Photos of San Marino

Introduction

Background

Geographically the third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named MARINUS in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the EU, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates

43 46 N, 12 25 E

Area

total: 61 sq km

land: 61 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 228

Area - comparative

about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 37 km

border countries (1): Italy 37 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain

rugged mountains

Elevation

lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m

highest point: Monte Titano 739 m

Natural resources

building stone

Land use

agricultural land: 16.7% (2011 est.)

arable land: 16.7% (2011 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.)

forest: 0% (2011 est.)

other: 83.3% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

occasional earthquakes

Environment - current issues

air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands; water shortage

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography - note

landlocked; an enclave of (completely surrounded by) Italy; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennine Mountains

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)

adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups

Sammarinese, Italian

Languages

Italian

Religions

Roman Catholic

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.73% (male 2,662/female 2,379)

15-24 years: 11.64% (male 2,091/female 1,894)

25-54 years: 39.12% (male 6,310/female 7,081)

55-64 years: 14.28% (male 2,367/female 2,520)

65 years and over: 20.24% (male 3,123/female 3,805) (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 45.2 years

male: 43.9 years

female: 46.3 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 10

Birth rate

8.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 208

Death rate

9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 64

Net migration rate

6.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 17

Urbanization

urban population: 97.5% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 0.67% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

4,000 SAN MARINO (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.12 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 186

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 83.5 years

male: 80.9 years

female: 86.3 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 5

Drinking water source

improved: total: 100% of population

unimproved: total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

6.11 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density

3.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Sanitation facility access

improved: total: 100% of population

unimproved: total: 0% of population (2017)

Literacy

total population: 99.9%

male: 99.9%

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 27.4%

male: 21.4%

female: 36% (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of San Marino

conventional short form: San Marino

local long form: Repubblica di San Marino

local short form: San Marino

etymology: named after Saint MARINUS, who in A.D. 301 founded the monastic settlement around which the city and later the state of San Marino coalesced

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: San Marino (city)

geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: named after Saint MARINUS, who in A.D. 301 founded a monastic settlement around which the city and later the state of San Marino coalesced

Administrative divisions

9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle

Independence

3 September 301 (traditional founding date)

National holiday

Founding of the Republic (or Feast of Saint Marinus), 3 September (A.D. 301)

Constitution

history:

San Marino’s principal legislative instruments consist of old customs (antiche consuetudini), the Statutory Laws of San Marino (Leges Statutae Sancti Marini), old statutes (antichi statute) from the1600s, Brief Notes on the Constitutional Order and Institutional Organs of the Republic of San Marino (Brevi Cenni sull’Ordinamento Costituzionale e gli Organi Istituzionali della Repubblica di San Marino) and successive legislation, chief among them is the Declaration of the Rights of Citizens and Fundamental Principles of the San Marino Legal Order (Dichiarazione dei Diritti dei Cittadini e dei Principi Fondamentali dell’Ordinamento Sammarinese), approved 8 July 1974; Declaration last amended 2019



amendments: proposed by the Great and General Council; passage requires two-thirds majority Council vote; Council passage by absolute majority vote also requires passage in a referendum; Declaration of Civil Rights amended several times, last in 2019

Legal system

civil law system with Italian civil law influences

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of San Marino

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 30 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captain Regent Alessandro CARDELLI and Captain Regent Mirko DOLCINI (for the period 1 October 2020 - 31 March 2021)

head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Luca BECCARI (since 8 January 2020)

cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Grand and General Council

elections/appointments: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 6-month term; election last held in March 2020 (next to be held in September 2020); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 5-year term; election last held on 28 December 2019 (next to be held by November 2024)

election results: Alessandro MANCINI (PSD) and Grazia ZAFFERANI (RETE Movement) elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA; Luca BECCARI (PDCS) elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA

note: the captains regent preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 7 other members who are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 7 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has some prime ministerial roles

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 8 December 2019 (next to be held by December 2024)

election results: percent of vote by coalition/party - PDCS 33.3%, Tomorrow in Movement coalition 24.7% (RETE Movement 18.2%, Domani Motus Liberi 6.2%, other 0.3%), Free San Marino 16.5%, We for the Republic 13.1%, Future Republic 10.3%, I Elect for a New Republic 2%; seats by coalition/party - PDCS 21, Tomorrow in Movement coalition 15 (RETE Movement 11, Domani Motus Liberi 4), Free San Marino 10, We for the Republic 8, Future Republic 6; composition - men 42, women 18, percent of women 30%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII (consists of 12 members); note - the College of Guarantors for the Constitutionality and General Norms functions as San Marino's constitutional court

judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Grand and General Council from among its own to serve 5-year terms

subordinate courts: first instance and first appeal criminal, administrative, and civil courts; Court for the Trust and Trustee Relations; justices of the peace or conciliatory judges

