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This entry includes five subentries: chief of state; head of government; cabinet; elections/appointments; election results. Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, and the beginning date in office. Cabinet includes the official name of the executive branch’s high-ranking body and the method of member selection. Elections/appointments includes the process for accession to office, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes each candidate's political affiliation, percent of direct popular vote or indirect legislative/parliamentary percent vote or vote count in the last election.

The executive branches in approximately 80% of the world's countries have separate chiefs of state and heads of government; for the remainder, the chief of state is also the head of government, such as in Argentina, Kenya, the Philippines, the US, and Venezuela. Chiefs of state in just over 100 countries are directly elected, most by majority popular vote; those in another 55 are indirectly elected by their national legislatures, parliaments, or electoral colleges. Another 29 countries have a monarch as the chief of state. In dependencies, territories, and collectivities of sovereign countries - except those of the US - representatives are appointed to serve as chiefs of state.

Heads of government in the majority of countries are appointed either by the president or the monarch or selected by the majority party in the legislative body. Excluding countries where the chief of state is also head of government, in only a few countries is the head of government directly elected through popular vote.

Most of the world's countries have cabinets, the majority of which are appointed by the chief of state or prime minister, many in consultation with each other or with the legislature. Cabinets in only about a dozen countries are elected solely by their legislative bodies.

Afghanistan

chief of state: overall Taliban Leader HAYBATULLAH Akhundzada serves as the head of the Taliban as Amir-ul Momineen and as such is seen by the Taliban as head of state; he resides and issues decrees from the city of Kandahar while the legacy government ministries operate from Kabul

head of government: overall Taliban Leader HAYBATULLAH Akhundzada is the [so-called] Amir-ul Momineen of the Taliban and is seen by them as a head of government

 



cabinet:

the Taliban have announced a “cabinet” for the “caretaker government,” including the “acting prime minister,” “acting deputy prime ministers,” and “ministers” who claim to represent 26 ministries



elections/appointments: the 2004 Afghan constitution directed that the president should be elected by majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 September 2019, and the Taliban have given no indication that they intend to reinstate elections or any other mechanism of democratic governance

note 1: the United States has not yet made a decision whether to recognize the Taliban or any other entity as the government of Afghanistan
note 2: note - on 7 September 2021, the Taliban announced Mohammad HASSAN Akhund as the “acting prime minister” of the "caretaker government”; as of November 2021, the group had announced three "acting deputy prime ministers” - Abdul Ghani BARADER, Abdul Salam HANAFI, and Mohammad Abdul KABIR

Akrotiri

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022)

head of government: Administrator Air Vice-Marshal Peter J.M. SQUIRES (since 1 September 2022); note - administrator reports to the British Ministry of Defense and is also Commander, British Forces Cyprus (BFC); the chief officer, an appointed civilian, is responsible for the day-to-day running of the civil government of the Sovereign Base Areas

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; administrator appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Ministry of Defense

Albania

chief of state: President Bajram BEGAJ (since 24 July 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Edi RAMA (since 10 September 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Arben AHMETAJ (since 18 September 2021)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by the Assembly

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); a candidate needs three-fifths majority vote of the Assembly in 1 of 3 rounds or a simple majority in 2 additional rounds to become president; election last held in 4 rounds on 16, 23, and 30 May and 4 June 2022 (next election to be held in 2027); prime minister appointed by the president on the proposal of the majority party or coalition of parties in the Assembly

election results:
2022:
Bajram BEGAJ elected president in the fourth round; Assembly vote - 78-4, opposition parties boycotted

2017:
Ilir META elected president in the fourth round; Assembly vote - 87-2

Algeria

chief of state: President Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE (since 12 December 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Nadir LARBAOUI (since 11 November 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 December 2019 (next to be held on 7 September 2024); prime minister nominated by the president after consultation with the majority party in Parliament

election results:
2019:
Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE (FLN) 58.1%, Abdelkader BENGRINA (El-Bina) 17.4%, Ali BENFLIS (Talaie El Hurriyet) 10.6%, Azzedine MIHOUBI (RND) 7.3%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 6.7%

2014: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%

American Samoa

chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

head of government: Governor Lemanu Peleti MAUGA (since 3 January 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet consists of 12 department directors appointed by the governor with the consent of the Legislature or Fono

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state to serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as American Samoa, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held in November 2024)

election results:
Lemanu Peleti MAUGA elected governor in first round; percent of vote - Lemanu Peleti MAUGA (independent) 60.3%, Gaoteote Palaie TOFAU (independent) 21.9%, I'aulualo Fa'afetai TALIA (independent) 12.3%

Andorra

chief of state: Co-prince Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Patrick STROZDA (since 14 May 2017); and Co-prince Archbishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Josep Maria MAURI (since 20 July 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Xavier Espot ZAMORA (since 16 May 2019)

cabinet: Executive Council of 12 ministers designated by the head of government

elections/appointments: head of government indirectly elected by the General Council (Andorran parliament), formally appointed by the co-princes for a 4-year term; election last held on 2 April 2023 (next to be held in April 2027); the leader of the majority party in the General Council is usually elected head of government

election results:
2023:
Xaviar Espot ZAMORA (DA) reelected head of government; percent of General Council vote - 57.1%

2019:
  Xaviar Espot ZAMORA (DA) elected head of government; percent of General Council vote - 60.7

Angola

chief of state: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Esperanca Francisco DA COSTA (since 15 September 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 15 September 2022); Vice President Esperanca Francisco DA COSTA (since 15 September 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: the candidate of the winning party or coalition in the last legislative election becomes the president; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); last held on 24 August 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

election results: Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (MPLA) elected president by then winning party following the 24 August 2022 general election

Anguilla

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Julia CROUCH
(since 11 September 2023)

head of government: Premier Dr. Ellis WEBSTER (since 30 June 2020); note - starting in 2019, the title of head of government was changed to premier from Chief Minister of Anguilla

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among elected members of the House of Assembly

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

Antigua and Barbuda

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Rodney WILLIAMS (since 14 August 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Gaston BROWNE (since 13 June 2014)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Argentina

chief of state: President Javier Gerardo MILEI (since 10 December 2023); Vice President Victoria Eugenia VILLARRUEL (since 10 December 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Javier Gerardo MILEI (since 10 December 2023); Vice President Victoria Eugenia VILLARRUEL (since 10 December 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority vote (to win, a candidate must receive at least 45% of votes or 40% of votes and a 10-point lead over the second place candidate; if neither occurs, a second round is held ); the president serves a 4-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 22 October 2023 with a runoff held 19 November 2023 (next to be held in October 2027)

election results:


2023: Javier Gerardo MILEI elected president in second round; percent vote in first round - Sergio Tomás MASSA (FR) 36.7%, Javier Gerardo MILEI (PL) 30%, Patricia BULLRICH 23.8% (JxC/PRO), Juan SCHIARETTI (PJ) 6.8%, Myriam BREGMAN (PTS) 2.7%; percent of vote in second round - Javier Gerardo MILEI 55.7%, Sergio Tomás MASSA 44.3%

2019:
Alberto Ángel FERNÁNDEZ elected president; percent of vote - Alberto Angel FERNÁNDEZ (TODOS) 48.1%, Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 40.4%, Roberto LAVAGNA (independent) 6.2%, other 5.3%

