Field Listing

Citizenship

This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields:

citizenship by birth describes the acquisition of citizenship based on place of birth, known as Jus soli, regardless of the citizenship of parents.

citizenship by descent only describes the acquisition of citizenship based on the principle of Jus sanguinis, or by descent, where at least one parent is a citizen of the state and being born within the territorial limits of the state is not required. The majority of countries adhere to this practice. In some cases, citizenship is conferred through the father or mother exclusively.

dual citizenship recognized indicates whether a state permits a citizen to simultaneously hold citizenship in another state. Many states do not permit dual citizenship and the voluntary acquisition of citizenship in another country is grounds for revocation of citizenship. Holding dual citizenship makes an individual legally obligated to more than one state and can negate the normal consular protections afforded to citizens outside their original country of citizenship.

residency requirement for naturalization lists the length of time an applicant is required to live in a state before applying for naturalization. In most countries citizenship can be acquired through the legal process of naturalization. The requirements for naturalization vary by state but generally include no criminal record, good health, economic wherewithal, and a period of authorized residency in the state. This time period can vary enormously among states and is often used to make the acquisition of citizenship difficult or impossible.

  • Afghanistan

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must have been born in - and continuously lived in - Afghanistan

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Albania

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Albania

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Algeria

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Algeria

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • American Samoa

    see United States
    Note: in accordance with US Code Title 8, Section 1408, persons born in American Samoa are US nationals but not US citizens

  • Andorra

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the mother must be an Andorran citizen or the father must have been born in Andorra and both parents maintain permanent residence in Andorra

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years

  • Angola

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Anguilla

    see United Kingdom

  • Antigua and Barbuda

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Argentina

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

  • Armenia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Armenia

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

  • Aruba

    see the Netherlands

  • Ashmore and Cartier Islands

    see Australia

  • Australia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen or permanent resident of Australia

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

  • Austria

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Austria

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Azerbaijan

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Bahamas, The

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of The Bahamas

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 6-9 years

  • Bahrain

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bahrain

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years; 15 years for Arab nationals

  • Bangladesh

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bangladesh

    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Barbados

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Belarus

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Belarus

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Belgium

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Belgium

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Belize

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Benin

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Benin

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Bermuda

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the UK

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Bhutan

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bhutan

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Bolivia

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    dual citizenship recognized: yes, provided there is a bilateral agreement with the other state

    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

  • Botswana

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Botswana

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Brazil

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

  • British Virgin Islands

    see United Kingdom

  • Brunei

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Brunei

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 12 years

  • Bulgaria

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bulgaria

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Burkina Faso

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Burkina Faso

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Burma

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Burma

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: none

    note: an applicant for naturalization must be the child or spouse of a citizen

  • Burundi

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Burundi

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Cabo Verde

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cabo Verde

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Cambodia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cambodia

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Cameroon

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cameroon

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Canada

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: minimum of 3 of last 5 years resident in Canada

  • Cayman Islands

    see United Kingdom

  • Central African Republic

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen of the Central African Republic

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 35 years

  • Chad

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Chad

    dual citizenship recognized: Chadian law does not address dual citizenship

    residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

  • Chile

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • China

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen of China

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: while naturalization is theoretically possible, in practical terms it is extremely difficult; residency is required but not specified

  • Christmas Island

    see Australia

  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    see Australia

  • Colombia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen or permanent resident of Colombia

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Comoros

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Comoros

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Congo, Republic of the

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Republic of the Congo

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Coral Sea Islands

    see Australia

  • Costa Rica

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Cote d'Ivoire

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cote d'Ivoire

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Croatia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Cuba

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

  • Curacao

    see the Netherlands

  • Cyprus

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cyprus

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Czechia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Czechia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Denmark

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Denmark

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Djibouti

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Djibouti

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Dominica

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Dominican Republic

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Dominican Republic

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

  • Ecuador

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

  • Egypt

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: if the father was born in Egypt

    dual citizenship recognized: only with prior permission from the government

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • El Salvador

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Equatorial Guinea

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Equatorial Guinea

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Eritrea

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Eritrea

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years

  • Estonia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Estonia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Eswatini

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Eswatini

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Ethiopia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ethiopia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

  • Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

    see United Kingdom

  • Faroe Islands

    see Denmark

  • Fiji

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Fiji

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: at least 5 years residency out of the 10 years preceding application

  • Finland

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years

  • France

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of France

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • French Polynesia

    see France

  • French Southern and Antarctic Lands

    see France

  • Gabon

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Gabon

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Gambia, The

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Georgia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Georgia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Germany

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a German citizen or a resident alien who has lived in Germany at least 8 years

    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from government

    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

  • Ghana

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Ghana

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Gibraltar

    see United Kingdom

  • Greece

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Greece

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Greenland

    see Denmark

  • Grenada

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years for persons from a non-Caribbean state and 4 years for a person from a Caribbean state

  • Guam

    see United States

  • Guatemala

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years with no absences of six consecutive months or longer or absences totaling more than a year

  • Guernsey

    see United Kingdom

  • Guinea

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Guinea

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: na

  • Guinea-Bissau

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Guyana

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: na

  • Haiti

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Haiti

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Holy See (Vatican City)

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: no

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: not applicable

    note: in the Holy See, citizenship is acquired by law, ex iure, or by adminstrative decision; in the first instance, citizenship is a function of holding office within the Holy See as in the case of cardinals resident in Vatican City or diplomats of the Holy See; in the second instance, citizenship may be requested in a limited set of circumstances for those who reside within Vatican City under papal authorization, as a function of their office or service, or as the spouses and children of current citizens; citizenship is lost once an individual no longer permanently resides in Vatican City, normally reverting to the citizenship previously held

  • Honduras

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 1 to 3 years

  • Hong Kong

    see China

  • Hungary

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Hungary

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

  • Iceland

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Iceland

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 to 7 years

  • India

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Indonesia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years

  • Iran

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Iran

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Iraq

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Iraq

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Ireland

    citizenship by birth: no, unless a parent of a child born in Ireland has been legally resident in Ireland for at least three of the four years prior to the birth of the child

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 of the previous 8 years

  • Isle of Man

    see United Kingdom

  • Israel

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Israel

    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but naturalized citizens are not allowed to maintain dual citizenship

    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 out of the 5 years preceding the application for naturalization

    note: Israeli law (Law of Return, 5 July 1950) provides for the granting of citizenship to any Jew - defined as a person being born to a Jewish mother or having converted to Judaism while renouncing any other religion - who immigrates to and expresses a desire to settle in Israel on the basis of the Right of aliyah; the 1970 amendment of this act extended the right to family members including the spouse of a Jew, any child or grandchild, and the spouses of children and grandchildren

  • Italy

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Italy

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years for EU nationals, 5 years for refugees and specified exceptions, 10 years for all others

  • Jamaica

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 5 years

  • Japan

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Japan

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Jersey

    see United Kingdom

  • Jordan

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Jordan

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

  • Kazakhstan

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kazakhstan

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Kenya

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kenya

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years

  • Kiribati

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Kiribati

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Korea, North

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of North Korea

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

  • Korea, South

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Korea

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Kosovo

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kosovo

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Kuwait

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kuwait

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: not specified

  • Kyrgyzstan

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan

    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Laos

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Laos

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Latvia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Latvia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Lebanon

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Lebanon

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

  • Lesotho

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Liberia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Liberia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

  • Libya

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Libya

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: varies from 3 to 5 years

  • Liechtenstein

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Liechtenstein; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Lithuania

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Lithuania

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Luxembourg

    citizenship by birth: limited to situations where the parents are either unknown, stateless, or when the nationality law of the parents' state of origin does not permit acquisition of citizenship by descent when the birth occurs outside of national territory

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Luxembourg

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Macau

    see China

  • Madagascar

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Madagascar; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

  • Malawi

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malawi

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Malaysia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malaysia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 out 12 years preceding application

  • Maldives

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Maldives

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

  • Mali

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mali

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Malta

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malta

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Marshall Islands

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Marshall Islands

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Mauritania

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mauritania

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Mauritius

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 out of the previous 7 years including the last 12 months

  • Mexico

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: not specified

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Micronesia, Federated States of

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of FSM

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Moldova

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Moldova

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Monaco

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Monaco; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen and father unknown

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Mongolia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Mongolia; one parent if born within Mongolia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Montenegro

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Montenegro

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Montserrat

    see United Kingdom

  • Morocco

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Morocco; if the father is unknown or stateless, the mother must be a citizen

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Mozambique

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mozambique

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Namibia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Namibia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Nepal

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

  • Netherlands

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Netherlands

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • New Caledonia

    see France

  • New Zealand

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of New Zealand

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

  • Nicaragua

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: no, except in cases where bilateral agreements exist

    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years

  • Niger

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Niger

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

  • Nigeria

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

  • Norfolk Island

    see Australia

  • North Macedonia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of North Macedonia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

  • Northern Mariana Islands

    see United States

  • Norway

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Oman

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Oman

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown

  • Pakistan

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Pakistan

    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries

    residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years and including the 12 months preceding application

  • Palau

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Palau

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: note - no procedure for naturalization

  • Panama

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Papua New Guinea

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Papua New Guinea

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

  • Paraguay

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Paraguay

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

  • Peru

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years

  • Philippines

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Philippines

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Pitcairn Islands

    see United Kingdom

  • Poland

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Poland

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Portugal

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Portugal

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; 6 years if from a Portuguese-speaking country

  • Puerto Rico

    see United States

  • Qatar

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Qatar

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years; 15 years if an Arab national

  • Romania

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Russia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Russia

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years

  • Rwanda

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Rwanda; if the father is stateless or unknown, the mother must be a citizen

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Saint Barthelemy

    see France

  • Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha

    see United Kingdom

  • Saint Kitts and Nevis

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 14 years

  • Saint Lucia

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Saint Lucia

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

  • Saint Martin

    see France

  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon

    see France

  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Samoa

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Samoa

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • San Marino

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of San Marino

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 30 years

  • Sao Tome and Principe

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Sao Tome and Principe

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Saudi Arabia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Saudi Arabia; a child born out of wedlock in Saudi Arabia to a Saudi mother and unknown father

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Senegal

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal

    dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Serbia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Serbia

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years

  • Seychelles

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Seychelles

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Sierra Leone

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Sierra Leone

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Singapore

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Singapore

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Sint Maarten

    see the Netherlands

  • Slovakia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovakia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Slovenia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovenia; both parents if the child is born outside of Slovenia

    dual citizenship recognized: yes, for select cases

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years, the last 5 of which have been continuous

  • Solomon Islands

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Solomon Islands

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Somalia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Somalia

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • South Africa

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Africa

    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission of the government

    residency requirement for naturalization: 1 year

  • South Sudan

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Sudan

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Spain

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Spain

    dual citizenship recognized: only with select Latin American countries

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years for persons with no ties to Spain

  • Sri Lanka

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Sri Lanka

    dual citizenship recognized: no, except in cases where the government rules it is to the benefit of Sri Lanka

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Sudan

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sudan

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Suriname

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Suriname

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Svalbard

    see Norway

  • Sweden

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown

    dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Switzerland

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Switzerland

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 12 years including at least 3 of the last 5 years prior to application

  • Syria

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Syria; if the father is unknown or stateless, the mother must be a citizen of Syria

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Taiwan

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Taiwan

    dual citizenship recognized: yes, except that citizens of Taiwan are not recognized as dual citizens of the People's Republic of China

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Tajikistan

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application

  • Tanzania

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tanzania; if a child is born abroad, the father must be a citizen of Tanzania

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Thailand

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Thailand

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Timor-Leste

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Timor-Leste

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Togo

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Togo

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Tokelau

    see New Zealand

  • Tonga

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Tonga; if a child is born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Tonga

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Trinidad and Tobago

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

  • Tunisia

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tunisia

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Turkey (Turkiye)

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkey

    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from the government

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Turkmenistan

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkmenistan

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

  • Turks and Caicos Islands

    see United Kingdom

  • Tuvalu

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes; for a child born abroad, at least one parent must be a citizen of Tuvalu

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: na

  • Uganda

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a native-born citizen of Uganda

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: an aggregate of 20 years and continuously for the last 2 years prior to applying for citizenship

  • Ukraine

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ukraine

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • United Arab Emirates

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of the United Arab Emirates; if the father is unknown, the mother must be a citizen

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 30 years

  • United Kingdom

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the United Kingdom

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • United States

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: no, but the US government acknowledges such situtations exist; US citizens are not encouraged to seek dual citizenship since it limits protection by the US

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Uruguay

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years

  • Uzbekistan

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Vanuatu

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Vanuatu; in the case of only one parent, it must be the father who is a citizen

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Venezuela

    citizenship by birth: yes

    citizenship by descent only: yes

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; reduced to five years in the case of applicants from Spain, Portugal, Italy, or a Latin American or Caribbean country

  • Vietnam

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Vietnam

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

  • Virgin Islands

    see United States

  • Wake Island

    see United States

  • Wallis and Futuna

    see France

  • Yemen

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Yemen; if the father is unknown, the mother must be a citizen

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

  • Zambia

    citizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia

    citizenship by descent only: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia

    dual citizenship recognized: yes

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required

  • Zimbabwe

    citizenship by birth: no

    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Zimbabwe; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen

    dual citizenship recognized: no

    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years