Nepal

Country Summary

2022 population pyramid

Introduction

Background

During the late 18th and 19th centuries, the principality of Gorkha united many other principalities and states of the sub-Himalayan region into a Nepali Kingdom. Nepal retained its independence following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16 and the subsequent peace treaty laid the foundations for two centuries of amicable relations between Britain and Nepal. In 1990 a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy was established.

Geography

Area

total: 147,181 sq km

land: 143,351 sq km

water: 3,830 sq km

Climate

varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south

Natural resources

quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

People and Society

Population

30,666,598 (2022 est.)

Ethnic groups

Chhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19% (2011 est.)

Languages

Nepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Bajjika 3%, Magar 3%, Doteli 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, Baitadeli 1%, other 6.4%, unspecified 0.2%; note - 123 languages reported as mother tongue in 2011 national census; many in government and business also speak English (2011 est.)

Religions

Hindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%, Kirant 3.1%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

0.78% (2022 est.)

Government

Government type

federal parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Kathmandu

Executive branch

chief of state: President Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (since 29 October 2015); Vice President Nanda Bahadar PUN (since 31 October 2015)

head of government: Prime Minister Sher Bahadur DEUBA (since 13 July 2021); deputy prime ministers Ishwar POKHREL, Upendra YADAV (since 1 June 2018) (an)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of:
National Assembly (59 seats; 56 members, including at least 3 women, 1 Dalit, 1 member with disabilities, or 1 minority indirectly elected by an electoral college of state and municipal government leaders, and 3 members, including 1 woman, nominated by the president of Nepal on the recommendation of the government; members serve 6-year terms with renewal of one-third of the membership every 2 years)
House of Representatives (275 seats; 165 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed-list proportional representation vote, with a threshold of 3% overall valid vote to be allocated a seat; members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Representatives was dissolved on 22 May 2021, but on 13 July, the Supreme Court directed its reinstatement

Economy

Economic overview

low-income South Asian economy; post-conflict fiscal federalism increasing stability; COVID-19 hurt trade and tourism; widening current account deficits; environmentally fragile economy from earthquakes; growing Chinese relations and investments

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$110.72 billion (2020 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$3,800 (2020 est.)

Agricultural products

rice, vegetables, sugar cane, potatoes, maize, wheat, buffalo milk, milk, fruit, mangoes/guavas

Industries

tourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production

Exports

$1.79 billion (2020 est.)

Exports - partners

India 68%, United States 10% (2019)

Exports - commodities

palm oil, clothing and apparel, carpets, soybean oil, flavored water (2019)

Imports

$10.68 billion (2020 est.)

Imports - partners

India 70%, China 15% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, iron, broadcasting equipment, natural gas, rice (2019)


Page last updated: Friday, May 13, 2022