Armenia

chief of state: President Vahagn KHACHATURYAN (since 13 March 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Nikol PASHINYAN (since 10 September 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Mher GRIGORYAN (since 3 August 2021) and Tigran KHACHATRYAN (since 19 December 2022); note - Prime Minister Nikol PASHINYAN resigned on 25 April 2021 in advance of the 20 June 2021 parliamentary election; he was reappointed by the president on 2 August 2021 and sworn in on 10 September 2021

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly in 3 rounds if needed for a single 7-year term; election last held on 2 and 3 March 2022 (next election to be held in 2029); prime minister indirectly elected by majority vote in two rounds if needed by the National Assembly

election results:
2022: Vahagn KHACHATURYAN elected president in second round; note - Vahagn KHACHATURYAN (independent) ran unopposed and won the Assembly vote 71-0

2018:
Armen SARKISSIAN elected president in first round; note - Armen SARKISSIAN (indpendent) ran unopposed and won the Assembly vote 90-10

note: Nikol PASHINYAN was first elected prime minister on 8 May 2018 and reelected on January 2019; in response to a political crisis that followed Armenia's defeat in the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War in late 2020, PASHINYAN called an early legislative election for 21 June 2021; his party won the election and PASHINYAN was elected prime minister for a third time; his election was confirmed by the president on 2 August 2021, and he was sworn in on 10 September 2021

Aruba

chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER of the Netherlands (since 30 April 2013); represented by Governor General Alfonso BOEKHOUDT (since 1 January 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister Evelyn WEVER-CROES (since 17 November 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Legislature (Staten)

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch for a 6-year term; prime minister and deputy prime minister indirectly elected by the Staten for 4-year term; election last held on 25 June 2021 (next to be held by June 2025)

election results: as leader of the majority party of the ruling coalition, Evelyn WEVER-CROES (MEP) elected prime minister; percent of Staten vote - NA

Australia

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General David HURLEY (since 1 July 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Anthony ALBANESE (since 23 May 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister from among members of Parliament and sworn in by the governor general

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general

Austria

chief of state: President Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (since 26 January 2017)

head of government: Chancellor Karl NEHAMMER (since 6 December 2021)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the chancellor and appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 October 2022 (next to be held in 2028); chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor

election results:
2022: Alexander VAN DER BELLEN reelected in first round; percent of vote - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (the Greens) 56.7%, Walter ROSENKRANZ (FPO) 17.7%, Dominik WLAZNY (Beer) 8.3%, Tassilo WALLENTIN (independent) 8.1%, Gerald GROSZ (independent) 5.6%

2016:
Alexander VAN DER BELLEN elected in second round; percent of vote in first round - Norbert HOFER (FPOe) 35.1%, Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (independent, allied with the Greens) 21.3%, Irmgard GRISS (independent) 18.9%, Rudolf HUNDSTORFER (SPOe) 11.3%, Andreas KHOL (OeVP) 11.1%, Richard LUGNER (independent) 2.3%; percent of vote in second round - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN 53.8%, Norbert HOFER 46.2%

Azerbaijan

chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003); First Vice President Mehriban ALIYEVA (since 21 February 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister Ali ASADOV (since 8 October 2019); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since 13 February 2003)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds (if needed) for a 7-year term; a single individual is eligible for unlimited terms; election last held on 7 February 2024 (next to be held in 2031); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum extended the presidential term from 5 to 7 years; a separate constitutional amendment approved in the same referendum also introduced the post of first vice president and additional vice-presidents, who are directly appointed by the president; however, no additional vice presidents have been appointed since the constitutional amendment was passed

election results:
2024:
Ilham ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 92.1%, Zahid ORUJ (independent) 2.2%; on 16 February 2024, Ali ASADOV reappointed prime minister by parliamentary vote, 105-1

2018:
Ilham ALIYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 86%, Zahid ORUJ (independent) 3.1%, other 10.9%

note: OSCE observers noted shortcomings in the election, including a restrictive political environment, limits on fundamental freedoms, a lack of genuine competition, and ballot box stuffing

Bahamas, The

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor-General Cynthia A. PRATT (since 1 September 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Philip DAVIS (since 17 September 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by governor-general on recommendation of prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor-general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is appointed prime minister by the governor-general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Bahrain

chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (born 21 October 1969)

head of government: Prime Minister Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (since 11 November 2020); Deputy Prime Minister KHALID bin Abdallah Al Khalifa (since May 2011)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Bangladesh

chief of state: President Mohammad Shahabuddin CHUPPI (since 24 April 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wazed (since 6 January 2009)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 February 2023 (next to be held by 2028); the president appoints as prime minister the majority party leader in the National Parliament

election results: President Mohammad Shahabuddin CHUPPI (AL) elected unopposed by the National Parliament; Sheikh HASINA reappointed prime minister for a fifth term following the 7 January 2024 parliamentary election

Barbados

chief of state: President Sandra MASON (since 30 November 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Mia MOTTLEY (since 25 May 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president elected by an electoral college of both Houses of Parliament for a 4-year renewable term; election last held on 20 October 2021 (next to be held in); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

election results: Sandra MASON elected as first president on 20 October 2021

Belarus

chief of state: President Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA (since 20 July 1994)

head of government: Prime Minister Roman GOLOVCHENKO (since 4 June 2020); First Deputy Prime Minister Mikalay SNAPKOW (since 4 June 2020); Deputy Prime Ministers Ihar PETRYSHENKA (since 18 August 2018), Anatol SIVAK (since 1 September 2020), Leanid ZAYATS (since 21 March 2022), Petr PARKHOMCHYK (since 16 August 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); first election held on 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999; however, Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held on 9 September 2001; an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and allowed the President LUKASHENKA to run and win a third  term (19 March 2006); a fourth term (19 December 2010); a fifth term (11 October 2015); a sixth term (9 August 2020); next election to be held in 2025; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly

election results:
2020:
Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA reelected president; percent of vote - Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA (independent) 80.1%, Svyatlana TSIKHANOWSKAYA (independent) 10.1%, other 9.8%; note - widespread street protests erupted following announcement of the election results amid allegations of voter fraud

2015:
Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA elected president; percent of vote - Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA (independent) 84.1%, Tatsyana KARATKEVIC (BSDPH) 4.4%, Sergey GAYDUKEVICH (LDP) 3.3%, other 8.2%.

Belgium

chief of state: King PHILIPPE (since 21 July 2013); Heir Apparent Princess ELISABETH (daughter of the monarch, born 25 October 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Alexander DE CROO (since 1 October 2020); Deputy Prime Ministers Paul Van TIGCHELT (since 22 October 2023), Vincent VAN PETEGHEM, Frank VANDENBROUCKE, Pierre-Yves DERMAGNE, Petra DE SUTTER, Georges GILKINET (all since 1 October 2020), David CLARINVAL (since 15 July 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers formally appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary and constitutional; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch and approved by Parliament

Belize

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor-General Froyla TZALAM (since 27 May 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 12 November 2020); Deputy Prime Minister Cordel HYDE (since 16 November 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among members of the National Assembly

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor-general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor-general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

Benin

chief of state: President Patrice TALON (since 6 April 2016); note - the president is both head of state and head of government

head of government: President Patrice TALON (since 6 April 2016); prime minister position abolished

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 April 2021 (next to be held on 12 April 2026)

election results:
2021: Patrice TALON reelected president in the ; percent of vote - Patrice TALON (independent) 86.3%, Alassane SOUMANOU (FCBE) 11.4%, Corentin KOHOUE (The Democrats) 2.3%

2016: Patrice TALON elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Lionel ZINSOU (FCBE) 28.4%, Patrice TALON (independent) 24.8%, Sebastien AJAVON (independent) 23%, Abdoulaye Bio TCHANE (ABT) 8.8%, Pascal KOUPAKI (NC) 5.9%, other 9.1%; percent of vote in second round - Patrice TALON 65.4%, Lionel ZINSOU 34.6%

Bermuda

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Rena LALGIE (since 14 December 2020)

head of government: Premier David BURT (since 19 July 2017)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

Bhutan

chief of state: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK (since 14 December 2006); note - King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK abdicated the throne on 14 December 2006 to his son

head of government: Prime Minister Tshering TOBGAY (since 28 January 2024)

cabinet: Council of Ministers or Lhengye Zhungtshog members nominated by the monarch in consultation with the prime minister and approved by the National Assembly; members serve 5-year terms

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary but can be removed by a two-thirds vote of Parliament; leader of the majority party in Parliament is nominated as the prime minister, appointed by the monarch

Bolivia

chief of state: President Luis Alberto ARCE Catacora (since 8 November 2020); Vice President David CHOQUEHUANCA Cespedes (since 8 November 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Luis Alberto ARCE Catacora (since 8 November 2020); Vice President David CHOQUEHUANCA Cespedes (since 8 November 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot one of 3 ways: candidate wins at least 50% of the vote, or at least 40% of the vote and 10% more than the next highest candidate; otherwise a second round is held and the winner determined by simple majority vote; president and vice president are elected by majority vote to serve a 5-year term; no term limits (changed from two-consecutive-term limit by Constitutional Court in late 2017); election last held on 18 October 2020 (next to be held in October 2025)

election results:
2020: Luis Alberto ARCE Catacora elected president; percent of vote - Luis Alberto ARCE Catacora (MAS) 55.1%; Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (CC) 28.8%; Luis Fernando CAMACHO Vaca (Creemos) 14%; other 2.1%

2019: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (MAS) 61%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana (UN) 24.5%; Jorge QUIROGA Ramirez (POC) 9.1%; other 5.4%; note - MORALES resigned from office on 10 November 2019 over alleged election rigging; resignations of all his constitutionally designated successors followed, including the Vice President, President of the Senate, President of the Chamber of Deputies, and First Vice President of the Senate, leaving the Second Vice President of the Senate, Jeanine ANEZ Chavez, the highest-ranking official still in office; her appointment to the presidency was endorsed by Bolivia's Constitutional Court, and she served as interim president until the 8 November 2020 inauguration of Luis Alberto ARCE Catacora, who won the 18 October 2020 presidential election

Bosnia and Herzegovina

chief of state: Chairperson of the Presidency Denis BECIROVIC (chairperson since 16 March 2024; presidency member since 16 November 2022 - Bosniak seat); Zeljka CVIJANOVIC (presidency member since 16 November 2022 - Serb seat); Zeljko KOMSIC (presidency member since 20 November 2018 - Croat seat)

head of government: Chairperson of the Council of Ministers Borjana KRISTO (since 25 January 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairperson, approved by the state-level House of Representatives

elections/appointments: 3-member presidency (1 Bosniak and 1 Croat elected from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1 Serb elected from the Republika Srpska) directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term but then ineligible for 4 years); the presidency chairpersonship rotates every 8 months with the new member of the presidency elected with the highest number of votes starting the new mandate as chair; election last held on 2 October 2022 (next to be held in October 2026); the chairperson of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives

election results:
2022:
percent of vote - Denis BECIROVIC - (SDP BiH) 57.4% - Bosniak seat; Zeljko KOMSIC (DF) 55.8% - Croat seat; Zeljka CVIJANOVIC (SNSD) 51.7% - Serb seat

2018:
percent of vote - Milorad DODIK (SNSD) 53.9% - Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC (DF) 52.6% - Croat seat; Sefik DZAFEROVIC (SDA) 36.6% - Bosniak seat

note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Lidiia BRADARA (since 28 February 2023); Vice Presidents Refik LENDO (since 28 February 2023) and Igor STOJANOVIC (since 28 February 2023); President of the Republika Srpska Milorad DODIK (since 15 November 2022); Vice Presidents Camil DURAKOVIC (since 15 November 2022) and Davor PRANJIC (since 15 November 2022)

Botswana

chief of state: President Mokgweetsi Eric Keabetswe MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mokgweetsi Eric Keabetswe MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2024); vice president appointed by the president

election results: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA, who had served as president since 1 April 2008, stepped down on 1 April 2018 having completed the constitutionally mandated 10-year term limit; upon his retirement, then Vice President MASISI became president; national elections held in 2019 gave MASISI'S BPD 38 seats in the National Assembly, which then selected MASISI as President

Brazil

chief of state: President Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (since 1 January 2023); Vice President Geraldo José Rodrigues ALCKMIN Filho (since 1 January 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (since 1 January 2023); Vice President Geraldo José Rodrigues ALCKMIN Filho (since 1 January 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a single consecutive term and additional terms after at least one term has elapsed); election last held on 2 October 2022 with runoff on 30 October 2022 (next to be held on 4 October 2026)

election results:
2022: Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (PT) 48.4%, Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 43.2%, Simone Nassar TEBET (MDB) 4.2%, Ciro GOMES (PDT) 3%, other 1.2%; percent of vote in second round - Luiz Inácio LULA da Silva (PT) 50.9%, Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 49.1%

2018:
Jair BOLSONARO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 46%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 29.3%, Ciro GOMEZ (PDT) 12.5%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 4.8%, other 7.4%; percent of vote in second round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 55.1%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 44.9%

British Indian Ocean Territory

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022)

head of government: Commissioner Paul CANDLER (since 8 July 2021); Administrator Balraj DHANDA; note - both reside in the UK and are represented by Commander Colvin OSBORN, RN, Officer commanding British Forces on Diego Garcia (since January 2022)

cabinet: NA

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; commissioner and administrator appointed by the monarch

British Virgin Islands

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Daniel PRUCE (since 29 January 2024)

head of government: Premier Dr. Natalio WHEATLEY (since 5 May 2022)

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of the House of Assembly

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

note; on 5 May 2022, Premier Andrew FAHIE was removed from office by a no confidence vote in House of Assembly following his arrest on drug trafficking and money laundering charges on 28 April 2022; Premier Dr. Natalio WHEATLEY sworn in as premier on 5 May 2022