Political parties and leaders

DOMANI - Modus Liberi or DML
Free San Marino (Libera)
Future Republic or RF [Mario VENTURINI]
I Elect for a New Republic
Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Paride ANDREOLI]
RETE Movement
Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party (PDCS) [Marco GATTI]
Socialist Party or PS [Alessandro BEVITORI]
Tomorrow in Movement coalition (includes RETE Movement, DML)
We for the Republic

International organization participation

CE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Damiano BELEFFI (since 21 July 2017)

chancery: 327 E 50th Street, New York, NY 10022

Embassy address:

     1711 North Street, NW (2nd Floor)
      Washington, DC 22036







telephone: [1] (212) 751-1234


[1] (202) 223-24l8
[1] (202) 751-1436

FAX: [1] (212) 751-1436

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: the United States does not have an Embassy in San Marino; the US Ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino, and the US Consulate general in Florence maintains day-to-day ties

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature, Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively

National symbol(s)

three peaks each displaying a tower; national colors: white, blue

National anthem

name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)

lyrics/music: no lyrics/Federico CONSOLO

note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece

Economy

Economic overview

San Marino's economy relies heavily on tourism, banking, and the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The manufacturing and financial sectors account for more than half of San Marino's GDP. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy.

San Marino's economy contracted considerably in the years since 2008, largely due to weakened demand from Italy - which accounts for nearly 90% of its export market - and financial sector consolidation. Difficulties in the banking sector, the global economic downturn, and the sizable decline in tax revenues all contributed to negative real GDP growth. The government adopted measures to counter the downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses and is seeking to shift its growth model away from a reliance on bank and tax secrecy. San Marino does not issue public debt securities; when necessary, it finances deficits by drawing down central bank deposits.

The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. The income tax rate is also very low, about one-third the average EU level. San Marino continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU and international standards. In September 2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully adopt global tax standards, and in 2010 San Marino signed Tax Information Exchange Agreements with most major countries. In 2013, the San Marino Government signed a Double Taxation Agreement with Italy, but a referendum on EU membership failed to reach the quorum needed to bring it to a vote.

GDP real growth rate

1.9% (2017 est.)

2.2% (2016 est.)

0.6% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 143

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB+ (2020)

GDP (purchasing power parity) - real

$2.064 billion (2017 est.)

$2.026 billion (2016 est.)

$1.983 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.643 billion (2017 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$59,000 (2017 est.)

$59,600 (2016 est.)

$58,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 19

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.1% (2009)

industry: 39.2% (2009)

services: 60.7% (2009)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: NA (2011 est.)

government consumption: NA (2011 est.)

investment in fixed capital: NA (2011 est.)

investment in inventories: NA (2011 est.)

exports of goods and services: 176.6% (2011)

imports of goods and services: -153.3% (2011)

Agriculture - products

wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides

Industries

tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 0.2%

industry: 33.5%

services: 66.3% (September 2013 est.)

Budget

revenues: 667.7 million (2011 est.)

expenditures: 715.3 million (2011 est.)

Public debt

24.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

22.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 180

Fiscal year

calendar year

Exports

$3.827 billion (2011 est.)

$2.576 billion (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 125

Exports - commodities

building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics

Imports

$2.551 billion (2011 est.)

$2.132 billion (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Imports - commodities

wide variety of consumer manufactures, food, energy

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$392 million (2014 est.)

$539.3 million (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 161

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.885 (2017 est.)

0.903 (2016 est.)

0.9214 (2015 est.)

0.885 (2014 est.)

0.7634 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 16,070

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47.25 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 182

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 38,921

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 114.44 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 207

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 47 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 114 telephones per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

state-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 3 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2019)

Internet users

total: 20,328

percent of population: 60.18% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 209

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 12,500

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 166

Transportation

Roadways

total: 292 km (2006)

paved: 292 km (2006)

country comparison to the world: 203

Military and Security

Military and security forces

No regular military forces; Voluntary Military Corps (Corpi Militari), which includes a Uniformed Militia (performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions) and Guard of the Great and General Council (defends the Captains Regent and the Great and General Council, participates in official ceremonies, cooperates with the maintenance of public order on special occasions, and performs guard duties during parliamentary sittings); the Police Corps includes the Gendarmerie, which is responsible for maintaining public order, protecting citizens and their property, and providing assistance during disasters (2019)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; government has the authority to call up all San Marino citizens from 16-60 years of age to service in the military (2012)

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of Italy

Transnational Issues