Photos of Tanzania

Introduction

Background

Mainland Tanzania fell under German rule during the late 19th century as part of German East Africa. After World War I, Britain governed the mainland as Tanganyika; the Zanzibar Archipelago remained a separate colonial jurisdiction. Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964. In 1995, the country held its first democratic elections since the 1970s. Zanzibar maintains semi-autonomy and participates in national elections; popular political opposition on the isles led to four contentious elections since 1995, in which the ruling party claimed victory despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates

6 00 S, 35 00 E

Area

total: 947,300 sq km

land: 885,800 sq km

water: 61,500 sq km

note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

country comparison to the world: 32

Area - comparative

more than six times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries

total: 4,161 km

border countries (8): Burundi 589 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 479 km, Kenya 775 km, Malawi 512 km, Mozambique 840 km, Rwanda 222 km, Uganda 391 km, Zambia 353 km

Coastline

1,424 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Terrain

plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

Elevation

highest point: Kilimanjaro (highest point in Africa) 5,895 m

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 1,018 m

Natural resources

hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones (including tanzanite, found only in Tanzania), gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use

agricultural land: 43.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 14.3% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 27.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 37.3% (2018 est.)

other: 19% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

1,840 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

96.27 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Population distribution

the largest and most populous East African country; population distribution is extremely uneven, but greater population clusters occur in the northern half of country and along the east coast as shown in this population distribution map

Natural hazards

flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought

volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only three mountain ranges on the continent that has glaciers (the others are Mount Kenya [in Kenya] and the Ruwenzori Mountains [on the Uganda-Democratic Republic of the Congo border]); Tanzania is bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest

People and Society

Population

62,092,761 (July 2021 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

country comparison to the world: 24

Nationality

noun: Tanzanian(s)

adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic groups

mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African

Languages

Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages; note - Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages

printed major-language sample:
The World Factbook, Chanzo cha Lazima Kuhusu Habari ya Msingi. (Kiswahili)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Religions

Christian 63.1%, Muslim 34.1%, folk religion 1.1%, Buddhist <1%, Hindu <1%, Jewish <1%, other <1%, unspecified 1.6% (2020 est.)

note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim

Demographic profile

Tanzania has the largest population in East Africa and the lowest population density; almost a third of the population is urban. Tanzania’s youthful population – about two-thirds of the population is under 25 – is growing rapidly because of the high total fertility rate of 4.8 children per woman. Progress in reducing the birth rate has stalled, sustaining the country’s nearly 3% annual growth. The maternal mortality rate has improved since 2000, yet it remains very high because of early and frequent pregnancies, inadequate maternal health services, and a lack of skilled birth attendants – problems that are worse among poor and rural women. Tanzania has made strides in reducing under-5 and infant mortality rates, but a recent drop in immunization threatens to undermine gains in child health. Malaria is a leading killer of children under 5, while HIV is the main source of adult mortality

For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests. Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years. However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population. Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities. Some of these migrants choose to settle in Tanzania.

Age structure

0-14 years: 42.7% (male 12,632,772/female 12,369,115)

15-24 years: 20.39% (male 5,988,208/female 5,948,134)

25-54 years: 30.31% (male 8,903,629/female 8,844,180)

55-64 years: 3.52% (male 954,251/female 1,107,717)

65 years and over: 3.08% (male 747,934/female 1,056,905) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 85.9

youth dependency ratio: 81

elderly dependency ratio: 4.9

potential support ratio: 20.4 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 18.2 years

male: 17.9 years

female: 18.4 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 212

Birth rate

33.71 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 21

Death rate

5.17 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 189

Net migration rate

-0.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 124

Population distribution

the largest and most populous East African country; population distribution is extremely uneven, but greater population clusters occur in the northern half of country and along the east coast as shown in this population distribution map

Urbanization

urban population: 36% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

262,000 Dodoma (legislative capital) (2018), 7.047 million DAR ES SALAAM (administrative capital), 1.182 million Mwanza (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.8 years (2015/16 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality rate

524 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Infant mortality rate

total: 31.51 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 34.36 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 28.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 69.9 years

male: 68.12 years

female: 71.74 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 171

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 92.3% of population

rural: 56.2% of population

total: 68.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.7% of population

rural: 43.8% of population

total: 31.8% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

0.01 physicians/1,000 population (2016)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 82.1% of population

rural: 29.5% of population

total: 46.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 17.9% of population

rural: 70.5% of population

total: 53.1% of population (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic

total population: 77.9%

male: 83.2%

female: 73.1% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 9 years

female: 9 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 3.9%

male: 3.1%

female: 4.6% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Environment

Environment - current issues

water polution; improper management of liquid waste; indoor air pollution caused by the burning of fuel wood or charcoal for cooking and heating is a large environmental health issue; soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory; loss of biodiversity; solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 25.59 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 11.97 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 59.08 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 527 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 25 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 4.632 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

96.27 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Climate

varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Land use

agricultural land: 43.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 14.3% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2.3% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 27.1% (2018 est.)

forest: 37.3% (2018 est.)

other: 19% (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.02% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 45

Urbanization

urban population: 36% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 4.89% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever

water contact diseases: schistosomiasis

animal contact diseases: rabies

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to localized shortfalls in staple food production - number of severely food insecure people estimated at 490,000 for period May‑September 2021, markedly lower than in period November 2019‑April 2020 (2021)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 9,276,995 tons (2012 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania

conventional short form: Tanzania

local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania

local short form: Tanzania

former: German East Africa, Trust Territory of Tanganyika, United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

etymology: the country's name is a combination of the first letters of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states that merged to form Tanzania in 1964

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Dar es Salaam (administrative capital), Dodoma (legislative capital); note - Dodoma was designated the national capital in 1996 and serves as the meeting place for the National Assembly; Dar es Salaam remains the de facto capital, the country's largest city and commercial center, and the site of the executive branch offices and diplomatic representation; the government contends that it will complete the transfer of the executive branch to Dodoma by 2020

geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: Dar es Salaam was the name given by Majid bin Said, the first sultan of Zanzibar, to the new city he founded on the Indian Ocean coast; the Arabic name is commonly translated as "abode/home of peace"; Dodoma, in the native Gogo language, means "it has sunk"; supposedly, one day during the rainy season, an elephant drowned in the area; the villagers in that place were so struck by what had occurred, that ever since the locale has been referred to as the place where "it (the elephant) sunk"

Administrative divisions

31 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Kagera, Kaskazini Pemba (Pemba North), Kaskazini Unguja (Zanzibar North), Katavi, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kusini Pemba (Pemba South), Kusini Unguja (Zanzibar Central/South), Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Mjini Magharibi (Zanzibar Urban/West), Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Njombe, Pwani (Coast), Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, Songwe, Tabora, Tanga

Independence

26 April 1964 (Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar); 29 October 1964 (renamed United Republic of Tanzania); notable earlier dates: 9 December 1961 (Tanganyika became independent from UK-administered UN trusteeship); 10 December 1963 (Zanzibar became independent from UK)

National holiday

Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)

Constitution

history: several previous; latest adopted 25 April 1977; note - progress enacting a new constitution drafted in 2014 by the Constituent Assembly has stalled

amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage of amendments to constitutional articles including those on sovereignty of the United Republic, the authorities and powers of the government, the president, the Assembly, and the High Court requires two-thirds majority vote of the mainland Assembly membership and of the Zanzibar House of Representatives membership; House of Representatives approval of other amendments is not required; amended several times, last in 2017 (2021)

Legal system

English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tanzania; if a child is born abroad, the father must be a citizen of Tanzania

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Samia Suluhu HASSAN (since 19 March 2021); note - President John MAGUFULI died on 17 March 2021; vice president (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Samia Suluhu HASSAN (since 19 March 2021); note - President John MAGUFULI died on 17 March 2021; vice president (vacant); Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa MAJALIWA (since 20 November 2015) has authority over the day-to-day functions of the government, is the leader of government business in the National Assembly, and is head of the Cabinet

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held 28 October 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%

note: Zanzibar elects a president as head of government for internal matters; election held on 25 October 2015 was annulled by the Zanzibar Electoral Commission and rerun on 20 March 2016; President Ali Mohamed SHEIN reelected; percent of vote - Ali Mohamed SHEIN (CCM) 91.4%, Hamad Rashid MOHAMED (ADC) 3%, other 5.6%; the main opposition party in Zanzibar CUF boycotted the 20 March 2016 election rerun

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (Bunge) (393 seats; 264 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 113 women indirectly elected by proportional representation vote, 5 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the Zanzibar House of Representatives, 10 appointed by the president, and 1 seat reserved for the attorney general; members serve a 5-year term); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the National Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives or Baraza La Wawakilishi (82 seats; 50 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 20 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 10 appointed by the Zanzibar president, 1 seat for the House speaker, and 1 ex-officio seat for the attorney general; elected members serve a 5-year term)

elections: Tanzania National Assembly and Zanzibar House of Representatives - elections last held on 25 October 2015 (next National Assembly election to be held in October 2020; next Zanzibar election either October 2020 or March 2021); note the Zanzibar Electoral Commission annulled the 2015 election; repoll held on 20 March 2016

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CCM 55%, Chadema 31.8%, CUF 8.6%, other 4.6%; seats by party - CCM 253, Chadema 70, CUF 42, other 2; composition as of September 2018 - men 245, women 145, percent of women 37.2%

Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - NA

Judicial branch

highest courts: Court of Appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania (consists of the chief justice and 14 justices); High Court of the United Republic for Mainland Tanzania (consists of the principal judge and 30 judges organized into commercial, land, and labor courts); High Court of Zanzibar (consists of the chief justice and 10 justices)

judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission for Tanzania, a judicial body of high level judges and 2 members appointed by the national president; Court of Appeal and High Court judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 60, but terms can be extended; High Court of Zanzibar judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Commission of Zanzibar; judges can serve until mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: Resident Magistrates Courts; Kadhi courts (for Islamic family matters); district and primary courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for Change and Transparency (Wazalendo) or ACT [Zitto KABWE]
Alliance for Democratic Change or ADC [Miraji ABDALLAH]
Civic United Front (Chama Cha Wananchi) or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]
National Convention for Construction and Reform-Mageuzi or NCCR-M [James Francis MBATIA]
National League for Democracy
Party of Democracy and Development (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo) or Chadema [Freeman MBOWE]
Revolutionary Party (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) or CCM [John MAGUFULI]
Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine MREMA]
United Democratic Party or UDP [John Momose CHEYO]



note: in March 2014, four opposition parties (CUF, CHADEMA, NCCR-Mageuzi, and NLD) united to form Coalition for the People's Constitution (Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi) or UKAWA; during local elections held in October, 2014, UKAWA entered one candidate representing the three parties united in the coalition

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, EAC, EADB, EITI, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge D'Affaires Ad Interim Jean Abel MSABILA (since 21 May 2021)

chancery: 1232 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125

FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Donald J. WRIGHT (since 2 April 2020)

telephone: (255) 22-229-4000, dial '1' for an emergency operator

embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam

mailing address: P.O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam

FAX: [255] (22) 229-4970 or 4971

Flag description

divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue; the banner combines colors found on the flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; green represents the natural vegetation of the country, gold its rich mineral deposits, black the native Swahili people, and blue the country's many lakes and rivers, as well as the Indian Ocean

National symbol(s)

Uhuru (Freedom) torch, giraffe; national colors: green, yellow, blue, black

National anthem

name: "Mungu ibariki Afrika" (God Bless Africa)

lyrics/music: collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

note: adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem

This is an audio of the National Anthem for Tanzania. The national anthem is generally a patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.:

Economy

Economic overview

Tanzania has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism with GDP growth in 2009-17 averaging 6%-7% per year. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession and in general, benefited from low oil prices. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining.

The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for slightly less than one-quarter of GDP and employs about 65% of the work force, although gold production in recent years has increased to about 35% of exports. All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular.

The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry's total assets. Competition among foreign commercial banks has resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency and quality of financial services, though interest rates are still relatively high, reflecting high fraud risk. Banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment.

The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging infrastructure, including rail and port, which provide important trade links for inland countries. In 2013, Tanzania completed the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact (MCC) grant, worth $698 million, but in late 2015, the MCC Board of Directors deferred a decision to renew Tanzania’s eligibility because of irregularities in voting in Zanzibar and concerns over the government's use of a controversial cybercrime bill.

The new government elected in 2015 has developed an ambitious development agenda focused on creating a better business environment through improved infrastructure, access to financing, and education progress, but implementing budgets remains challenging for the government. Recent policy moves by President MAGUFULI are aimed at protecting domestic industry and have caused concern among foreign investors.

Real GDP growth rate

6.98% (2019 est.)

6.95% (2018 est.)

6.78% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 17

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.4% (2019 est.)

3.5% (2018 est.)

5.3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 154

Credit ratings

Moody's rating: B2 (2020)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$149.785 billion (2019 est.)

$141.585 billion (2018 est.)

$134.274 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 76

GDP (official exchange rate)

$60.633 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$2,660 (2019 est.)

$2,590 (2018 est.)

$2,530 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 203

Gross national saving

30.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

23.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

24.9% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 35

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 23.4% (2017 est.)

industry: 28.6% (2017 est.)

services: 47.6% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 62.4% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 12.5% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 36.1% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: -8.7% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 18.1% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -20.5% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores

Overall score: 54.5 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 74.4 (2020)

Trading score: 20.2 (2020)

Enforcement score: 61.7 (2020)

Agricultural products

cassava, maize, sweet potatoes, sugar cane, rice, bananas, vegetables, milk, beans, sunflower seed

Industries

agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); mining (diamonds, gold, and iron), salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 66.9%

industry: 6.4%

services: 26.6% (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 29.6% (2007)

Budget

revenues: 7.873 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 8.818 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

37% of GDP (2017 est.)

38% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 141

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

-$1.313 billion (2019 est.)

-$1.898 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 155

Exports

$7.827 billion (2017 est.)

$5.697 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Exports - partners

India 20%, United Arab Emirates 13%, China 8%, Switzerland 7%, Rwanda 6%, Kenya 5%, Vietnam 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

gold, tobacco, cashews, sesame seeds, refined petroleum (2019)

Imports

$9.972 billion (2017 est.)

$8.464 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 109

Imports - partners

China 34%, India 15%, United Arab Emirates 12% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, palm oil, packaged medicines, cars, wheat (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$5.301 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$4.067 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

note: excludes gold

country comparison to the world: 94

Debt - external

$22.054 billion (2019 est.)

$20.569 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 92

Exchange rates

Tanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar -

2,319 (2020 est.)

2,300 (2019 est.)

2,299.155 (2018 est.)

1,989.7 (2014 est.)

1,654 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 40% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 71% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 23% (2019)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 76,288

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 147

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 47,685,232

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 81.29 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 31

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Tanzania’s telecom services are marginal and operating below capacity; one fixed-line operator with competition in mobile networks; high tariffs on telecom; mobile use is growing with popularity of 3G/LTE services; government allocated funds in 2019 to improve rural telecom infrastructure and work on national fiber backbone network connecting population around country (2020) (2020)

domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and exceeds 82 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital (2019)

international: country code - 255; landing points for the EASSy, SEACOM/Tata TGN-Eurasia, and SEAS fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

a state-owned TV station and multiple privately owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2019)

Internet users

total: 13,862,836

percent of population: 25% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 46

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,039,655

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1.77 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 70

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 11 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 91

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,481,557 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 390,000 mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 10 (2019)

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 156 (2013)

over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 24 (2013)

914 to 1,523 m: 98 (2013)

under 914 m: 33 (2013)

Pipelines

311 km gas, 891 km oil, 8 km refined products (2013)

Railways

total: 4,567 km (2014)

narrow gauge: 1,860 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)

2707 km 1.000-m gauge

country comparison to the world: 43

Roadways

total: 87,581 km (2015)

paved: 10,025 km (2015)

unpaved: 77,556 km (2015)

country comparison to the world: 56

Waterways

(Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) are the principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; the rivers are not navigable) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 315

by type: bulk carrier 3, container ship 5, general cargo 156, oil tanker 45, other 106 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 53

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Tanzania People's Defense Forces (TPDF or Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force, National Building Army (Jeshi la Kujenga Taifa, JKT), People's Militia (Reserves); Ministry of Home Affairs paramilitary forces: Police Field Force (2021)

note: the National Building Army is a paramilitary organization under the Defense Forces that provides six months of military and vocational training to individuals as part of their two years of public service; after completion of training, some graduates join the regular Defense Forces while the remainder become part of the People's (or Citizen's) Militia

Military expenditures

1.3% of GDP (2019)

1.3% of GDP (2018)

1.1% of GDP (2017)

1.1% of GDP (2016)

1.1% of GDP (2015)

country comparison to the world: 106

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Tanzania People's Defense Forces (TPDF) have an estimated 26,000 active personnel (22,000 Land Forces; 1,000 Naval Forces; 3,000 Air Force) (2020)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the TPDF inventory includes mostly Soviet-era and Chinese equipment; since 2010, China is the leading supplier of arms to the TPDF (2020)

Military deployments

450 Central African Republic (MINUSCA); 775 Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO); 120 Lebanon (UNIFIL); 330 Sudan (UNAMID) (Jan 2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; 6-year commitment (2-year contracts afterwards); selective conscription for 2 years of public service (2021)

Maritime threats

the International Maritime Bureau reports that shipping in territorial and offshore waters in the Indian Ocean remain at risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships

Military - note

as of late 2020, the TPDF had deployed additional troops to its border with Mozambique to prevent a spillover of the growing violence in the northern Mozambican province of Cabo Delgado

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham - Mozambique

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 133,029 (Burundi), 79,002 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2021)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the exploitation of young girls in domestic servitude continues to be Tanzania’s largest human trafficking problem; Tanzanian boys are subject to forced labor mainly on farms but also in mines, in the commercial service sector, in the sex trade, and possibly on small fishing boats; internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking and is usually facilitated by friends, family members, or intermediaries offering education or legitimate job opportunities; trafficking victims from Burundi, Kenya, Bangladesh, Nepal, Yemen, and India are forced to work in Tanzania’s agricultural, mining, and domestic service sectors or may be sex trafficked; traffickers transported Tanzanian children with physical disabilities to Kenya to work as beggars or in massage parlors; girls forced to donate a kidney to pay for supposed transportation fees to the United Arab Emirates; traffickers subject Tanzanians to forced labor, including in domestic service, and sex trafficking in other African countries, the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and the United States

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Tanzania does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; efforts were made to  identify and refer victims for care; investigations and convictions of traffickers, training for officials, and public awareness campaigns were increased along with a National Guideline for Safe Houses; however, the government did not amend its law to remove sentencing provisions that allow fines in lieu of imprisonment; fewer prosecutions were initiated; the government did not implement the 2018-2021 national action plan; officials did not fully implement the creation of the anti-trafficking fund nor disperse funds; no formal victim identification and protection was provided (2020)

Illicit drugs

targeted by traffickers moving hashish, Afghan heroin, and South American cocaine transported down the East African coastline, through airports, or overland through Central Africa; Zanzibar likely used by traffickers for drug smuggling; traffickers in the past have recruited Tanzanian couriers to move drugs through Iran into East Asia