Field Listing

Elevation

This entry includes the mean elevation and elevation extremes, lowest point and highest point.

  • Afghanistan

    highest point: Noshak 7,492 m

    lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m

    mean elevation: 1,884 m

  • Albania

    highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m

    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 708 m

  • Algeria

    highest point: Tahat 2,908 m

    lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m

    mean elevation: 800 m

  • American Samoa

    highest point: Lata Mountain 964 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Andorra

    highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

    lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m

    mean elevation: 1,996 m

  • Angola

    highest point: Moca 2,620 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,112 m

  • Anguilla

    highest point: Crocus Hill 73 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Antarctica

    highest point: Vinson Massif 4,892 m

    lowest point: Denman Glacier more than -3,500 m (-11,500 ft) below sea level

    mean elevation: 2,300 m

    note: the lowest known land point in Antarctica is hidden in the Denman Galcier; at its surface is the deepest ice yet discovered and the world's lowest elevation not under seawater

  • Antigua and Barbuda

    highest point: Mount Obama 402 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Arctic Ocean

    highest point: sea level

    lowest point: Molloy Deep -5,577 m

    mean depth: -1,205 m

    ocean zones: Composed of water and in a fluid state, the oceans are delimited differently than the solid continents. Oceans are divided into three zones based on depth and light level. Although some sea creatures depend on light to live, others can do without it. Sunlight entering the water may travel about 1,000 m into the oceans under the right conditions, but there is rarely any significant light beyond 200 m.

    The upper 200 m (656 ft) of oceans is called the euphotic, or "sunlight," zone. This zone contains the vast majority of commercial fisheries and is home to many protected marine mammals and sea turtles. Only a small amount of light penetrates beyond this depth.

    The zone between 200 m (656 ft) and 1,000 m (3,280 ft) is usually referred to as the "twilight" zone, but is officially the dysphotic zone. In this zone, the intensity of light rapidly dissipates as depth decreases. Such a minuscule amount of light penetrates beyond a depth of 200 m that photosynthesis is no longer possible.

    The aphotic, or "midnight," zone exists in depths below 1,000 m (3,280 ft). Sunlight does not penetrate to these depths and the zone is bathed in darkness.

  • Argentina

    highest point: Cerro Aconcagua (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza; highest point in South America) 6,962 m

    lowest point: Laguna del Carbon (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz) -105 m

    mean elevation: 595 m

  • Armenia

    highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m

    lowest point: Debed River 400 m

    mean elevation: 1,792 m

  • Aruba

    highest point: Ceru Jamanota 188 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Ashmore and Cartier Islands

    highest point: Cartier Island 5 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

  • Atlantic Ocean

    highest point: sea level

    lowest point: Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m

    mean depth: -3,646 m

    ocean zones: Composed of water and in a fluid state, the oceans are delimited differently than the solid continents. Oceans are divided into three zones based on depth and light level. Although some sea creatures depend on light to live, others can do without it. Sunlight entering the water may travel about 1,000 m into the oceans under the right conditions, but there is rarely any significant light beyond 200 m.

    The upper 200 m (656 ft) of oceans is called the euphotic, or "sunlight," zone. This zone contains the vast majority of commercial fisheries and is home to many protected marine mammals and sea turtles. Only a small amount of light penetrates beyond this depth.

    The zone between 200 m (656 ft) and 1,000 m (3,280 ft) is usually referred to as the "twilight" zone, but is officially the dysphotic zone. In this zone, the intensity of light rapidly dissipates as depth decreases. Such a minuscule amount of light penetrates beyond a depth of 200 m that photosynthesis is no longer possible.

    The aphotic, or "midnight," zone exists in depths below 1,000 m (3,280 ft). Sunlight does not penetrate to these depths and the zone is bathed in darkness.

  • Australia

    highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,228 m

    lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m

    mean elevation: 330 m

  • Austria

    highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

    lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m

    mean elevation: 910 m

  • Azerbaijan

    highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,466 m

    lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

    mean elevation: 384 m

  • Bahamas, The

    highest point: 1.3 km NE of Old Bight on Cat Island 64 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

  • Bahrain

    highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 135 m

    lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

  • Bangladesh

    highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 85 m

  • Barbados

    highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

  • Belarus

    highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

    lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m

    mean elevation: 160 m

  • Belgium

    highest point: Botrange 694 m

    lowest point: North Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 181 m

  • Belize

    highest point: Doyle's Delight 1,124 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 173 m

  • Benin

    highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 273 m

  • Bermuda

    highest point: Town Hill 79 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

  • Bhutan

    highest point: Gangkar Puensum 7,570 m

    lowest point: Drangeme Chhu 97 m

    mean elevation: 2,220 m

  • Bolivia

    highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

    lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m

    mean elevation: 1,192 m

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina

    highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 500 m

  • Botswana

    highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

    lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m

    mean elevation: 1,013 m

  • Bouvet Island

    highest point: Olavtoppen (Olav Peak) 780 m

    lowest point: South Atlantic Ocean 0 m

  • Brazil

    highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 320 m

  • British Indian Ocean Territory

    highest point: ocean-side dunes on Diego Garcia 9 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

  • British Virgin Islands

    highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Brunei

    highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

    lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 478 m

  • Bulgaria

    highest point: Musala 2,925 m

    lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 472 m

  • Burkina Faso

    highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

    lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m

    mean elevation: 297 m

  • Burma

    highest point: Gamlang Razi 5,870 m

    lowest point: Andaman Sea/Bay of Bengal 0 m

    mean elevation: 702 m

  • Burundi

    highest point: Heha 2,670 m

    lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m

    mean elevation: 1,504 m

  • Cabo Verde

    highest point: Mt. Fogo (a volcano on Fogo Island) 2,829 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

  • Cambodia

    highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

    lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m

    mean elevation: 126 m

  • Cameroon

    highest point: Fako on Mont Cameroun 4,045 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 667 m

  • Canada

    highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

    lowest point: Atlantic/Pacific/Arctic Oceans 0 m

    mean elevation: 487 m

  • Cayman Islands

    highest point: 1 km SW of The Bluff on Cayman Brac 50 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Central African Republic

    highest point: Mont Ngaoui 1,410 m

    lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m

    mean elevation: 635 m

  • Chad

    highest point: Emi Koussi 3,445 m

    lowest point: Djourab 160 m

    mean elevation: 543 m

  • Chile

    highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,893 m (highest volcano in the world)

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,871 m

  • China

    highest point: Mount Everest (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level) 8,849 m

    lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m

    mean elevation: 1,840 m

  • Christmas Island

    highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

  • Clipperton Island

    highest point: Rocher Clipperton 29 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    highest point: South Point on South Island 9 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

  • Colombia

    highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,730 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 593 m

  • Comoros

    highest point: Karthala 2,360 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the

    highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 726 m

  • Congo, Republic of the

    highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 430 m

  • Cook Islands

    highest point: Te Manga 652 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Coral Sea Islands

    highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 9 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Costa Rica

    highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,819 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 746 m

  • Cote d'Ivoire

    highest point: Monts Nimba 1,752 m

    lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m

    mean elevation: 250 m

  • Croatia

    highest point: Dinara 1,831 m

    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 331 m

  • Cuba

    highest point: Pico Turquino 1,974 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 108 m

  • Curacao

    highest point: Mt. Christoffel 372 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Cyprus

    highest point: Mount Olympus 1,951 m

    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 91 m

  • Czechia

    highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

    lowest point: Labe (Elbe) River 115 m

    mean elevation: 433 m

  • Denmark

    highest point: Mollehoj/Ejer Bavnehoj 171 m

    lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m

    mean elevation: 34 m

  • Djibouti

    highest point: Moussa Ali 2,021 m

    lowest point: Lac Assal -155 m

    mean elevation: 430 m

  • Dominica

    highest point: Morne Diablotins 1,447 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Dominican Republic

    highest point: Pico Duarte 3,098 m

    lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m

    mean elevation: 424 m

  • Ecuador

    highest point: Chimborazo 6,267

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,117 m

    note: because the earth is not a perfect sphere and has an equatorial bulge, the highest point on the planet farthest from its center is Mount Chimborazo not Mount Everest, which is merely the highest peak above sea level

  • Egypt

    highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

    lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m

    mean elevation: 321 m

  • El Salvador

    highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 442 m

  • Equatorial Guinea

    highest point: Pico Basile 3,008 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 577 m

  • Eritrea

    highest point: Soira 3,018 m

    lowest point: near Kulul within the Danakil Depression -75 m

    mean elevation: 853 m

  • Estonia

    highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

    lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 61 m

  • Eswatini

    highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m

    lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m

    mean elevation: 305 m

  • Ethiopia

    highest point: Ras Dejen 4,550 m

    lowest point: Danakil Depression -125 m

    mean elevation: 1,330 m

  • European Union

    highest point: Mont Blanc, France 4,810 m

    lowest point: Zuidplaspolder, Netherlands -7 m

  • Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

    highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

  • Faroe Islands

    highest point: Slaettaratindur 882 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

  • Fiji

    highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Finland

    highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m

    lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 164 m

  • France

    highest point: Mont Blanc 4,810

    lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m

    mean elevation: 375 m

    note: to assess the possible effects of climate change on the ice and snow cap of Mont Blanc, its surface and peak have been extensively measured in recent years; these new peak measurements have exceeded the traditional height of 4,807 m and have varied between 4,808 m and 4,811 m; the actual rock summit is 4,792 m and is 40 m away from the ice-covered summit

  • French Polynesia

    highest point: Mont Orohena 2,241 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • French Southern and Antarctic Lands

    highest point: Mont de la Dives on Ile Amsterdam (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul) 867 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

    highest points throughout the French Southern and Antarctic Lands: unnamed location on Ile Saint-Paul (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul) 272 m; Pic Marion-Dufresne in Iles Crozet 1090 m; Mont Ross in Iles Kerguelen 1850 m; unnamed location on Bassas de India (Iles Eparses) 2.4 m;24 unnamed location on Europa Island (Iles Eparses) 24 m; unnamed location on Glorioso Islands (Iles Eparses) 12 m; unnamed location on Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses) 10 m; unnamed location on Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses) 7 m

  • Gabon

    highest point: Mont Iboundji 1,575 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 377 m

  • Gambia, The

    highest point: unnamed elevation 53 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 34 m

  • Gaza Strip

    highest point: Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu 'Awdah) 105 m

    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

  • Georgia

    highest point: Mt'a Shkhara 5,193 m

    lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,432 m

  • Germany

    highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

    lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.5 m

    mean elevation: 263 m

  • Ghana

    highest point: Mount Afadjato 885 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 190 m

  • Gibraltar

    highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

  • Greece

    highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917

    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 498 m

    note: Mount Olympus actually has 52 peaks but its highest point, Mytikas (meaning "nose"), rises to 2,917 meters; in Greek mythology, Olympus' Mytikas peak was the home of the Greek gods

  • Greenland

    highest point: Gunnbjorn Fjeld 3,694 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,792 m

  • Grenada

    highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Guam

    highest point: Mount Lamlam 406 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Guatemala

    highest point: Volcan Tajumulco (highest point in Central America) 4,220 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 759 m

  • Guernsey

    highest point: Le Moulin on Sark 114 m

    lowest point: English Channel 0 m

  • Guinea

    highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 472 m

  • Guinea-Bissau

    highest point: unnamed elevation in the eastern part of the country 300 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 70 m

  • Guyana

    highest point: Laberintos del Norte on Mount Roraima 2,775 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 207 m

  • Haiti

    highest point: Pic la Selle 2,674 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 470 m

  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands

    highest point: Mawson Peak on Big Ben volcano 2,745 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

  • Holy See (Vatican City)

    highest point: Vatican Gardens (Vatican Hill) 78 m

    lowest point: Saint Peter's Square 19 m

  • Honduras

    highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 684 m

  • Hong Kong

    highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m

    lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

  • Hungary

    highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

    lowest point: Tisza River 78 m

    mean elevation: 143 m

  • Iceland

    highest point: Hvannadalshnukur (at Vatnajokull Glacier) 2,110 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 557 m

  • India

    highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,586 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 160 m

  • Indian Ocean

    highest point: sea level

    lowest point: Java Trench -7,192 m unnamed deep

    mean depth: -3,741 m

    ocean zones: Composed of water and in a fluid state, the oceans are delimited differently than the solid continents. Oceans are divided into three zones based on depth and light level. Although some sea creatures depend on light to live, others can do without it. Sunlight entering the water may travel about 1,000 m into the oceans under the right conditions, but there is rarely any significant light beyond 200 m.

    The upper 200 m (656 ft) of oceans is called the euphotic, or "sunlight," zone. This zone contains the vast majority of commercial fisheries and is home to many protected marine mammals and sea turtles. Only a small amount of light penetrates beyond this depth.

    The zone between 200 m (656 ft) and 1,000 m (3,280 ft) is usually referred to as the "twilight" zone, but is officially the dysphotic zone. In this zone, the intensity of light rapidly dissipates as depth decreases. Such a minuscule amount of light penetrates beyond a depth of 200 m that photosynthesis is no longer possible.

    The aphotic, or "midnight," zone exists in depths below 1,000 m (3,280 ft). Sunlight does not penetrate to these depths and the zone is bathed in darkness.

  • Indonesia

    highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 367 m

  • Iran

    highest point: Kuh-e Damavand 5,625 m

    lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

    mean elevation: 1,305 m

  • Iraq

    highest point: Cheekha Dar (Kurdish for "Black Tent") 3,611 m

    lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

    mean elevation: 312 m

  • Ireland

    highest point: Carrauntoohil 1,041 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 118 m

  • Isle of Man

    highest point: Snaefell 621 m

    lowest point: Irish Sea 0 m

  • Israel

    highest point: Mitspe Shlagim 2,224 m; note - this is the highest named point, the actual highest point is an unnamed dome slightly to the west of Mitspe Shlagim at 2,236 m; both points are on the northeastern border of Israel, along the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range

    lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m

    mean elevation: 508 m note - does not include elevation data from the Golan Heights

  • Italy

    highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc) 4,748 m

    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 538 m

  • Jamaica

    highest point: Blue Mountain Peak 2,256 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 18 m

  • Jan Mayen

    highest point: Haakon VII Toppen on Beerenberg 2,277

    lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m

    note: Beerenberg volcano has numerous peaks; the highest point on the volcano rim is named Haakon VII Toppen, after Norway's first king following the reestablishment of Norwegian independence in 1905

  • Japan

    highest point: Mount Fuji 3,776 m

    lowest point: Hachiro-gata -4 m

    mean elevation: 438 m

  • Jersey

    highest point: Les Platons 136 m

    lowest point: English Channel 0 m

  • Jordan

    highest point: Jabal Umm ad Dami 1,854 m

    lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m

    mean elevation: 812 m

  • Kazakhstan

    highest point: Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Pik Khan-Tengri) 6,995 m

    lowest point: Vpadina Kaundy -132 m

    mean elevation: 387 m

  • Kenya

    highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 762 m

  • Kiribati

    highest point: unnamed elevation on Banaba 81 m m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 2 m

  • Korea, North

    highest point: Paektu-san 2,744 m

    lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m

    mean elevation: 600 m

  • Korea, South

    highest point: Halla-san 1,950 m

    lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m

    mean elevation: 282 m

  • Kosovo

    highest point: Gjeravica/Deravica 2,656 m

    lowest point: Drini i Bardhe/Beli Drim (located on the border with Albania) 297 m

    mean elevation: 450 m

  • Kuwait

    highest point: 3.6 km W. of Al-Salmi Border Post 300 m

    lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

    mean elevation: 108 m

  • Kyrgyzstan

    highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m

    lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m

    mean elevation: 2,988 m

  • Laos

    highest point: Phu Bia 2,817 m

    lowest point: Mekong River 70 m

    mean elevation: 710 m

  • Latvia

    highest point: Gaizina Kalns 312 m

    lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 87 m

  • Lebanon

    highest point: Qornet es Saouda 3,088 m

    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,250 m

  • Lesotho

    highest point: Thabana Ntlenyana 3,482 m

    lowest point: junction of the Orange and Makhaleng Rivers 1,400 m

    mean elevation: 2,161 m

  • Liberia

    highest point: Mount Wuteve 1,447 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 243 m

  • Libya

    highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m

    lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m

    mean elevation: 423 m

  • Liechtenstein

    highest point: Vorder-Grauspitz 2,599 m

    lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m

  • Lithuania

    highest point: Aukstojas 294 m

    lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 110 m

  • Luxembourg

    highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m

    lowest point: Moselle River 133 m

    mean elevation: 325 m

  • Macau

    highest point: Alto Coloane 172 m

    lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

  • Madagascar

    highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 615 m

  • Malawi

    highest point: Sapitwa (Mount Mlanje) 3,002 m

    lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m

    mean elevation: 779 m

  • Malaysia

    highest point: Gunung Kinabalu 4,095 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 419 m

  • Maldives

    highest point: 8th tee, golf course, Villingi Island 5 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 2 m

  • Mali

    highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m

    lowest point: Senegal River 23 m

    mean elevation: 343 m

  • Malta

    highest point: Ta'Dmejrek on Dingli Cliffs 253 m

    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

  • Marshall Islands

    highest point: East-central Airik Island, Maloelap Atoll 14 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 2 m

  • Mauritania

    highest point: Kediet Ijill 915 m

    lowest point: Sebkhet Te-n-Dghamcha -5 m

    mean elevation: 276 m

  • Mauritius

    highest point: Mont Piton 828 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

  • Mexico

    highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,636 m

    lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m

    mean elevation: 1,111 m

  • Micronesia, Federated States of

    highest point: Nanlaud on Pohnpei 782 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Moldova

    highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m

    lowest point: Dniester (Nistru) 2 m

    mean elevation: 139 m

  • Monaco

    highest point: Chemin des Revoires on Mont Agel 162 m

    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

  • Mongolia

    highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Khuiten Peak) 4,374 m

    lowest point: Hoh Nuur 560 m

    mean elevation: 1,528 m

  • Montenegro

    highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m

    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,086 m

  • Montserrat

    highest point: Soufriere Hills volcano pre-eruption height was 915 m; current lava dome is subject to periodic build up and collapse; estimated dome height was 1,050 m in 2015

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Morocco

    highest point: Jebel Toubkal 4,165 m

    lowest point: Sebkha Tah -59 m

    mean elevation: 909 m

  • Mozambique

    highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 345 m

  • Namibia

    highest point: Konigstein on Brandberg 2,573 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,141 m

  • Nauru

    highest point: Command Ridge 70 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Navassa Island

    highest point: 200 m NNW of lighthouse 85 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Nepal

    highest point: Mount Everest (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level) 8,849 m

    lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m

    mean elevation: 2,565 m

  • Netherlands

    highest point: Mount Scenery (on the island of Saba in the Caribbean, now considered an integral part of the Netherlands following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles) 862 m

    lowest point: Zuidplaspolder -7 m

    mean elevation: 30 m

    note: the highest point on continental Netherlands is Vaalserberg at 322 m

  • New Caledonia

    highest point: Mont Panie 1,628 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • New Zealand

    highest point: Aoraki/Mount Cook 3,724 m; note - the mountain's height was 3,764 m until 14 December 1991 when it lost about 10 m in an avalanche of rock and ice; erosion of the ice cap since then has brought the height down another 30 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 388 m

  • Nicaragua

    highest point: Mogoton 2,085 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 298 m

  • Niger

    highest point: Idoukal-n-Taghes 2,022 m

    lowest point: Niger River 200 m

    mean elevation: 474 m

  • Nigeria

    highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 380 m

  • Niue

    highest point: unnamed elevation 1.4 km east of Hikutavake 80 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Norfolk Island

    highest point: Mount Bates 319 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • North Macedonia

    highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m

    lowest point: Vardar River 50 m

    mean elevation: 741 m

  • Northern Mariana Islands

    highest point: unnamed elevation on Agrihan 965 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Norway

    highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m

    lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 460 m

  • Oman

    highest point: Jabal Shams 3,004 m

    lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 310 m

  • Pacific Ocean

    highest point: sea level

    lowest point: Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench -10,924 m
    note - the Pacific Ocean is the deepest ocean basin

    mean depth: -4,080 m

    ocean zones: Composed of water and in a fluid state, the oceans are delimited differently than the solid continents. Oceans are divided into three zones based on depth and light level. Although some sea creatures depend on light to live, others can do without it. Sunlight entering the water may travel about 1,000 m into the oceans under the right conditions, but there is rarely any significant light beyond 200 m.

    The upper 200 m (656 ft) of oceans is called the euphotic, or "sunlight," zone. This zone contains the vast majority of commercial fisheries and is home to many protected marine mammals and sea turtles. Only a small amount of light penetrates beyond this depth.

    The zone between 200 m (656 ft) and 1,000 m (3,280 ft) is usually referred to as the "twilight" zone, but is officially the dysphotic zone. In this zone, the intensity of light rapidly dissipates as depth decreases. Such a minuscule amount of light penetrates beyond a depth of 200 m that photosynthesis is no longer possible.

    The aphotic, or "midnight," zone exists in depths below 1,000 m (3,280 ft). Sunlight does not penetrate to these depths and the zone is bathed in darkness.

  • Pakistan

    highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

    lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 900 m

  • Palau

    highest point: Mount Ngerchelchuus 242 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Panama

    highest point: Volcan Baru 3,475 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 360 m

  • Papua New Guinea

    highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 667 m

  • Paracel Islands

    highest point: unnamed location on Rocky Island 14 m

    lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

  • Paraguay

    highest point: Cerro Pero 842 m

    lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m

    mean elevation: 178 m

  • Peru

    highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,746 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,555 m

  • Philippines

    highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m

    lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 442 m

  • Pitcairn Islands

    highest point: Palwala Valley Point on Big Ridge 347 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Poland

    highest point: Rysy 2,499 m

    lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m

    mean elevation: 173 m

  • Portugal

    highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 372 m

  • Puerto Rico

    highest point: Cerro de Punta 1,338 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 261 m

  • Qatar

    highest point: Tuwayyir al Hamir 103 m

    lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

    mean elevation: 28 m

  • Romania

    highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

    lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 414 m

  • Russia

    highest point: Gora El'brus (highest point in Europe) 5,642 m

    lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

    mean elevation: 600 m

  • Rwanda

    highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m

    lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m

    mean elevation: 1,598 m

  • Saint Barthelemy

    highest point: Morne du Vitet 286 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Ocean 0 m

  • Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha

    highest point: Queen Mary's Peak on Tristan da Cunha 859 m; Green Mountain on Ascension Island 818 m; Mount Actaeon on Saint Helena Island 2,060 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

  • Saint Kitts and Nevis

    highest point: Mount Liamuiga 1,156 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Saint Lucia

    highest point: Mount Gimie 948 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Saint Martin

    highest point: Pic du Paradis 424 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Ocean 0 m

  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon

    highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

    highest point: La Soufriere 1,234 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Samoa

    highest point: Mount Silisili 1,857 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • San Marino

    highest point: Monte Titano 739 m

    lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m

  • Sao Tome and Principe

    highest point: Pico de Sao Tome 2,024 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

  • Saudi Arabia

    highest point: As Sarawat range, 3,000 m

    lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

    mean elevation: 665 m

  • Senegal

    highest point: unnamed elevation 2.8 km southeast of Nepen Diaka 648 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 69 m

  • Serbia

    highest point: Midzor 2,169 m

    lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m

    mean elevation: 442 m

  • Seychelles

    highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

  • Sierra Leone

    highest point: Loma Mansa (Bintimani) 1,948 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 279 m

  • Singapore

    highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m

    lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m

  • Sint Maarten

    highest point: Mount Flagstaff 383 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Slovakia

    highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m

    lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m

    mean elevation: 458 m

  • Slovenia

    highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 492 m

  • Solomon Islands

    highest point: Mount Popomanaseu 2,335 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Somalia

    highest point: Mount Shimbiris 2,460 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 410 m

  • South Africa

    highest point: Ntheledi (Mafadi) 3,450 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,034 m

  • South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands

    highest point: Mount Paget (South Georgia) 2,934 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

  • South Sudan

    highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m

    lowest point: White Nile 381 m

  • Southern Ocean

    highest point: sea level

    lowest point: southern end of the South Sandwich Trench -7,434 m unnamed deep

    mean depth: -3,270 m

    ocean zones: Composed of water and in a fluid state, the oceans are delimited differently than the solid continents. Oceans are divided into three zones based on depth and light level. Although some sea creatures depend on light to live, others can do without it. Sunlight entering the water may travel about 1,000 m into the oceans under the right conditions, but there is rarely any significant light beyond 200 m.

    The upper 200 m (656 ft) of oceans is called the euphotic, or "sunlight," zone. This zone contains the vast majority of commercial fisheries and is home to many protected marine mammals and sea turtles. Only a small amount of light penetrates beyond this depth.

    The zone between 200 m (656 ft) and 1,000 m (3,280 ft) is usually referred to as the "twilight" zone, but is officially the dysphotic zone. In this zone, the intensity of light rapidly dissipates as depth decreases. Such a minuscule amount of light penetrates beyond a depth of 200 m that photosynthesis is no longer possible.

    The aphotic, or "midnight," zone exists in depths below 1,000 m (3,280 ft). Sunlight does not penetrate to these depths and the zone is bathed in darkness.

  • Spain

    highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 660 m

  • Spratly Islands

    highest point: unnamed location on Southwest Cay 6 m

    lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

  • Sri Lanka

    highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 228 m

  • Sudan

    highest point: Jabal Marrah 3,042 m

    lowest point: Red Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 568 m

  • Suriname

    highest point: Juliana Top 1,230 m

    lowest point: unnamed location in the coastal plain -2 m

    mean elevation: 246 m

  • Svalbard

    highest point: Newtontoppen 1,717 m

    lowest point: Arctic Ocean 0 m

  • Sweden

    highest point: Kebnekaise South 2,100 m

    lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m

    mean elevation: 320 m

  • Switzerland

    highest point: Dufourspitze 4,634 m

    lowest point: Lake Maggiore 195 m

    mean elevation: 1,350 m

  • Syria

    highest point: Mount Hermon (Jabal a-Shayk) 2,814 m

    lowest point: unnamed location near Lake Tiberias -208 m

    mean elevation: 514 m

  • Taiwan

    highest point: Yu Shan 3,952 m

    lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,150 m

  • Tajikistan

    highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m

    lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m

    mean elevation: 3,186 m

  • Tanzania

    highest point: Kilimanjaro (highest point in Africa) 5,895 m

    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,018 m

  • Thailand

    highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,565 m

    lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m

    mean elevation: 287 m

  • Timor-Leste

    highest point: Foho Tatamailau 2,963 m

    lowest point: Timor Sea, Savu Sea, and Banda Sea 0 m

  • Togo

    highest point: Mont Agou 986 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 236 m

  • Tokelau

    highest point: unnamed location 5 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Tonga

    highest point: Kao Volcano on Kao Island 1,046 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Trinidad and Tobago

    highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 83 m

  • Tunisia

    highest point: Jebel ech Chambi 1,544 m

    lowest point: Shatt al Gharsah -17 m

    mean elevation: 246 m

  • Turkey

    highest point: Mount Ararat 5,137 m

    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 1,132 m

  • Turkmenistan

    highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m

    lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya (Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in northern Turkmenistan with a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya, the lake has dropped as low as -110 m) -81 m

    mean elevation: 230 m

  • Turks and Caicos Islands

    highest point: Blue Hill on Providenciales and Flamingo Hill on East Caicos 48 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Tuvalu

    highest point: unnamed location 5 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 2 m

  • Uganda

    highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m

    lowest point: Albert Nile 614 m

  • Ukraine

    highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m

    lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 175 m

  • United Arab Emirates

    highest point: Jabal Yibir 1,527 m

    lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

    mean elevation: 149 m

  • United Kingdom

    highest point: Ben Nevis 1,345 m

    lowest point: The Fens -4 m

    mean elevation: 162 m

  • United States

    highest point: Denali 6,190 m (Mount McKinley) (highest point in North America)

    lowest point: Death Valley (lowest point in North America) -86 m

    mean elevation: 760 m

    note: Denali is one of the most striking features on the entire planet; at 20,310 feet, it is the crowning peak of the Alaska Range and the highest mountain on North America; it towers three and one-half vertical miles above its base, making it a mile taller from base to summit than Mt. Everest; Denali's base sits at about 2,000 feet above sea level and rises over three and one-half miles to its 20,310 foot summit; Everest begins on a 14,000-foot high plain, then summits at 29,028 feet.
    note:
     the peak of Mauna Kea (4,207 m above sea level) on the island of Hawaii rises about 10,200 m above the Pacific Ocean floor; by this measurement, it is the world's tallest mountain - higher than Mount Everest (8,850 m), which is recognized as the tallest mountain above sea level

  • United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges

    highest point: Baker Island, unnamed location 8 m; Howland Island, unnamed location 3 m; Jarvis Island, unnamed location 7 m; Johnston Atoll, Sand Island 10 m; Kingman Reef, unnamed location 2 m; Midway Islands, unnamed location less than 13 m; Palmyra Atoll, unnamed location 3 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Uruguay

    highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m

    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

    mean elevation: 109 m

  • Uzbekistan

    highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

    lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m

  • Vanuatu

    highest point: Tabwemasana 1,877 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Venezuela

    highest point: Pico Bolivar 4,978 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 450 m

  • Vietnam

    highest point: Fan Si Pan 3,144 m

    lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 398 m

  • Virgin Islands

    highest point: Crown Mountain 474 m

    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

  • Wake Island

    highest point: unnamed location 8 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • Wallis and Futuna

    highest point: Mont Singavi (on Futuna) 522 m

    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

  • West Bank

    highest point: Khallat al Batrakh 1,020 m

    lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m

  • World

    highest point: Mount Everest 8,849 m

    lowest point: Denman Glacier (Antarctica) more than -3,500 m (in the oceanic realm, Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the lowest point, lying -10,924 m below the surface of the Pacific Ocean)

    mean elevation: 840 m

    top ten highest mountains (measured from sea level): Mount Everest (China-Nepal) 8,849 m; K2 (Pakistan) 8,611 m; Kanchenjunga (India-Nepal) 8,598 m; Lhotse (Nepal) 8,516 m; Makalu (China-Nepal) 8,463 m; Cho Oyu (China-Nepal) 8,201 m; Dhaulagiri (Nepal) 8,167 m; Manaslu (Nepal) 8,163 m; Nanga Parbat (Pakistan) 8,125 m; Anapurna (Nepal) 8,091 m; note - Mauna Kea (United States) is the world's tallest mountain as measured from base to summit; the peak of this volcanic colossus lies on the island of Hawaii, but its base begins more than 70 km offshore and at a depth of about 6,000 m; total height estimates range from 9,966 m to 10,203 m

    top ten highest island peaks: Puncak Jaya (New Guinea) 4,884 m (Indonesia)*; Mauna Kea (Hawaii) 4,207 m (United States); Gunung Kinabalu (Borneo) 4,095 m (Malaysia)*; Yu Shan (Taiwan) 3,952 (Taiwan)*; Mount Kerinci (Sumatra) 3,805 m (Indonesia); Mount Erebus (Ross Island) 3,794 (Antarctica); Mount Fuji (Honshu) 3,776 m (Japan)*; Mount Rinjani (Lombok) 3,726 m (Indonesia); Aoraki-Mount Cook (South Island) 3,724 m (New Zealand)*; Pico de Teide (Tenerife) 3,718 m (Spain)*; note - * indicates the highest peak for that Factbook entry

    highest point on each continent: Asia - Mount Everest (China-Nepal) 8,849 m; South America - Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina) 6,960 m; North America - Denali (Mount McKinley) (United States) 6,190 m; Africa - Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) 5,895 m; Europe - El'brus (Russia) 5,633 m; Antarctica - Vinson Massif 4,897 m; Australia - Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m

    highest capital on each continent: South America - La Paz (Bolivia) 3,640 m; Africa - Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) 2,355 m; Asia - Thimphu (Bhutan) 2,334 m; North America - Mexico City (Mexico) 2,240 m; Europe - Andorra la Vella (Andorra) 1,023 m; Australia - Canberra (Australia) 605 m

    lowest point on each continent: Antarctica - Denman Glacier more than -3,500 m; Asia - Dead Sea (Israel-Jordan) -431 m; Africa - Lac Assal (Djibouti) -155 m; South America - Laguna del Carbon (Argentina) -105 m; North America - Death Valley (United States) -86 m; Europe - Caspian Sea (Azerbaijan-Kazakhstan-Russia) -28 m; Australia - Lake Eyre -15

    lowest capital on each continent: Asia - Baku (Azerbaijan) -28 m; Europe - Amsterdam (Netherlands) -2 m; Africa - Banjul (Gambia); Bissau (Guinea-Bissau), Conakry (Guinea), Djibouti (Djibouti), Libreville (Gabon), Male (Maldives), Monrovia (Liberia), Tunis (Tunisia), Victoria (Seychelles) 0 m; North America - Basseterre (Saint Kitts and Nevis), Kingstown (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Panama City (Panama), Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago), Roseau (Dominica), Saint John's (Antigua and Barbuda), Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) 0 m; South America - Georgetown (Guyana) 0 m; Australia - Canberra (Australia) 605 m

  • Yemen

    highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,666 m

    lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m

    mean elevation: 999 m

  • Zambia

    highest point: Mafinga Central 2,330 m

    lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m

    mean elevation: 1,138 m

  • Zimbabwe

    highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m

    lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save Rivers 162 m

    mean elevation: 961 m