Brunei

chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; note - 4 additional advisory councils appointed by the monarch are the Religious Council, Privy Council for constitutional issues, Council of Succession, and Legislative Council; Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah is also Minister of Finance, Defense, and Foreign Affairs and Trade

elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary

Bulgaria

chief of state: President Rumen RADEV (since 22 January 2017); Vice President Iliana IOTOVA (since 22 January 2017)

head of government: Caretaker Prime Minister Dimitar GLAVCHEV (since 9 April 2024)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 14 and 21 November 2021 (next to be held in fall 2026); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly

election results:
2021
: Rumen RADEV reelected president in second round; percent of vote in the first round - Rumen RADEV (independent) 49.4%, Anastas GERDZHIKOV (independent) 22.8%, Mustafa KARADAYI (DPS) 11.6%, Kostadin KOSTADINOV (Revival) 3.9%, Lozan PANOV (independent) 3.7%, other 8.6%; percent of vote in the second round - Rumen RADEV 66.7%, Anastas GERDZHIKOV 31.8%, neither 1.5%

2016: Rumen RADEV elected president in second round; percent of vote - Rumen RADEV (independent, supported by Bulgarian Socialist Party) 59.4%, Tsetska TSACHEVA (GERB) 36.2%, neither 4.5%

Burkina Faso

chief of state: transitional President Capt. Ibrahim TRAORE (since 30 September 2022); note - on 30 September 2022, a military junta, led by TRAORE, took power and ousted Transition President Lt. Col. Paul-Henri Sandaogo DAMIBA and took over as head of the Patriotic Movement for Safeguard and Restoration

head of government: Prime Minister Joachim KYLEM DE TAMBELA (since 21 October 2022); note - transitional President TRAORE appointed KYLEM DE TAMBELA Prime Minister on 21 October 2022; the position had been vacant since 30 September 2022 when the military ousted former Prime Minister Albert OUEDRAOGO

cabinet: prior to the 2022 coups and adhoc suspension of laws and constitutional provisions, Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: prior to the 2022 coups and adhoc suspension of laws and constitutional provisions, president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 22 November 2020 (next were to be held by July 2024, but may be delayed by the transitional government due to security concerns); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of the National Assembly

election results:
2020:
Roch Marc Christian KABORE reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Roch Marc Christian KABORE (MPP) 57.9%, Eddie KOMBOIGO (CDP) 15.5%, Zephirin DIABRE (UPC) 12.5%, other 14.1%

2015: Roch Marc Christian KABORE elected president in first round; percent of vote - Roch Marc Christian KABORE (MPP) 53.5%, Zephirin DIABRE (UPC) 29.6%, Tahirou BARRY (PAREN) 3.1%, Benewende Stanislas SANKARA (UNIR-MS) 2.8%, other 10.9%

Burma

chief of state: Prime Minister, State Administration Council Chair, Sr. Gen. MIN AUNG HLAING (since 1 August 2021); note - the military took over the government on 1 February 2021 and declared a state of emergency

head of government: Prime Minister, State Administration Council Chair, Sr. Gen. MIN AUNG HLAING (since 1 August 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointments shared by the president and the commander-in-chief; note - on 2 February 2021, the military leadership replaced the Cabinet with the State Administrative Council (SAC), which is the official name of the military government in Burma

elections/appointments: prior to the military takeover in 2021, president was indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the full Assembly of the Union from among 3 vice-presidential candidates nominated by the Presidential Electoral College (consists of members of the lower and upper houses and military members); the other 2 candidates become vice presidents (president elected for a 5-year term); general election last held on 8 November 2020; the military junta has pledged to hold new general elections but has repeatedly announced delays

election results: 2020:  the National League for Democracy (NLD) won 396 seats across both houses, well above the 322 required for a parliamentary majority, which would have ensured that its preferred candidates would be elected president and second vice president in the Presidential Electoral College; however, on 1 February 2021 the military claimed the results of the election were illegitimate and launched a coup d'état that deposed State Counsellor AUNG SAN SUU KYI and President WIN MYINT of the NLD, causing military-affiliated Vice President MYINT SWE (USDP) to become Acting President; MYINT SWE subsequently handed power to coup leader MIN AUNG HLAING; WIN MYINT and other key leaders of the ruling NLD party were placed under arrest following the military takeover

2018
: WIN MYINT elected president in an indirect by-election held on 28 March 2018 after the resignation of HTIN KYAW; Assembly of the Union vote for president - WIN MYINT (NLD) 403, MYINT SWE (USDP) 211, HENRY VAN THIO (NLD) 18, 4 votes canceled (636 votes cast)

state counsellor: State Counselor AUNG SAN SUU KYI (since 6 April 2016); note - under arrest since 1 February 2021; formerly served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister for the Office of the President

note: a parliamentary bill creating the position of "state counsellor" was signed into law by former President HTIN KYAW on 6 April 2016; a state counsellor serves the equivalent term of the president and is similar to a prime minister in that the holder acts as a link between the parliament and the executive branch

Burundi

chief of state: President Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE (since 18 June 2020); Vice President Prosper BAZOMBANZA (since 24 June 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE (since 18 June 2020); Vice President Prosper BAZOMBANZA (since 24 June 2020); Prime Minister Gervais NDIRAKOBUCA (since 7 September 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2020 (next to be held in May 2027); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by Parliament; note - a 2018 constitutional referendum, effective for the 2020 election, increased the presidential term from 5 to 7 years with a 2-consecutive-term limit, reinstated the position of the prime minister position, and reduced the number of vice presidents from 2 to 1

election results:
2020: Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE elected president; percent of vote - Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE (CNDD-FDD) 71.5%, Agathon RWASA (CNL) 25.2%, Gaston SINDIMWO (UPRONA) 1.7%, other 1.6%

2015: Pierre NKURUNZIZA reelected president; percent of vote - Pierre NKURUNZIZA (CNDD-FDD) 69.4%, Agathon RWASA (Hope of Burundians - Amizerio y'ABARUNDI) 19%, other 11.6%

 

Cabo Verde

chief of state: President Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 9 November 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Jose Ulisses CORREIA e SILVA (since 22 April 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 October 2021 (next to be held in October 2026); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president

election results:
2020:
Jose Maria Pereira NEVES elected president; percent of vote - Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (PAICV) 51.7%, Carlos VEIGA (MPD) 42.4%, Casimiro DE PINA (independent) 1.8%, Fernando Rocha DELGADO (independent) 1.4%, Helio SANCHES (independent) 1.14%, Gilson ALVES (independent) 0.8%, Joaquim MONTEIRO (independent) 3.4%

2016: Jorge Carlos FONSECA reelected president; percent of vote - Jorge Carlos FONSECA (MPD) 74.1%, Albertino GRACA (independent) 22.5%, other 3.4%

Cambodia

chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister HUN MANET (since 22 August 2023); note - MANET succeeded his father, HUN SEN, who had been prime minister since 1985

cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: monarch chosen by the 9-member Royal Council of the Throne from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the monarch

Cameroon

chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)

head of government: Prime Minister Joseph Dion NGUTE (since 4 January 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2025); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: 2018: Paul BIYA reelected president; percent of vote - Paul BIYA (CPDM) 71.3%, Maurice KAMTO (MRC) 14.2%, Cabral LIBII (Univers) 6.3%, other 8.2% (2018)

Canada

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Mary SIMON (since 6 July 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU (since 4 November 2015)

cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among members of his/her own party sitting in Parliament

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general

note: the governor general position is largely ceremonial

Cayman Islands

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Jane OWEN (since 21 April 2023)

head of government: Premier Juliana O'CONNOR-CONNOLLY (since 15 November 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet selected from the Parliament and appointed by the governor on the advice of the premier

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition appointed premier by the governor

Central African Republic

chief of state: President Faustin-Archange TOUADERA (since 30 March 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Felix MOLOUA (since 7 February 2022); note - Prime Minister Henri-Marie DONDRA resigned on 2 February 2022

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected for 5-year term; election last held 27 December 2020 (next to be held in December 2025); constitutional referendum in July 2023 removed term limits and institutes 7-year terms; note - presidential and partial legislative elections were held on 27 December 2020; voting was disrupted in some areas, delaying the first round of legislative elections until 14 March 2021; constituencies that did vote on 27 December 2020 held runoff elections for their legislators

election results:
2020
: Faustin-Archange TOUADERA reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Faustin-Archange TOUADERA (independent) 53.9%, Anicet Georges DOLOGUELE (URCA) 21%, other 25.1%

2015: Faustin-Archange TOUADERA elected president in the second round; percent of vote in first round - Anicet-Georges DOLOGUELE (URCA) 23.7%, Faustin-Archange TOUADERA (independent) 19.1%, Desire KOLINGBA (RDC) 12%, Martin ZIGUELE (MLPC) 11.4%, other 33.8%; percent of vote in second round - Faustin-Archange TOUADERA 62.7%, Anicet-Georges DOLOGUELE 37.3%

Chad

chief of state: Transitional President Mahamat Idriss DEBY (since 20 April 2021); note - on 20 April 2021, newly reelected President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen., died of injuries sustained following clashes between government forces he was commanding and insurgents in the northern part of the country; following his death, Mahamat Idriss DEBY took control of the country and dismissed the Chadian parliament, establishing a Transitional Military Council (TMC) and promising elections within 18 months; the transition was extended for 24 months and the TMC was dissolved in October 2022, postponing elections until 31 October 2024

head of government: Prime Minister Succès MASRA (since 1 January 2024)

cabinet: Council of Ministers

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 11 April 2021; note - on 20 April 2021, military officials suspended the constitution and formed a Transitional Military Council, pledging to hold democratic elections by October 2022 but have since delayed elections until 31 October 2024

election results:
2021
: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected transitional president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 79.3%, Pahimi PADACKET Albert (RNDT) 10.3%, Lydie BEASSEMDA (Party for Democracy and Independence) 3.2%, other 7.2%

2016
: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 61.6%, Saleh KEBZABO (UNDR) 12.8%, Laokein Kourayo MEDAR (CTPD) 10.7%, Djimrangar DADNADJI (CAP-SUR) 5.1%, other 9.8%

Chile

chief of state: President Gabriel BORIC (since 11 March 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Gabriel BORIC (since 11 March 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 21 November 2021 with a runoff held on 19 December 2021 (next to be held on 23 November 2025 with runoff if needed on 20 December)

election results:
2021: Gabriel BORIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jose Antonio KAST (FSC) 27.9%; Gabriel BORIC (AD) 25.8%; Franco PARISI (PDG) 12.8%; Sebastian SICHEL (ChP+) 12.8%; Yasna PROVOSTE (New Social Pact) 11.6%; other 9.1%; percent of vote in second round - Gabriel BORIC 55.9%; Jose Antonio KAST 44.1%

2017:
 Sebastian PINERA Echenique elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Sebastian PINERA Echenique (independent) 36.6%; Alejandro GUILLIER (independent) 22.7%; Beatriz SANCHEZ (independent) 20.3%; Jose Antonio KAST (independent) 7.9%; Carolina GOIC (PDC) 5.9%; Marco ENRIQUEZ-OMINAMI (PRO) 5.7%; other 0.9%; percent of vote in second round - Sebastian PINERA Echenique 54.6%, Alejandro GUILLIER 45.4%

China

chief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President HAN Zheng (since 10 March 2023)

head of government: Premier LI Qiang (since 11 March 2023)

cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by National People's Congress; election last held on 10 March 2023 (next to be held in March 2028); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress

election results:
2023:
XI Jinping reelected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,952 (unanimously); HAN Zheng
elected vice president with 2,952 votes

2018
: XI Jinping reelected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,970 (unanimously); WANG Qishan elected vice president with 2,969 votes

note: ultimate authority rests with the Communist Party Central Committee’s 25-member Political Bureau (Politburo) and its seven-member Standing Committee; XI Jinping holds the three most powerful positions as party general secretary, state president, and chairman of the Central Military Commission

Christmas Island

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia General David HURLEY (since 1 July 2019)

head of government: Administrator Ms. Farzian ZAINAL (since 11 May 2023)

cabinet: NA

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Australian prime minister; administrator appointed by the governor-general of Australia for a 2-year term and represents the monarch and Australia

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia General David HURLEY (since 1 July 2019)

head of government: Administrator Farzian ZAINAL (since 11 May 2023)

cabinet: NA

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Australian prime minister; administrator appointed by the governor-general for a 2-year term and represents the monarch and Australia

Colombia

chief of state: President Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego (since 7 August 2022); Vice President Francia Elena MÁRQUEZ Mina (since 7 August 2022); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego (since 7 August 2022); Vice President Francia Elena MÁRQUEZ Mina (since 7 August 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 29 May 2022 with a runoff held on 19 June 2022 (next to be held on 31 May 2026); note - political reform in 2015 eliminated presidential reelection

election results:
2022:
Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego (PHxC) 40.3%, Rodolfo HERNÁNDEZ Suárez (LIGA) 28.2%, Federico GUTIÉRREZ Zuluaga (Team for Colombia / CREEMOS) 23.9%, other 7.6%; percent of vote in second round - Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego 50.4%, Rodolfo HERNÁNDEZ Suarez 47.3%, blank 2.3%

2018:
Iván DUQUE Márquez elected president in second round; percent of vote - Iván DUQUE Márquez (CD) 54%, Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego (Humane Colombia) 41.8%, other/blank/invalid 4.2%

Comoros

chief of state: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 May 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 May 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term; election last held on 14 January 2024 (next to be held in 2029)

election results:
2024:
AZALI Assoumani reelected president in first round - AZALI Assoumani (CRC) 63%, SALIM ISSA Abdallah (PJ) 20.3%, DAOUDOU Abdallah Mohamed (Orange Party) 5.9%, Bourhane HAMIDOU (independent) 5.1%

2019
: AZALI Assoumani elected president in first round - AZALI Assoumani (CRC) 60.8%, Ahamada MAHAMOUDOU (PJ) 14.6%, Mouigni Baraka Said SOILIHI (independent) 5.6%, other 19%

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

chief of state: President Felix TSHISEKEDI (since 20 January 2024)

head of government: Prime Minister Judith Suminwa TULUKA (since 1 April 2024); Deputy Prime Ministers Christophe LUTUNDULA (since 12 April 2021),Vital KAMERHE (since 23 March 2023), Peter KAZADI (23 March 2023), Jean-Pierre BEMBA (since 23 March 2023), Jean-Pierre LIHAU (since 12 April 2021); note - TULUKA is the country's first female prime minister

cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 December 2023 (next to be held on 20 December 2028); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: 2023: Felix TSHISEKEDI reelected president; percent of vote - Felix TSHISEKEDI (UDPS) 73.3%, Moise KATUMBI (Ensemble) 18.8%, Martin FAYULU (ECIDE) 5.3%, other 2.6%

2018:
Felix TSHISEKEDI elected president; percent of vote - Felix TSHISEKEDI (UDPS) 38.6%, Martin FAYULU (Lamuka coalition) 34.8%, Emmanuel Ramazani SHADARY (PPRD) 23.9%, other 2.7%; note - election marred by serious voting irregularities

Congo, Republic of the

chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (since 1997)

head of government: Prime Anatole Collinet MAKOSSO (since 12 May 2021)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 additional terms); election last held on 21 March 2021 (next to be held on 21 March 2026)

election results:
2021: Denis SASSOU-Nguesso reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (PCT) 88.4%, Guy Price Parfait KOLELAS (MCDDI) 8.0%, other 3.6%

2016: Denis SASSOU-Nguesso reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (PCT) 60.4%, Guy Price Parfait KOLELAS (MCDDI) 15.1%, Jean-Marie MOKOKO (independent) 13.9%, Pascal Tsaty MABIALA (UPADS) 4.4%, other 6.2% 

Cook Islands

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Sir Tom J. MARSTERS (since 9 August 2013); New Zealand High Commissioner Ms. Tui DEWES (since October 2020)

head of government: Prime Minister Mark BROWN (since 1 October 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; UK representative appointed by the monarch; New Zealand high commissioner appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes prime minister

Costa Rica

chief of state: President Rodrigo CHAVES Robles (since 8 May 2022); First Vice President Stephan BRUNNER Neibig (since 8 May 2022); Second Vice President Mary Denisse MUNIVE Angermuller (since 8 May 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Rodrigo CHAVES Robles (since 8 May 2022); First Vice President Stephan BRUNNER Neibig (since 8 May 2022); Second Vice President Mary Denisse MUNIVE Angermuller (since 8 May 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice presidents directly elected on the same ballot by modified majority popular vote (40% threshold) for a 4-year term (eligible for non-consecutive terms); election last held on 6 February 2022 with a runoff on 3 April 2022 (next to be held in February 2026 with a runoff in April 2026)

election results:
2022: Rodrigo CHAVES Robles elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (PLN) 27.3%, Rodrigo CHAVES Robles (PPSD) 16.8%, Fabricio ALVARADO Munoz (PNR) 14.9%, Eliecer FEINZAIG Mintz (PLP) 12.4%, Lineth SABORIO Chaverri (PUSC) 12.4%, Jose Maria VILLALTA Florez-Estrada 8.7% (PFA), other 7.5%; percent of vote in second round - Rodrigo CHAVES Robles (PPSD) 52.8%, Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (PLN) 47.2%

2018: Carlos ALVARADO Quesada elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Fabricio ALVARADO Munoz (PRN) 25%; Carlos ALVARADO Quesada (PAC) 21.6%; Antonio ALVAREZ (PLN) 18.6%; Rodolfo PIZA (PUSC) 16%; Juan Diego CASTRO (PIN) 9.5%; Rodolfo HERNANDEZ (PRSC) 4.9%, other 4.4%; percent of vote in second round - Carlos ALVARADO Quesada (PAC) 60.7%; Fabricio ALVARADO Munoz (PRN) 39.3%

Cote d'Ivoire

chief of state: President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA (since 4 December 2010); Vice President Tiémoko Meyliet KONE (since 19 April 2022); note - Vice President Tiémoko Meyliet KONE appointed by President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA before a Congressional meeting on 19 April 2022

head of government: Prime Minister Robert Beujre MAMBE (since 16 October 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single renewable 5-year term; election last held on 31 October 2020 (next to be held in 2025); vice president elected on same ballot as president; prime minister appointed by the president; note – because President OUATTARA promulgated the new constitution in 2016, he has claimed that the clock is reset on term limits, allowing him to run for up to two additional terms

election results:
2020: Alassane OUATTARA reelected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA (RDR) 94.3%, Kouadio Konan BERTIN (PDCI-RDA) 2.0%, other 3.7%

2015: Alassane OUATTARA reelected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA (RDR) 83.7%, Pascal Affi N'GUESSAN (FPI) 9.3%, Konan Bertin KOUADIO (independent) 3.9%, other 3.1% 

Croatia

chief of state: President Zoran MILANOVIC (since 18 February 2020)

head of government: Prime Minister Andrej PLENKOVIC (since 19 October 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Tomo MEDVED (since 23 July 2020), Davor BOZINOVIC (since 12 July 2019), Oleg BUTKOVIC (since 15 July 2022), Branko BACIC (since 17 January 2023), Anja SIMPRAG (since 29 April 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 December 2019 with a runoff on 5 January 2020 (next to be held in 2024); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly

election results:
2019: Zoran MILANOVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Zoran MILANOVIC (SDP) 52.7%, Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 47.3%

2015: Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 50.7%, Ivo JOSIPOVIC (Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance) 49.3%

Cuba

chief of state: President Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (since 19 April 2018); Vice President Salvador Antonio VALDES Mesa (since 10 October 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Manuel MARRERO Cruz (since 21 December 2019); Deputy Prime Ministers Ramiro VALDES Menendez, Ines Maria CHAPMAN Waugh, Jorge Luis TAPIA Fonseca, Alejandro GIL Fernandez, Ricardo CABRISAS Ruiz (since 21 December 2019), and Jorge Luis PERDOMO DI-LELLA (since 20 April 2021)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president and appointed by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 April 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results:
2023: Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (PCC) reelected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 97.7%; Salvador Antonio VALDES Mesa (PCC) reelected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - 93.4%

2018:
Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (PCC) elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 98.8%; Salvador Antonio VALDES Mesa (PCC) elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - 98.1%

note - on 19 April 2018, DIAZ-CANEL succeeded Raul CASTRO as president of the Councils of State and Ministers; on 10 October 2019 he was elected to the newly created position of President of the Republic, which replaced the position of President of the Councils of State and Ministers

Curacao

chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER of the Netherlands (since 30 April 2013); represented by Governor Lucille A. GEORGE-WOUT (since 4 November 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Gilmar PISAS (since 14 June 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet sworn-in by the governor

elections/appointments: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually elected prime minister by the Parliament of Curacao; last election held on 19 March 2021 (next to be held in 2025)

Cyprus

chief of state: President Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS (since 28 February 2023); the president is both chief of state and head of government; note - vice presidency reserved for a Turkish Cypriot but vacant since 1974 because Turkish Cypriots do not participate in the Republic of Cyprus Government

head of government: President Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS (since 28 February 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - under the 1960 constitution, 3 of the ministerial posts reserved for Turkish Cypriots, appointed by the vice president; positions currently filled by Greek Cypriots

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); election last held on held 5 February 2023 with a runoff on 12 February 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results:
2023:
Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Nikos CHRISTODOULIDIS (independent) 32%, Andreas MAVROGIIANNIS (independent) 29.6%, Averof NEOFYTOU (DISY) 26.1%, Christos CHRISTOU (ELAM) 6%, other 6.3%; percent of vote in second round - Nikos CHRISTODOULIDS 52%, Andreas MAVROGIANNIS 48%

2018:
Nikos ANASTASIADIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS (DISY) 35.5%, Stavros MALAS (AKEL) 30.2%, Nicolas PAPADOPOULOS (DIKO) 25.7%, other 8.6%; percent of vote in second round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS 56%, Stavros MALAS 44%

note: the first round of the TRNC presidential election, originally scheduled for 26 April 2020, was postponed to 11 October 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic; the second round was held on 18 October 2020; percent of vote in the first round - Ersin TATAR (UBP) 32.4%, Mustafa AKINCI (independent) 29.8%, Tufan ERHURMAN (RTP) 21.7%, Kudret OZERSAY (independent) 5.7%, Erhan ARIKLI (YDP) 5.4%, Serdar DENKTAS (independent) 4.2%, other 0.8%; percent of vote in the second round - Ersin TATAR 51.7%, Mustafa AKINCI 48.3%

Czechia

chief of state: President Petr PAVEL (since 9 March 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Petr FIALA (since 17 December 2021); First Deputy Prime Minister Vit RAKUSAN (since 17 December 2021), Deputy Prime Ministers Marian JURECKA, Ivan BARTOS, Vlastimil VALEK (all since 17 December 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); elections last held on 13 to 14 January 2023 with a second round held from 27 to 28 January 2023; next election to be by January 2028; prime minister appointed by the president for a 4-year term

election results:
2023:
Petr PAVEL elected in the second round; percent of vote in the first round - Petr PAVEL (independent) 35.4%, Andrej BABIS (ANO) 35%, Danuse NERUDOVA (Mayors and Independents) 13.9%, Pavel FISCHER (independent) 6.8%; percent of vote in the second round - Petr PAVEL 58.3%, Andrej BABIS 41.6%

2018:
 Milos ZEMAN reelected president in the second round; percent of vote - Milos ZEMAN (SPO) 51.4%, Jiri DRAHOS (independent) 48.6%

Denmark

chief of state: King FREDERIK X (since 14 January 2024); Heir Apparent Crown Prince CHRISTIAN (son of the king, born 15 October 2005); note - Queen MARGRETHE II abdicated on 14 January 2024, the first Danish monarch to voluntarily abdicate since King ERIC III in 1146

head of government: Prime Minister Mette FREDERIKSEN (since 27 June 2019)

cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch

Dhekelia

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022)

head of government: Administrator Air Vice-Marshal Peter J.M. SQUIRES (since 1 September 2022); note - the administrator reports to the British Ministry of Defense and is also Commander, British Forces Cyprus (BFC); the chief officer, an appointed civilian, is responsible for the day-to-day running of the civil government of the Sovereign Base Areas

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; administrator appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Ministry of Defense

Djibouti

chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil MOHAMED (since 1 April 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term; election last held on 9 April 2021 (next to be held in April 2026); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
2021
: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president for a fifth term; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH (RPP) 97.4%, Zakaria Ismael FARAH (MDEND) 2.7%

2016: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH (RPP) 87%, Omar Elmi KHAIREH (CDU) 7.3%, other 5.6%

Dominica

chief of state: President Sylvanie BURTON (since 2 October 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Roosevelt SKERRIT (since 8 January 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president nominated by the prime minister and leader of the opposition party and elected by the House of Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 27 September 2023 (next to be held in October 2028); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: 2023: parliament elects Sylvanie BURTON (DLP) with 20 votes for and five against

Dominican Republic

chief of state: President Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (since 16 August 2020); Vice President Raquel PENA de Antuna (since 16 August 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (since 16 August 2020); Vice President Raquel PENA de Antuna (since 16 August 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a maximum of two consecutive terms); election last held on 5 July 2020 (next to be held on 19 May 2024); note - the 2020 election was rescheduled from 17 May to 5 July 2020 due to COVID-19 pandemic

election results:
2020: Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona elected president in first round; percent of vote - Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (PRM) 52.5%, Gonzalo CASTILLO Terrero (PLD) 37.5%, Leonel Antonio FERNANDEZ Reyna (FP) 8.9% other 1.1%

2016: Danilo MEDINA Sanchez reelected president; percent of vote - Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (PLD) 61.7%, Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (PRM) 35%, other 3.3%; Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (PLD) reelected vice president

Ecuador

chief of state: President Daniel NOBOA Azin (since 23 November 2023); Vice President Verónica ABAD Rojas (since 23 November 2023); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Daniel NOBOA Azin (since 23 November 2023); Vice President Verónica ABAD Rojas (since 23 November 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments:

president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 August 2023 with a runoff on 15 October 2023 (next to be held on 28 February 2025); note – on 18 May 2023, Ecuador’s National Electoral Council announced that the legislative and presidential elections—originally scheduled for February 2025—would be held on 20 August 2023 with a runoff on 15 October 2023 after former president Guillermo LASSO dissolved the National Assembly by decree on 17 May 2023; though eligible for a second term, LASSO announced that he would not run in the 2023 election; President Daniel NOBOA Azin will serve out the remainder of the current presidential term (2021–2025)



election results:
2023: Daniel NOBOA Azin elected president; percent of vote in the second round - Luisa GONZÁLEZ Alcivar (MRC) 33.6%, Daniel NOBOA Azin (ADN) 23.5%, Christian Gustavo ZURITA Ron (Construye) 16.4%, Jan Tomislav TOPIĆ Feraud (Por Un País Sin Miedo) 14.7%, Otto Ramón SONNENHOLZNER Sper (Avanza) 7.1% other 4.7%; percent of vote in the second round - Daniel NOBOA Azin 51.8%, Luisa GONZÁLEZ Alcivar 48.2%

2021: Guillermo LASSO Mendoza elected president; percent of vote in the first round - Andres ARAUZ (UNES) 32.7%, Guillermo LASSO Mendoza (CREO) 19.7%, Yaku PEREZ Guartambel (MUPP) 19.4%, Xavier HERVAS Mora (ID) 15.7%, other 12.5%; percent of vote in the second round - Guillermo LASSO Mendoza (CREO) 52.5%, Andres ARAUZ (UNES) 47.5%

Egypt

chief of state: President Abdel Fattah EL-SISI (since 8 June 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Mostafa MADBOULY (since 7 June 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet ministers nominated by the executive branch and approved by the House of Representatives

elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for 3 consecutive terms); election last held on 10 to 12 December 2023; next to held in 2029); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of Representatives

election results: Abdel Fattah EL-SISI reelected president in first round; percent of valid votes cast - Abdel Fattah EL-SISI (independent) 89.6%, Hazam OMAR (Republican People’s Party) 4.5%, Farid ZAHRAN (Egyptian Social Democratic Party 4%, Abdel-Samad YAMAMA 1.9%

El Salvador

chief of state: Acting President Claudia Juana RODRÍGUEZ DE GUEVARA (since 1 December 2023); note - parliament granted a six-month leave of absence to President Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez and Vice President Félix Augusto Antonio ULLOA Garay (to allow them to participate in the 4 February 2024 presidential election) and approved the appointment of Claudia Juana RODRÍGUEZ DE GUEVARA as acting president from 1 December 2023 to 1 June 2024, when election winner Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez will be sworn in for a second term

head of government: Acting President Claudia Juana RODRÍGUEZ DE GUEVARA (since 1 December 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 5-year term; election last held on 4 February 2024 (next to be held in 2029)

election results: 2024: Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez reelected president - Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (Nuevas Ideas) 84.7%, Manuel FLORES (FMLN) 6.4%, Joel SANCHEZ (ARENA) 5.6%, Luis PARADA (NT) 2%, other 1.3%; note he will be inaugurated on 1 June 2024

