Photos of Senegal

Introduction

Background

A Jolof Empire ruled parts of Senegal from 1350 to 1549. Various European powers, including Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and Great Britain, competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward. A slave station on the island of Goree, next to modern Dakar, was used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. Having abolished slavery in 1815, the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland in the second half of the 19th century and made it a French colony. The French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s. Several attempts at reaching a comprehensive peace agreement have failed to resolve the conflict but, despite sporadic incidents of violence, an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect since 2012. Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by the Socialist Party of Senegal, first under President Léopold Sédar SENGHOR, and then President Abdou DIOUF, for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was re-elected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents - the change did not apply to SALL's first term. SALL won his bid for re-election in February 2019; his term will end in 2024. A month after the election, the National Assembly voted to abolish the office of the prime minister. Opposition organizations and civil society have criticized the decision as a further concentration of power in the executive branch at the expense of the legislative and judicial branches.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania

Geographic coordinates

14 00 N, 14 00 W

Area

total: 196,722 sq km

land: 192,530 sq km

water: 4,192 sq km

country comparison to the world: 88

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than South Dakota; slightly larger than twice the size of Indiana

Land boundaries

total: 2,684 km

border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km

Coastline

531 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate

tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind

Terrain

generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast

Elevation

mean elevation: 69 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed elevation 2.8 km southeast of Nepen Diaka 648 m

Natural resources

fish, phosphates, iron ore

Land use

agricultural land: 46.8% (2011 est.)

arable land: 17.4% (2011 est.)

permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.)

permanent pasture: 29.1% (2011 est.)

forest: 43.8% (2011 est.)

other: 9.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

1,200 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

the population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues

deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; periodic droughts; seasonal flooding; overfishing; weak environmental protective laws; wildlife populations threatened by poaching

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)

adjective: Senegalese

Ethnic groups

Wolof 37.1%, Pular 26.2%, Serer 17%, Mandinka 5.6%, Jola 4.5%, Soninke 1.4%, other 8.3% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2017 est.)

Languages

French (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke

Religions

Muslim 95.9% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.1% (mostly Roman Catholic) (2016 est.)

Demographic profile

Senegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.

Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).

Additionally, about 16,000 Senegalese refugees still remain in The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau as a result of more than 30 years of fighting between government forces and rebel separatists in southern Senegal’s Casamance region.

Age structure

0-14 years: 40.38% (male 3,194,454/female 3,160,111)

15-24 years: 20.35% (male 1,596,896/female 1,606,084)

25-54 years: 31.95% (male 2,327,424/female 2,700,698)

55-64 years: 4.21% (male 283,480/female 378,932)

65 years and over: 3.1% (male 212,332/female 275,957) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 84.2

youth dependency ratio: 78.4

elderly dependency ratio: 5.7

potential support ratio: 17.5 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 19.4 years

male: 18.5 years

female: 20.3 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 203

Birth rate

31.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 29

Death rate

7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 101

Net migration rate

-1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

Population distribution

the population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 48.1% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 3.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

3.140 million DAKAR (capital) (2020)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.86 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

21.9 years (2018 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality rate

315 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

Infant mortality rate

total: 45.7 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 51.3 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 27

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 63.2 years

male: 61.1 years

female: 65.4 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 205

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 92.3% of population

rural: 74.5% of population

total: 83.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 6.7% of population

rural: 25.5% of population

total: 16.7% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2017)

Hospital bed density

0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 91.2% of population

rural: 48.5% of population

total: 68.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 8.8% of population

rural: 51.5% of population

total: 31.6% of population (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 51.9%

male: 64.8%

female: 39.8% (2017)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 8 years

female: 9 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 8.1%

male: 7.4%

female: 8.9% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 142

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Senegal

conventional short form: Senegal

local long form: Republique du Senegal

local short form: Senegal

former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation

etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from "Azenegue," the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Dakar

geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the Atlantic coast trading settlement of Ndakaaru came to be called "Dakar" by French colonialists

Administrative divisions

14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor

Independence

4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960

National holiday

Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

Constitution

history: previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires Assembly approval and approval in a referendum; the president can bypass a referendum and submit an amendment directly to the Assembly, which requires at least three-fifths majority vote; the republican form of government is not amendable; amended several times, last in 2019

Legal system

civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal

dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)

head of government: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single renewable 5-year term; election last held on 24 February 2019 (next to be held in February 2024)

election results: Macky SALL elected president in first round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 58.3%, Idrissa SECK (Rewmi) 20.5%, Ousmane SONKO (PASTEF) 15.7%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale (165 seats; 105 members including 15 representing Senegalese diaspora directly elected by plurality vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies and 60 members directly elected by proportional representation vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 2 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022)

election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party/coalition - BBK 49.5%, CGWS 16.7%, MTS 11.7%, PUR 4.7%, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2%, other 15.4%; seats by party/coalition - BBY 125, CGWS 19, MTS 7, PUR 3, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2, other 9; composition - men 96, women 69, percent of women 41.8%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the court president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members, including the court president, vice president, and 5 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Superior Council of the Magistrates, a body chaired by the president and minister of justice; judge tenure varies, with mandatory retirement either at 65 or 68 years; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker; judges serve 6-year terms, with renewal of 2 members every 2 years

subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts; Labor Court

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
Alliance for Citizenship and Labor or ACT [Abdoul MBAYE]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP Decriox]
Benno Bokk Yakaar or BBY (United in Hope) [Macky SALL] (coalition includes AFP, APR, BGC, LD-MPT, PIT, PS, and UNP)
Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk [Mansour Sy DJAMIL]
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Abdoulaye BATHILY]
Dare the Future movement [Aissata Tall SALL]
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
General Alliance for the Interests of the Republic or AGIR [Thierno BOCOUM]
Grand Party or GP [Malick GAKOU]
Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM]
Madicke 2019 coalition [Madicke NIANG]
National Union for the People or UNP [Souleymane Ndene NDIAYE]
Only Senegal movement [Pierre Goudiaby ATEPA]
Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
Party of Unity and Rally or PUR [El Hadji SALL]
Patriotic Convergence Kaddu Askan Wi or CP-Kaddu Askan Wi [Abdoulaye BALDE]
Patriots of Senegal for Ethics, Work and Fraternity or (PASTEF) [Ousmane SONKO]
Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
Tekki Movement [Mamadou Lamine DIALLO]

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Mansour KANE (since 6 January 2020)

chancery: 2215 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540

FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961

consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Tulinabo S. MUSHINGI (since August 2017); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau

telephone: [221] 33-879-4000

embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar

mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar

FAX: [221] 33-822-2991

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: green, yellow, red

National anthem

name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)

lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER

note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title

Economy

Economic overview

Senegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which are the primary sources of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and Senegal is also working on oil exploration projects. It relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. Senegal reached a growth rate of 7% in 2017, due in part to strong performance in agriculture despite erratic rainfall.

President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan.

Senegal receives technical support from the IMF under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s fifth review in December 2017. Financial markets have signaled confidence in Senegal through successful Eurobond issuances in 2014, 2017, and 2018.

The government is focusing on 19 projects under the ESP to continue The government’s goal under the ESP is structural transformation of the economy. Key projects include the Thiès-Touba Highway, the new international airport opened in December 2017, and upgrades to energy infrastructure. The cost of electricity is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a US presidential initiative led by USAID, supports Senegal’s plans to improve reliability and increase generating capacity.

GDP real growth rate

7.2% (2017 est.)

6.2% (2016 est.)

6.4% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 15

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

-0.8% (2019 est.)

0.4% (2018 est.)

1.3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 9

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: Ba3 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2000)

GDP (purchasing power parity) - real

$53.704 billion (2019 est.)

$51.015 billion (2018 est.)

$47.956 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$23.576 billion (2019 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$1,583 (2019 est.)

$1,545 (2018 est.)

$1,494 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 200

Gross national saving

21.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

21.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

20.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 86

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 16.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 24.3% (2017 est.)

services: 58.8% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 71.9% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 25.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 3.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -42.8% (2017 est.)

Agriculture - products

peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish

Industries

agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 77.5%

industry: 22.5%

industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)

Budget

revenues: 4.139 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 4.9 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

48.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$1.547 billion (2017 est.)

-$769 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Exports

$2.362 billion (2017 est.)

$2.498 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 139

Exports - partners

Mali 14.8%, Switzerland 11.4%, India 6%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, UAE 5.1%, Gambia, The 4.2%, Spain 4.1% (2017)

Exports - commodities

fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton

Imports

$5.217 billion (2017 est.)

$4.966 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136

Imports - commodities

food and beverages, capital goods, fuels

Imports - partners

France 16.3%, China 10.4%, Nigeria 8%, India 7.2%, Netherlands 4.8%, Spain 4.2% (2017)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.827 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$116.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 122

Debt - external

$8.571 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$6.327 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 119

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -

617.4 (2017 est.)

593.01 (2016 est.)

593.01 (2015 est.)

591.45 (2014 est.)

494.42 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

population without electricity: 5 million (2019)

electrification - total population: 71% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 94% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 50% (2019)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 195,288

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.27 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 122

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 16,871,654

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109.72 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: mobile penetration reached 108% in March 2019; mobile broadband accounts for close to 100% (97.2%) Internet accesses; 3G and LTE services for 50% of population; growth in the intel market along with economic growth for the country; regulator awards more MVNO licenses, deactivated some 5 million unregistered SIM cards (2020)

domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 110 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 221; landing points for the ACE, Atlantis-2, MainOne and SAT-3/WASC submarine cables providing connectivity from South Africa, numerous western African countries, Europe and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2019)

Internet users

total: 6,909,635

percent of population: 46% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 72

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 129,820

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 11

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 21,038 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 40,000 mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 9 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 11 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)

under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Pipelines

43 km gas, 8 km refined products (2017)

Railways

total: 906 km (713 km operational in 2017) (2017)

narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)

country comparison to the world: 94

Roadways

total: 16,665 km (2017)

paved: 6,126 km (includes 241 km of expressways) (2017)

unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)

country comparison to the world: 120

Waterways

1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)

country comparison to the world: 63

Merchant marine

total: 32

by type: general cargo 4, oil tanker 1, other 27 (2019)

country comparison to the world: 130

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Dakar

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal), National Gendarmerie (includes Territorial and Mobile components) (2020)

Military expenditures

1.5% of GDP (2019 est.)

1.6% of GDP (2018)

1.5% of GDP (2017)

1.6% of GDP (2016)

1.2% of GDP (2015)

country comparison to the world: 84

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Senegalese Armed Forces (SAF) consist of approximately 19,000 active personnel (12,000 Army; 1,000 Navy/Coast Guard; 800 Air Force; 5,000 National Gendarmerie) (2019 est.)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the SAF inventory includes mostly older or second-hand equipment from a variety of countries, including France, South Africa, and Russia/former Soviet Union; in recent years, the SAF has attempted to modernize, particularly its air force; China and France are the leading suppliers of newer military hardware to the SAF since 2010 (2019 est.)

Military deployments

1,000 Mali (MINUSMA) (2020)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2016)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

cross-border trafficking in persons, timber, wildlife, and cannabis; rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 14,114 (Mauritania) (2020)

IDPs: 8,400 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region in the 1990s and early 2000s) (2019)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis