground. The ship on the right is that of the prince of Monaco.

Introduction

Background

The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling GRIMALDI family first seized control in 1297 but was not able to permanently secure its holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates

43 44 N, 7 24 E

Area

total: 2 sq km

land: 2 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 254

Area - comparative

about three times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 6 km

border countries (1): France 6 km

Coastline

4.1 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 12 nm

Climate

Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain

hilly, rugged, rocky

Elevation

highest point: Chemin des Revoires on Mont Agel 162 m

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

Land use

agricultural land: 1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 99% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

the second most densely populated country in the world (after Macau); its entire population living on 2 square km

Geography - note

second-smallest independent state in the world (after the Holy See); smallest country with a coastline; almost entirely urban

People and Society

Population

31,223 (July 2021 est.)

note: immigrants make up almost 68% of the total population, according to UN data (2019)

country comparison to the world: 216

Nationality

noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)

adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Ethnic groups

Monegasque 32.1%, French 19.9%, Italian 15.3%, British 5%, Belgian 2.3%, Swiss 2%, German 1.9%, Russian 1.8%, American 1.1%, Dutch 1.1%, Moroccan 1%, other 16.6% (2016 est.)

note: data represent population by country of birth

Languages

French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

French audio sample:

Religions

Roman Catholic 90% (official), other 10%

Age structure

0-14 years: 9.41% (male 1,497/female 1,415)

15-24 years: 9.52% (male 1,538/female 1,406)

25-54 years: 30.46% (male 4,779/female 4,644)

55-64 years: 15.47% (male 2,370/female 2,417)

65 years and over: 35.15% (male 4,817/female 6,057) (2020 est.)

This is the population pyramid for Monaco. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. <br/><br/>For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: NA

youth dependency ratio: NA

elderly dependency ratio: NA

potential support ratio: NA

Median age

total: 55.4 years

male: 53.7 years

female: 57 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 1

Birth rate

6.63 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 227

Death rate

10.47 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 27

Net migration rate

9.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 8

Population distribution

the second most densely populated country in the world (after Macau); its entire population living on 2 square km

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

39,000 MONACO (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 1.78 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.09 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 224

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 89.4 years

male: 85.55 years

female: 93.4 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 1

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

7.51 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density

13.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 26.6%

male: 25.7%

female: 27.9% (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Environment

Environment - current issues

no serious issues; actively monitors pollution levels in air and water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protection, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 12.2 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.05 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Land use

agricultural land: 1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 99% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 46,000 tons (2012 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 2,484 tons (2012 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 5.4% (2012 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 5 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Principality of Monaco

conventional short form: Monaco

local long form: Principaute de Monaco

local short form: Monaco

etymology: founded as a Greek colony in the 6th century B.C., the name derives from two Greek words "monos" (single, alone) and "oikos" (house) to convey the sense of a people "living apart" or in a "single habitation"

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Monaco

geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo; note - Moneghetti, a part of La Condamine, is sometimes called the 5th quarter of Monaco

Independence

1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of GRIMALDI)

National holiday

National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)

Constitution

history: previous 1911 (suspended 1959); latest adopted 17 December 1962

amendments: proposed by joint agreement of the chief of state (the prince) and the National Council; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of National Council members; amended 2002

Legal system

civil law system influenced by French legal tradition

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Monaco; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen and father unknown

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)

head of government: Minister of State Pierre DARTOUT (since 1 September 2020)

cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 8 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 February 2018 (next to be held in February 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party - Priorite Monaco 57.7%, Horizon Monaco 26.1%, Union Monegasque 16.2%; seats by party - Priorite Monaco 21, Horizon Monaco 2, Union Monegasque 1; composition - men 16, women 8, percent of women 33.3%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 5 permanent members and 2 substitutes)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the monarch upon the proposals of the National Council, State Council, Crown Council, Court of Appeal, and Trial Court

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Civil Court of First Instance

Political parties and leaders

Horizon Monaco [Laurent NOUVION]
Priorite Monaco [Stephane VALERI]
Renaissance [SBM (public corporation)]
Union Monegasque [Jean-Francois ROBILLON]

International organization participation

CD, CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Maguy MACCARIO-DOYLE (since 3 December 2013)

chancery: 888 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20006

telephone: [1] (202) 234-1530

FAX: [1] (202) 244-7656

email address and website:
info@monacodc.org

https://monacodc.org/index.html

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US Ambassador to France, handles diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco; +(33)(1) 43-12-22-22, enter zero "0" after the automated greeting; US Embassy Paris, 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75008 Paris, France

