Photos of Tajikistan

Introduction

Background

The Tajik people came under Russian imperial rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. At that time, bands of indigenous guerrillas (called "basmachi") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but in 1929 the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between political, regional, and religious factions from 1992 to 1997.

Though the country holds general elections for both the presidency (once every seven years) and parliament (once every five years), observers note an electoral system rife with irregularities and abuse, with results that are neither free nor fair. President Emomali RAHMON, who came to power in 1994 during the civil war, used an attack planned by a disaffected deputy defense minister in 2015 to ban the last major opposition political party in Tajikistan. In December 2015, RAHMON further strengthened his position by having himself declared "Founder of Peace and National Unity, Leader of the Nation," with limitless terms and lifelong immunity through constitutional amendments ratified in a referendum. The referendum also lowered the minimum age required to run for president from 35 to 30, which would make RAHMON's son Rustam EMOMALI, the current mayor of the capital city of Dushanbe, eligible to run for president in 2020.

The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the WTO in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajikistani migrant laborers working in Russia and Kazakhstan, pervasive corruption, and the opiate trade and other destabilizing violence emanating from neighboring Afghanistan. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. Tajikistan suffered its first ISIS-claimed attack in 2018, when assailants attacked a group of Western bicyclists with vehicles and knives, killing four.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan

Geographic coordinates

39 00 N, 71 00 E

Area

total: 144,100 sq km

land: 141,510 sq km

water: 2,590 sq km

country comparison to the world: 96

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries

total: 4,130 km

border countries (4): Afghanistan 1357 km, China 477 km, Kyrgyzstan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1312 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

Terrain

mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest

Elevation

mean elevation: 3,186 m

lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m

highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m

Natural resources

hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold

Land use

agricultural land: 34.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 6.1% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.9% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 27.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 2.9% (2018 est.)

other: 62.4% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

7,420 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

the country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west

Natural hazards

earthquakes; floods

Geography - note

landlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Tajikistani(s)

adjective: Tajikistani

Ethnic groups

Tajik 84.3% (includes Pamiri and Yagnobi), Uzbek 13.8%, other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2014 est.)

Languages

Tajik (official) 84.4%, Uzbek 11.9%, Kyrgyz .8%, Russian .5%, other 2.4% (2010 est.)

note: Russian widely used in government and business

Religions

Muslim 98% (Sunni 95%, Shia 3%) other 2% (2014 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 31.43% (male 1,420,271/female 1,368,445)

15-24 years: 18.13% (male 816,658/female 792,231)

25-54 years: 40.58% (male 1,789,271/female 1,811,566)

55-64 years: 6.23% (male 253,862/female 299,378)

65 years and over: 3.63% (male 132,831/female 189,156) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 67.9

youth dependency ratio: 62.6

elderly dependency ratio: 5.3

potential support ratio: 18.7 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 25.3 years

male: 24.6 years

female: 26 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Birth rate

21.22 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 68

Death rate

5.78 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Net migration rate

-1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 145

Population distribution

the country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west

Urbanization

urban population: 27.5% of total population (2020)

rate of urbanization: 2.62% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Major urban areas - population

938,000 DUSHANBE (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

23.2 years (2017 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality rate

17 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 132

Infant mortality rate

total: 33.05 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 37.8 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 28.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 69.06 years

male: 65.91 years

female: 72.38 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 178

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 96.2% of population

rural: 78.6% of population

total: 83.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.8% of population

rural: 21.4% of population

total: 16.5% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

2.1 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density

4.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.7% of population

rural: 99.3% of population

total: 99.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population

rural: 0.7% of population

total: 2% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<500 (2019 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.7% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years

male: 12 years

female: 11 years (2013)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan

conventional short form: Tajikistan

local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston

local short form: Tojikiston

former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

etymology: the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Tajikistan literally means "Land of the Tajik [people]"

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Dushanbe

geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E

time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: today's city was originally at the crossroads where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays, hence the name Dushanbe, which in Persian means Monday, i.e., the second day (du) after Saturday (shambe)

Administrative divisions

2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Bokhtar), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)

note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

Independence

9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least one third of the total membership of both houses of the Supreme Assembly; adoption of any amendment requires a referendum, which includes approval of the president or approval by at least two-thirds majority of the Assembly of Representatives; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of votes; constitutional articles, including Tajikistan’s form of government, its territory, and its democratic nature, cannot be amended; amended 1999, 2003, 2016

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term for a maximum of two terms; however, as the "Leader of the Nation" President RAHMON can run an unlimited number of times; election last held on 11 October 2020 (next to be held in 2027); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 92.1%, Rustam LATIFZODA (APT) 3.1%, Rustam RAHAMATZODA (PERT) 2.2%, Abduhalim GHAFFOROV (SPT) 1.5%, Miroj ABDULLOEV (CPT) 1.2%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of:
National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for each living former president; members serve 5-year terms)
Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by 2-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections:
National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2020 (next to be held in 2025)
Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2020 (next to be held in 2025)

election results:
National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 28, women 6, percent of women 17.6%
Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 50.4%, PERT 16.6%, APT 16.5%, SPT 5.2%, DPT 5.1%, CPT 3.1%, other 3.1%; seats by party - PDPT 47, APT 7, PERT 5, CPT 2, SPT 1, DPT 1; composition - men 50, women 13, percent of women 20.6%; note - total Supreme Assembly percent of women 19.6%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, family, criminal, administrative offense, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, deputy chairman, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists of 16 judicial positions)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no term limits, but the last appointment must occur before the age of 65

subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region

Political parties and leaders

Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA]
Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Miroj ABDULLOEV]
Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [Saidjafar USMONZODA]
Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Rustam OUDRATOV]
People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]
Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV]

International organization participation

ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Farrukh HAMRALIZODA (since 17 February 2021)

chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090

FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador John Mark POMMERSHEIM (since 15 March 2019)

telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00, 992-37-229-2300 (consular direct line); EMER: 992-98-580-1032

embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019

mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189

FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50

Flag description

three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number "seven" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness

National symbol(s)

crown surmounted by an arc of seven, five-pointed stars; snow leopard; national colors: red, white, green

National anthem

name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)

lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV

note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics

Economy

Economic overview

Tajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, tungsten, and coal. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan is the poorest among the former Soviet republics. Because less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the predominant crop, Tajikistan imports approximately 70% of its food.

Since the end of the civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations in the economic sphere, but its poor business climate remains a hindrance to attracting foreign investment. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30%-50% of GDP.

Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that in 2017 were equivalent to nearly 35% of GDP. Tajikistan’s large remittances from migrant workers in Russia exposes it to monetary shocks. Tajikistan often delays devaluation of its currency for fear of inflationary pressures on food and other consumables. Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations have hampered economic growth. The dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan dropped by almost 65% in 2015, and the government spent almost $500 million in 2016 to bail out the country’s still troubled banking sector.

Tajikistan’s growing public debt – currently about 50% of GDP – could result in financial difficulties. Remittances from Russia increased in 2017, however, bolstering the economy somewhat. China owns about 50% of Tajikistan’s outstanding debt. Tajikistan has borrowed heavily to finance investment in the country’s vast hydropower potential. In 2016, Tajikistan contracted with the Italian firm Salini Impregilo to build the Roghun dam over a 13-year period for $3.9 billion. A 2017 Eurobond has largely funded Roghun’s first phase, after which sales from Roghun’s output are expected to fund the rest of its construction. The government has not ruled out issuing another Eurobond to generate auxiliary funding for its second phase.

Real GDP growth rate

7.1% (2017 est.)

6.9% (2016 est.)

6% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 16

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

7.7% (2019 est.)

3.9% (2018 est.)

7.3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 197

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B3 (2017)

Standard & Poors rating: B- (2017)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$31.502 billion (2019 est.)

$29.438 billion (2018 est.)

$27.435 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 138

GDP (official exchange rate)

$2.522 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$3,380 (2019 est.)

$3,235 (2018 est.)

$3,090 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 194

Gross national saving

24.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

15.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

11.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 71

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 28.6% (2017 est.)

industry: 25.5% (2017 est.)

services: 45.9% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 98.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 13.3% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 11.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 2.5% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 10.7% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -36.6% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores

Overall score: 61.3 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 93.2 (2020)

Trading score: 60.9 (2020)

Enforcement score: 60.7 (2020)

Agricultural products

milk, potatoes, wheat, watermelons, onions, tomatoes, vegetables, cotton, carrots/turnips, beef

Industries

aluminum, cement, coal, gold, silver, antimony, textile, vegetable oil

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 43%

industry: 10.6%

services: 46.4% (2016 est.)

Unemployment rate

2.4% (2016 est.)

2.5% (2015 est.)

note: official rate; actual unemployment is much higher

country comparison to the world: 28

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA (2009 est.)

highest 10%: NA (2009 est.)

Budget

revenues: 2.269 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 2.374 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

50.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

42% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 101

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$35 million (2017 est.)

-$362 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 78

Exports

$873.1 million (2017 est.)

$691.1 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 165

Exports - partners

Turkey 24%, Switzerland 22%, Uzbekistan 16%, Kazakhstan 12%, China 10% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, aluminum, cotton, zinc, antimony, lead (2019)

Imports

$2.39 billion (2017 est.)

$2.554 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 165

Imports - partners

China 40%, Russia 38%, Kazakhstan 19%, Uzbekistan 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, wheat, natural gas, bauxite, aircraft (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.292 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$652.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 127

Debt - external

$6.47 billion (2019 est.)

$5.849 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 128

Exchange rates

Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -

8.764 (2017 est.)

7.8358 (2016 est.)

7.8358 (2015 est.)

6.1631 (2014 est.)

4.9348 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 471,090

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 5.39 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 94

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 9,747,803

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111.53 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 88

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; an increase in mobile broadband penetration, but still in the early stages and remains low compared to those in the region; the country has endeavored to launch 4G/LTE services with mixed results; 7 major cities have 4G coverage; 5 major operators in the market (2020)

domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns; fixed-line 5 per 100 and mobile-cellular 112 per 100 (2019)

international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); 3 satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

state-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite (2016)

Internet users

total: 1,889,632

percent of population: 21.96% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 123

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 6,000

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 177

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 492,320 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2.34 million mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 17 (2013)

over 3,047 m: 2 (2013)

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)

under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 7 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Pipelines

549 km gas, 38 km oil (2013)

Railways

total: 680 km (2014)

broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)

country comparison to the world: 102

Waterways

200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)

country comparison to the world: 98

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan: Land Forces, Mobile Forces (airborne, mountain infantry troops), Air and Air Defense Forces; National Guard; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Internal Troops (reserves for Armed Forces in wartime); State Committee on National Security: Border Guard Forces (2020)

Military expenditures

2.2% of GDP (2017)

2.2% of GDP (2016)

2.2% of GDP (2015)

2.1% of GDP (2014)

2.3% of GDP (2013)

country comparison to the world: 54

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan have approximately 9,500 active troops (8,000 Land and Mobile Forces; 1,500 Air and Air Defense Forces) (2020)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Tajikistan Armed Forces' inventory is comprised of older Russian and Soviet-era equipment; it has received limited quantities of weapons systems since 2010, most of which was second-hand material from Russia (2020)

Military deployments

contributes troops to CSTO's Rapid Reaction Force (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 12-18 month conscript service obligation (2019)

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) (2019)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 7,151 (2019)

Illicit drugs

Tajikistan sits on one of the world's highest volume illicit drug trafficking routes, between Afghan opiate production to the south and the illicit drug markets of Russia and Eastern Europe to the north; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; significant consumer of opiates