Photos of San Marino

With an area of just 61 sq km (23.5 sq mi), San Marino is the third-smallest country in Europe, behind Monaco and the Holy See. Located in the northern part of the Italian Peninsula, near the Adriatic Sea, this tiny nation is surrounded by Italy.This satellite picture of San Marino shows a combination of vegetation (bright green); and buildings, pavement, and bare rock (blue-gray to white). Purplish-gray polygons are probably fallow agricultural land. Overhead, fluffy white clouds cast their charcoal-colored shadows over the land surface. The Apennine Mountains give the region a rough terrain, and the limestone Monte Titano dominates the area, with a fort perched on each of the mountain's three summits. According to legend, San Marino is the world's oldest surviving republic, dating back to 301. The original city sits atop Monte Titano. Today, however, development has spread throughout the republic, evidenced by the many areas of blue-gray and the meandering roads. Tourism has brought prosperity to this small republic, but historically, its rugged terrain and lack of wealth may have helped it escape the unwanted attention of potential invaders. Image courtesy of NASA.

Introduction

Background

Geographically the third-smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named MARINUS in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the EU, although it is not a member.  San Marino is negotiating an Association Agreement that is expected to allow participation in the EU’s internal market and cooperation in other policy areas by late 2024. Social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates

43 46 N, 12 25 E

Area

total: 61 sq km

land: 61 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 227

Area - comparative

about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 37 km

border countries (1): Italy 37 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain

rugged mountains

Elevation

highest point: Monte Titano 739 m

lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m

Natural resources

building stone

Land use

agricultural land: 16.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 83.3% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2022)

Natural hazards

occasional earthquakes

Geography - note

landlocked; an enclave of (completely surrounded by) Italy; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennine Mountains

People and Society

Population

total: 35,095

male: 16,944

female: 18,151 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 214; male 214; total 214

Nationality

noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)

adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups

Sammarinese, Italian

Languages

Italian

major-language sample(s):
L'Almanacco dei fatti del mondo, l'indispensabile fonte per le informazioni di base. (Italian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Italian audio sample:

Religions

Roman Catholic

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.2% (male 2,614/female 2,387)

15-64 years: 64.3% (male 10,916/female 11,648)

65 years and over: 21.5% (2024 est.) (male 3,414/female 4,116)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49.6

youth dependency ratio: 19.6

elderly dependency ratio: 30

potential support ratio: 3.3 (2021)

Median age

total: 46.1 years (2024 est.)

male: 44.5 years

female: 47.4 years

comparison ranking: total 14

Population growth rate

0.57% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 144

Birth rate

9 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 199

Death rate

8.9 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 63

Net migration rate

5.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 18

Urbanization

urban population: 97.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.41% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

4,000 SAN MARINO (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 168

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 84.2 years (2024 est.)

male: 81.7 years

female: 87 years

comparison ranking: total population 6

Total fertility rate

1.54 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 195

Gross reproduction rate

0.74 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020)

Current health expenditure

8.7% of GDP (2020)

Physician density

6.11 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density

3.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020)

Education expenditures

3.4% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 143

Literacy

total population: 99.9%

male: 99.9%

female: 99.9% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 12 years

male: 13 years

female: 12 years (2021)

Environment

Environment - current issues

air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands; water shortage

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Climate

Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Land use

agricultural land: 16.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 83.3% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 97.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.41% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 170

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 9.85 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

methane emissions: 0.02 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 17,175 tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 7,737 tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 45.1% (2016 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of San Marino

conventional short form: San Marino

local long form: Repubblica di San Marino

local short form: San Marino

etymology: named after Saint MARINUS, who in A.D. 301 founded the monastic settlement around which the city and later the state of San Marino coalesced

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: San Marino (city)

geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: named after Saint MARINUS, who in A.D. 301 founded a monastic settlement around which the city and later the state of San Marino coalesced

Administrative divisions

9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle

Independence

3 September 301 (traditional founding date)

National holiday

Founding of the Republic (or Feast of Saint Marinus), 3 September (A.D. 301)

Constitution

history: San Marino’s principal legislative instruments consist of old customs (antiche consuetudini), the Statutory Laws of San Marino (Leges Statutae Sancti Marini), old statutes (antichi statute) from the1600s, Brief Notes on the Constitutional Order and Institutional Organs of the Republic of San Marino (Brevi Cenni sull’Ordinamento Costituzionale e gli Organi Istituzionali della Repubblica di San Marino) and successive legislation, chief among them is the Declaration of the Rights of Citizens and Fundamental Principles of the San Marino Legal Order (Dichiarazione dei Diritti dei Cittadini e dei Principi Fondamentali dell’Ordinamento Sammarinese), approved 8 July 1974

amendments: proposed by the Great and General Council; passage requires two-thirds majority Council vote; Council passage by absolute majority vote also requires passage in a referendum; Declaration of Civil Rights amended several times, last in 2019

Legal system

civil law system with Italian civil law influences

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of San Marino

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 30 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captains Regent Alessandro ROSSI and Milena GASPERONI (for the period 1 April 2024 - 30 September 2024)

head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Luca BECCARI (since 8 January 2020)

cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Grand and General Council

elections/appointments: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 6-month term; election last held in March 2024 (next to be held in September 2024; Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 5-year term; election last held on 28 December 2019 (next to be held by November 2024)

election results: March 2024:  Alessandro ROSSI (Demos) and Milena GASPERONI (We for the Republic) elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA

September 2023:
Filippo TAMAGNINI and Gaetano TROINA elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA

2019: Luca BECCARI (PDCS) elected Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA

note: the captains regent preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has seven other members who are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are seven secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has some prime ministerial roles

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by list proportional representation vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 9 June 2024 (next to be held by 30 June 2029)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - (PDCS 34.1% & AR 6.9% coalition), (PS 15.8% & PSD 12.2% coalition), RF 12%, DML 8.5%, RETE 5.1% seats by party/coalition - (PDCS 22 & AR 4 coalition), (PS 10 & PSD 8 coalition), RF 8, DML 5, RETE 3, composition - men 42, women 18, percentage women 30%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII (consists of 12 members); note - the College of Guarantors for the Constitutionality and General Norms functions as San Marino's constitutional court

judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Grand and General Council from among its own to serve 5-year terms

subordinate courts: first instance and first appeal criminal, administrative, and civil courts; Court for the Trust and Trustee Relations; justices of the peace or conciliatory judges

Political parties and leaders

Domani - Modus Liberi or DML [Lorenzo Forcellini REFFI]
Free San Marino (Libera San Marino) or Libera [Dalibar RICCARDI]
Future Republic or RF [Nicholas RENZI]
Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Luca LAZZARI]
Reformist Alliance or AR [Andreina BARTOLINI]
RETE Movement [Gian Matteo ZEPPA]
Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Gian Carlo VENTURINI]
Socialist Party or PS [Alessandro MANCINI]
Tomorrow in Movement coalition (includes RETE Movement, DML)

International organization participation

CE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Damiano BELEFFI (since 21 July 2017); note - also Permanent Representative to the UN

chancery: 327 E 50th Street, New York, NY 10022

telephone: [1] (212) 751-1234

FAX: [1] (212) 751-1436

email address and website:
sanmarinoun@gmail.com

Republic of San Marino Permanent Mission to the United Nations

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jack Markell (since September 2023); note - also accredited to Italy

embassy: the United States does not have an Embassy in San Marino; the US Ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino, and the US Consulate General in Florence maintains day-to-day ties

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature, Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively

National symbol(s)

three peaks each displaying a tower; national colors: white, blue

National anthem

name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)

lyrics/music: no lyrics/Federico CONSOLO

note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: San Marino Historic Center and Mount Titano

Economy

Economic overview

high-income, non-EU European economy; surrounded by Italy, which is the dominant importer and exporter; open border to EU and a euro user; strong financial sector; high foreign investments; low taxation; increasingly high and risky debt