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors are those of the ruling House of Grimaldi and have been in use since 1339, making the flag one of the world's oldest national banners

note: similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

National symbol(s)

red and white lozenges (diamond shapes); national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "A Marcia de Muneghu" (The March of Monaco)

lyrics/music: Louis NOTARI/Charles ALBRECHT

note: music adopted 1867, lyrics adopted 1931; although French is commonly spoken, only the Monegasque lyrics are official; the French version is known as "Hymne Monegasque" (Monegasque Anthem); the words are generally only sung on official occasions

Economy

Economic overview

Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The principality also is a banking center and has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.

The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. Monaco, however, is not a tax-free shelter; it charges nearly 20% value-added tax, collects stamp duties, and companies face a 33% tax on profits unless they can show that three-quarters of profits are generated within the principality. Monaco was formally removed from the OECD's "grey list" of uncooperative tax jurisdictions in late 2009, but continues to face international pressure to abandon its banking secrecy laws and help combat tax evasion. In October 2014, Monaco officially became the 84th jurisdiction participating in the OECD’s Multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters, an effort to combat offshore tax avoidance and evasion.

Monaco's reliance on tourism and banking for its economic growth has left it vulnerable to downturns in France and other European economies which are the principality's main trade partners. In 2009, Monaco's GDP fell by 11.5% as the euro-zone crisis precipitated a sharp drop in tourism and retail activity and home sales. A modest recovery ensued in 2010 and intensified in 2013, with GDP growth of more than 9%, but Monaco's economic prospects remain uncertain.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$7.672 billion (2015 est.)

$7.279 billion (2014 est.)

$6.79 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 168

Real GDP growth rate

5.4% (2015 est.)

7.2% (2014 est.)

9.6% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Real GDP per capita

$115,700 (2015 est.)

$109,200 (2014 est.)

$101,900 (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 2

GDP (official exchange rate)

$6.006 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0% (2013)

industry: 14% (2013)

services: 86% (2013)

Industries

banking, insurance, tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

Labor force

52,000 (2014 est.)

note: includes all foreign workers

country comparison to the world: 189

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 0%

industry: 16.1%

services: 83.9% (2012 est.)

Budget

revenues: 896.3 million (2011 est.)

expenditures: 953.6 million (2011 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Exports

$964.6 million (2017 est.)

$1.115 billion (2011)

note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

country comparison to the world: 179

Exports - partners

Italy 19%, Germany 14%, United Kingdom 9%, Switzerland 9%, Spain 8%, United States 6%, Belgium 5%

(2019)

Exports - commodities

jewelry, perfumes, watches, packaged medicines, plastic products (2019)

Imports

$1.371 billion (2017 est.)

$1.162 billion (2011 est.)

note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

country comparison to the world: 181

Imports - partners

Italy 34%, Switzerland 16%, Germany 9%, United Kingdom 7% (2019)

Imports - commodities

jewelry, recreational boats, cars and vehicle parts, watches, general wares (2019)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.885 (2017 est.)

0.903 (2016 est.)

0.9214 (2015 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 44,119

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 142.65 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 159

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 33,783

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109.23 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 209

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed-line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers; competitive mobile telephony market; 4G LTE widely available (2020)

domestic: fixed-line 113 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 87 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 377; landing points for the EIG and Italy-Monaco submarine cables connecting Monaco to Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

TV Monte-Carlo operates a TV network; cable TV available; Radio Monte-Carlo has extensive radio networks in France and Italy with French-language broadcasts to France beginning in the 1960s and Italian-language broadcasts to Italy beginning in the 1970s; other radio stations include Riviera Radio and Radio Monaco

Internet users

total: 29,821

percent of population: 97.05% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 204

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 20,476

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 66.2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 155

Transportation

Heliports

1 (2012)

Railways

note: Monaco has a single railway station but does not operate its own train service;  the French operator SNCF operates rail services in Monaco

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Hercules Port

Military and Security

Military and security forces

no regular military forces; Ministry of Interior: Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Prince’s Company of Carabiniers (Palace Guard)), Corps des Sapeurs-pompiers de Monaco (Fire and Emergency), Police Department (2021)

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues