Photos of Norway



Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994; conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden

Geographic coordinates

62 00 N, 10 00 E


total: 323,802 sq km

land: 304,282 sq km

water: 19,520 sq km

country comparison to the world: 69

Area - comparative

slightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries

total: 2,566 km

border countries (3): Finland 709 km, Sweden 1666 km, Russia 191 km


25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 10 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm


temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast


glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north


mean elevation: 460 m

lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m

highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 2.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.2% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0.5% (2018 est.)

forest: 27.8% (2018 est.)

other: 69.5% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

900 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

most Norweigans live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated

Natural hazards

rockslides, avalanches

volcanism: Beerenberg (2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano

Geography - note

about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world

People and Society


noun: Norwegian(s)

adjective: Norwegian

Ethnic groups

Norwegian 83.2% (includes about 60,000 Sami), other European 8.3%, other 8.5% (2017 est.)


Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

note: Sami has three dialects: Lule, North Sami, and South Sami; Sami is an official language in nine municipalities in Norway's three northernmost counties: Finnmark, Nordland, and Troms


Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 70.6%, Muslim 3.2%, Roman Catholic 3%, other Christian 3.7%, other 2.5%, unspecified 17% (2016 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 17.96% (male 503,013/female 478,901)

15-24 years: 12.02% (male 336,597/female 320,720)

25-54 years: 40.75% (male 1,150,762/female 1,077,357)

55-64 years: 11.84% (male 328,865/female 318,398)

65 years and over: 17.43% (male 442,232/female 510,594) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.3

youth dependency ratio: 26.5

elderly dependency ratio: 26.9

potential support ratio: 3.7 (2020 est.)

note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

Median age

total: 39.5 years

male: 38.8 years

female: 40.2 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57

Birth rate

12.09 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 158

Death rate

8.01 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 86

Net migration rate

3.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 29

Population distribution

most Norweigans live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the North Sea coast in the southwest, and Skaggerak in the southeast; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated


urban population: 83% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

note: data include Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands

Major urban areas - population

1.056 million OSLO (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.3 years (2017 est.)

note: data is calculated based on actual age at first births

Maternal mortality rate

2 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 183

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.34 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 2.68 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 220

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.35 years

male: 80.21 years

female: 84.6 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 22

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

2.92 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

3.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<100 (2018 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 18 years

male: 18 years

female: 19 years (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 9.7%

male: 10.7%

female: 8.6% (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 127


Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway

conventional short form: Norway

local long form: Kongeriket Norge

local short form: Norge

etymology: derives from the Old Norse words "nordr" and "vegr" meaning "northern way" and refers to the long coastline of western Norway

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy


name: Oslo

geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the medieval name was spelt "Aslo"; the "as" component refered either to the Ekeberg ridge southeast of the town ("as" in modern Norwegian), or to the Aesir (Norse gods); "lo" refered to "meadow," so the most likely interpretations would have been either "the meadow beneath the ridge" or "the meadow of the gods"; both explanations are considered equally plausible

Administrative divisions

18 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Telemark, Troms, Trondelag, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Dependent areas

Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard


7 June 1905 (declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union); notable earlier dates: ca. 872 (traditional unification of petty Norwegian kingdoms by HARALD Fairhair); 1397 (Kalmar Union of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden); 1524 (Denmark-Norway); 17 May 1814 (Norwegian constitution adopted); 4 November 1814 (Sweden-Norway union confirmed)

National holiday

Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)


history: drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814

amendments: proposals submitted by members of Parliament or by the government within the first three years of Parliament's four-year term; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of a two-thirds quorum in the next elected Parliament; amended over 400 times, last in 2020

Legal system

mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law; Supreme Court can advise on legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (son of the monarch, born 20 July 1973)

head of government: Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)

cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 September 2017 (next to be held on 13 September 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party - Ap 27.4%, H 25%, FrP 15.2%, SP 10.3%, SV 6%, V 4.4%, KrF 4.2%, MDG 3.2%, R 2.4%, other/invalid 1.9%; seats by party - Ap 49, H 45, FrP 27, SP 19, SV 11, V 8, KrF 8, MDG 1, R 1; composition - men 99, women 70, percent of women 41.4%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices)

judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmennsrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts; note - in addition to professionally trained judges, elected lay judges sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts

Political parties and leaders

Center Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM]
Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Kjell Ingolf ROPSTADT]
Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG]
Green Party or MDG [Rasmus HANSSON and Une Aina BASTHOLM]
Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STORE]
Liberal Party or V [Trine SKEI GRANDE]
Progress Party or FrP [Siv JENSEN]
Red Party or R [Bionar MOXNES]
Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Anniken Ramberg KRUTNES (since 17 September 2020)

chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000

FAX: [1] (202) 469-3990

consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Richard RILEY (since 17 September 2018)

telephone: [47] 21-30-85-40

embassy: Morgedalsvegen 36, 0378 Oslo

mailing address: PO Box 4075 AMB 0244 Oslo

FAX: [47] 22-44-33-63, 22-56-27-51

Flag description

red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Ja, vi elsker dette landet" (Yes, We Love This Country)

lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK

note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, "Kongesangen" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of "God Save the Queen," serves as the royal anthem


Economic overview

Norway has a stable economy with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. Norway opted out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994. However, as a member of the European Economic Area, Norway partially participates in the EU’s single market and contributes sizably to the EU budget.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources such as oil and gas, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway is a leading producer and the world’s second largest exporter of seafood, after China. The government manages the country’s petroleum resources through extensive regulation. The petroleum sector provides about 9% of jobs, 12% of GDP, 13% of the state’s revenue, and 37% of exports, according to official national estimates. Norway is one of the world's leading petroleum exporters, although oil production is close to 50% below its peak in 2000. Gas production, conversely, has more than doubled since 2000. Although oil production is historically low, it rose in 2016 for the third consecutive year due to the higher production of existing oil fields and to new fields coming on stream. Norway’s domestic electricity production relies almost entirely on hydropower.

In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from petroleum sector activities in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at over $1 trillion at the end of 2017. To help balance the federal budget each year, the government follows a "fiscal rule," which states that spending of revenues from petroleum and fund investments shall correspond to the expected real rate of return on the fund, an amount it estimates is sustainable over time. In February 2017, the government revised the expected rate of return for the fund downward from 4% to 3%.

After solid GDP growth in the 2004-07 period, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to modest, positive growth from 2010 to 2017. The Norwegian economy has been adjusting to lower energy prices, as demonstrated by growth in labor force participation and employment in 2017. GDP growth was about 1.5% in 2017, driven largely by domestic demand, which has been boosted by the rebound in the labor market and supportive fiscal policies. Economic growth is expected to remain constant or improve slightly in the next few years.

Real GDP growth rate

0.86% (2019 est.)

1.36% (2018 est.)

2.75% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 176

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.1% (2019 est.)

2.7% (2018 est.)

1.8% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AAA (1995)

Moody's rating: Aaa (1997)

Standard & Poors rating: AAA (1975)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$340.303 billion (2019 est.)

$336.418 billion (2018 est.)

$332.135 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 52

GDP (official exchange rate)

$405.695 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$63,633 (2019 est.)

$63,333 (2018 est.)

$62,941 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 14

Gross national saving

33.3% of GDP (2019 est.)

35.9% of GDP (2018 est.)

34.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 26

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.3% (2017 est.)

industry: 33.7% (2017 est.)

services: 64% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 44.8% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 24% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 24.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 4.8% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 35.5% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -33.2% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores

Overall score: 82.6 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 94.3 (2020)

Trading score: 97 (2020)

Enforcement score: 81.3 (2020)

Agricultural products

milk, barley, wheat, potatoes, oats, pork, poultry, beef, eggs, rye


petroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2.1%

industry: 19.3%

services: 78.6% (2016 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.8%

highest 10%: 21.2% (2014)


revenues: 217.1 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 199.5 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

36.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

36.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

country comparison to the world: 146

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

$16.656 billion (2019 est.)

$31.111 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 18


$185.101 billion (2019 est.)

$184.094 billion (2018 est.)

$185.952 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Exports - partners

United Kingdom 18%, Germany 14%, Netherlands 10%, Sweden 9%, France 6%, United States 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, fish, refined petroleum, aluminum (2019)


$158.037 billion (2019 est.)

$150.972 billion (2018 est.)