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2.079 billion (2021 est.)
$1.917 billion (2020 est.)
$2.053 billion (2019 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 197

Real GDP growth rate

8.46% (2021 est.)
-6.65% (2020 est.)
2.07% (2019 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 30

Real GDP per capita

$61,600 (2021 est.)
$56,400 (2020 est.)
$60,100 (2019 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 16

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.855 billion (2021 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.05% (2017 est.)
0.57% (2016 est.)
0.15% (2015 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 18

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB+ (2020)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.1% (2009)

industry: 39.2% (2009)

services: 60.7% (2009)

comparison rankings: services 120; industry 35; agriculture 220

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: (2011 est.) NA

government consumption: (2011 est.) NA

investment in fixed capital: (2011 est.) NA

investment in inventories: (2011 est.) NA

exports of goods and services: 176.6% (2011)

imports of goods and services: -153.3% (2011)

Agricultural products

wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides

Industries

tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Industrial production growth rate

11.57% (2021 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 16

Labor force

21,960 (September 2013 est.)

comparison ranking: 208

Unemployment rate

8.1% (2017 est.)
8.6% (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 147

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 27.4% (2016 est.)

male: 21.4%

female: 36%

comparison ranking: total 48

Remittances

1.13% of GDP (2021 est.)
1.15% of GDP (2020 est.)
1.08% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $371 million (2019 est.)

expenditures: $363 million (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.9% (of GDP) (2011 est.)

comparison ranking: 129

Public debt

95.12% of GDP (2021 est.)
98.35% of GDP (2020 est.)
55.09% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 23

Taxes and other revenues

17.3% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 109

Current account balance

$0 (2017 est.)
$0 (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 67

Exports

$3.42 billion (2021 est.)
$2.535 billion (2020 est.)
$2.651 billion (2019 est.)

note: GDP expenditure basis - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 151

Exports - partners

US 10%, Germany 9%, France 9%, Austria 9%, Romania 7% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

washing and bottling machines, woodworking machines, furniture, other foods, packaged medicine (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars

Imports

$2.934 billion (2021 est.)
$2.164 billion (2020 est.)
$2.315 billion (2019 est.)

note: GDP expenditure basis - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 163

Imports - partners

Italy 22%, Germany 20%, Poland 7%, Spain 7%, Netherlands 7% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

electricity, garments, cars, aluminum, footwear (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$716.066 million (2022 est.)
$954.383 million (2021 est.)
$781.674 million (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 164

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.951 (2022 est.)
0.845 (2021 est.)
0.877 (2020 est.)
0.893 (2019 est.)
0.847 (2018 est.)

note: while not an EU member state, San Marino, due to its preexisting monetary and banking agreements with Italy, has a 2000 monetary agreement with the EU to produce limited euro coinage—but not banknotes—that began enforcement in January 2002 and was superseded by a new EU agreement in 2012

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2022 est.)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 16,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 48 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 179

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 41,000 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 122 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 208

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system (2018)

domestic: fixed-line is 47 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is 119 telephones per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network

Broadcast media

state-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 3 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2019)

Internet users

total: 25,500 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 75% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 210

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 11,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 179

Transportation

Airports

1 (2024)

comparison ranking: 214

Heliports

1 (2024)

Roadways

total: 292 km

paved: 292 km (2006)

comparison ranking: total 205

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Military Corps (National Guard): Guard of the Rock (or Fortress Guard), Uniformed Militia, Guard of the Great and General Council, Corps of the Gendarmerie

Ministry of Internal Affairs: Civil Police Corps (2024)

note: the captains regent oversees the Gendarmerie and National Guard when they are performing duties related to public order and security; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs exercises control over such administrative functions as personnel and equipment, and the courts exercise control over the Gendarmerie when it acts as judicial police

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; government has the authority to call up all San Marino citizens from 16-60 years of age to serve in the military (2024)

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of Italy