$148.802 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 38

Imports - partners

Sweden 17%, Germany 12%, China 8%, Denmark 7%, United States 6%, United Kingdom 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, natural gas, crude petroleum (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$65.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$57.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Debt - external

$651.04 billion (2019 est.)

$648.878 billion (2018 est.)

note: Norway is a net external creditor

country comparison to the world: 21

Exchange rates

Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar -

8.81535 (2020 est.)

9.14245 (2019 est.)

8.4837 (2018 est.)

8.0646 (2014 est.)

6.3021 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 571,958

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10.55 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 90

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 5,810,113

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107.17 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe; high mobile and broadband penetration rates and highly developed digital media sector; forward leaning in LTE-A developments; migrate all DSL subscribers to fiber by 2023; looking to close 2G and 3G networks by 2025; regulator competes 700 MHz auction and assigns spectrum for 5G, partners with Chinese company Huawei (2020)

domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems; fixed-line 11 per 100 and mobile-cellular 107 per 100 (2019)

international: country code - 47; landing points for the Svalbard Undersea Cable System, Polar Circle Cable, Bodo-Rost Cable, NOR5KE Viking, Celtic Norse, Tempnet Offshore FOC Network, England Cable, Denmark-Norwary6, Havfrue/AEC-2, Skagerrak 4, and the Skagenfiber West & East submarine cables providing links to other Nordic countries, Europe and the US; satellite earth stations - Eutelsat, Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

state-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned TV stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broadcasting; nearly 75% of households have access to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; 2 privately owned radio stations broadcast nationwide and another 240 stations operate locally; Norway is the first country in the world to phase out FM radio in favor of Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), a process scheduled for completion in late 2017 (2019)

Internet users

total: 5,183,627

percent of population: 96.49% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 82

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 2,206,519

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 8 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 125

Airports - with paved runways

total: 67 (2017)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 14 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 22 (2017)

under 914 m: 21 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 28 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)

under 914 m: 22 (2013)


1 (2013)


8520 km gas, 1304 km oil/condensate (2017)


total: 4,200 km (2019)

standard gauge: 4,200 km 1.435-m gauge (2,480 km electrified) (2019)

country comparison to the world: 45


total: 94,902 km (includes 455 km of expressways) (2018)

country comparison to the world: 52

Merchant marine

total: 1,619

by type: bulk carrier 102, general cargo 242, oil tanker 92, other 1,183 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 18

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture

LNG terminal(s) (export): Kamoy, Kollsnes, Melkoya Island

LNG terminal(s) (import): Fredrikstad, Mosjoen

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Norwegian Armed Forces:  Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret), Norwegian Special Forces, Norwegian Cyber Defense, Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2021)

Military expenditures

2.03% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.86% of GDP (2019)

1.74% of GDP (2018)

1.72% of GDP (2017)

1.74% of GDP (2016)

country comparison to the world: 57

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Norwegian Armed Forces have approximately 23,000 active personnel (8,500 Army; 3,500 Navy; 3,500 Air Force; 7,500 other, including special operations, cyber, joint staff, intelligence, logistics support, active Home Guard, etc.); 40,000 Home Guard (2021)

note: the Home Guard has approximately 40,000 total personnel

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Norwegian Armed Forces inventory includes mostly imported European and US weapons systems, as well as a limited mix of domestically-produced equipment, particularly small naval craft; since 2010, the US is the leading supplier of weapons systems to Norway, followed by a variety of other countries, including France, Italy, South Korea, and Spain (2020)

Military deployments

100 Afghanistan (NATO); 120 Lithuania (NATO) (2021)

Military service age and obligation

19-35 years of age for male and female selective compulsory military service; 17 years of age for male volunteers (16 in wartime); 18 years of age for women; 19-month service obligation; conscripts first serve 12 months from 19-28, and then up to 4-5 refresher training periods until age 35, 44, 55, or 60 depending on rank and function (2019)

note - Norway was the first NATO country to allow females to serve in all combat arms branches of the military (1988); it also has an all-female commando unit known as Jegertroppen (The Hunter Troop), which was established in 2014

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 14,359 (Syria), 14,038 (Eritrea), 6,518 (Somalia), 5,108 (Afghanistan) (2019)

stateless persons: 2,272 (2019)