2019: Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez elected president - Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (GANA) 53.1%, Carlos CALLEJA Hakker (ARENA) 31.7%, Hugo MARTINEZ (FMLN) 14.4%, other 0.8%

Equatorial Guinea

chief of state: President OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup); First Vice President Teodoro Nguema OBIANG Mangue (since 20 November 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Manuela ROKA Botey (since 1 February 2023); First Deputy Prime Minister Clemente Engonga NGUEMA Onguene (since 23 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Angel MESIE Mibuy (since 5 February 2018); Third Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso Nsue MOKUY (since 23 June 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and overseen by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 November 2022 (next to be held in 2029); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: 2022: OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo reelected president; percent of vote - OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (PDGE) 95%, other 6.1%

Eritrea

chief of state: President ISAIAS Afwerki (since 24 May 1993); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly

head of government: President ISAIAS Afwerki (since 8 June 1993)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term), according to the constitution; the only election held was on 24 May 1993, following independence from Ethiopia (next postponed indefinitely)

election results: 1993: ISAIAS Afwerki elected president by the transitional National Assembly; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afwerki (PFDJ) 95%, other 5%

Estonia

chief of state: President Alar KARIS (since 11 October 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Kaja KALLAS (since 26 January 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament

elections/appointments:

president indirectly elected by Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); if a candidate does not secure two thirds of the votes after 3 rounds of balloting, then an electoral college consisting of Parliament members and local council members elects the president, choosing between the 2 candidates with the highest number of votes; if a president is still not elected, the process begins again; election last held on 30 to 31 August 2021 (next to be held in 2026); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament



election results:
2021
: Alar KARIS (independent) elected president; won second round of voting in parliament with 72 of 101 votes

2016: Kersti KALJULAID elected president; won sixth round of voting in parliament with 81 of 98 votes (17 ballots blank); KALJULAID sworn in on 10 October 2016 - first female head of state of Estonia

Eswatini

chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)

head of government:

Prime Minister Russell Mmiso DLAMINI (since 3 November 2023)

 



cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister, confirmed by the monarch; at least one-half of the cabinet membership must be appointed from among elected members of the House of Assembly

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among members of the House of Assembly

Ethiopia

chief of state: President SAHLE-WORK Zewde (since 25 October 2018)

head of government: Prime Minister ABIY Ahmed Ali (since April 2018); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen (since 29 November 2012)

cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election held on 21 June 2021 and 30 September 2021 (the scheduled 29 August 2020 election was postponed by Prime Minister ABIY due to the COVID-19 pandemic); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections

election results:
2021
: SAHLE-WORK Zewde reelected president during joint session of Parliament, vote - 659 (unanimous); ABIY confirmed Prime Minister by House of Peoples' Representatives (4 October 2021)

2018: SAHLE-WORK Zewde elected president during joint session of Parliament, vote - 659 (unanimous); note - snap election held on 25 October 2018 due to resignation of President MULATA Teshome

note: SAHLE-WORK Zewde is the first female elected head of state in Ethiopia; she is currently the only female president in Africa.

European Union

under the EU treaties there are three distinct institutions, each of which conducts functions that may be regarded as executive in nature:
European Council - brings together member-state heads of state or government, along with the president of the European Commission, and meets at least four times a year; its aim is to provide the impetus for the development of the Union and to issue general policy guidance; the Treaty of Lisbon established the position of "permanent" (full-time) president of the European Council; leaders of the EU member states appoint the president for a 2 1/2 year term, renewable once; the president's responsibilities include chairing European Council meetings and providing policy and organizational continuity; the current president is Charles MICHEL (Belgium), since 1 December 2019, who succeeded Donald TUSK (Poland; 2014 - 2019)
Council of the European Union - consists of gatherings of member-state officials, ranging from working-level diplomats to cabinet ministers in a given policy field, such as foreign affairs, agriculture, or economy; it conducts policymaking and coordinating functions as well as legislative functions; representatives from one member state chair meetings of the Council of the EU, based on a 6-month rotating presidency except for the meetings of EU Foreign Ministers in the Foreign Affairs Council that are chaired by the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
European Commission - headed by a College of Commissioners comprised of 27 members (one from each member state) including the president; each commissioner is responsible for one or more policy areas; the Commission has the sole right to initiate EU legislation (except for foreign and security/defense policy), and is also responsible for promoting the general interest of the EU, acting as "guardian of the Treaties" by monitoring the application of EU law, implementing/executing the EU budget, managing programs, negotiating on the EU's behalf in policy areas where the member states have conferred sole competency, such as trade, and ensuring the Union's external representation in some policy areas; its current president is Ursula VON DER LEYEN (Germany) elected on 16 July 2019 (took office on 1 December 2019); the president of the European Commission is nominated by the European Council and confirmed by the European Parliament; the Commission president allocates specific responsibilities among the members of the College (appointed by common accord of the member-state governments in consultation with the president-elect); the European Parliament confirms the entire Commission for a 5-year term.



note: for external representation and foreign policy making, member-state leaders appointed Joseph BORRELL (Spain) as the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy; BORRELL took office on 1 December 2019, succeeding Federica MOGHERINI (Italy (2014 - 2019); the High Representative's concurrent appointment as Vice President of the European Commission was meant to bring more coherence to the EU’s foreign policy (including policies managed by the Commission that are particularly relevant for EU external relations, such as trade, humanitarian aid and crisis management, neighborhood policy and enlargement, as well as between member-state capitals and the EU); the High Representative helps develop and implement the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy and Common Security and Defense Policy components, chairs the Council of the EU's meetings of member-state foreign ministers, called the Foreign Affairs Council, represents and acts for the Union in many international contexts, and oversees the European External Action Service, the diplomatic corps of the EU, established on 1 December 2010

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Alison BLAKE (since 23 July 2022)

head of government: Chief Executive Andy KEELING (since April 2021)

cabinet: Executive Council elected by the Legislative Council

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; chief executive appointed by the governor

Faroe Islands

chief of state: King FREDERIK X of Denmark (since 14 January 2024), represented by High Commissioner Lene Moyell JOHANSEN, chief administrative officer (since 15 May 2017) (2024)

head of government: Prime Minister Aksel V. JOHANNESEN (since 22 December 2022)

cabinet: Landsstyri appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by the Faroese Parliament; election last held on 8 December 2022 (next to be held in 2026)

Fiji

chief of state: President Ratu Wiliame KATONIVERE (since 12 November 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Sitiveni Ligamamada RABUKA (since 24 December 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president elected by Parliament for a 3-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 October 2021 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister endorsed by the president

election results: 2021: Ratu Wiliame KATONIVERE elected president; Wiliame KATONIVERE (People's Alliance) 28 votes, Teimumu KEPA (SODELPA) 23 votes

Finland

chief of state: President Alexander STUBB (since 1 March 2024)

head of government: Prime Minister Petteri ORPO (since 20 June 2023)

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); first round held on 28 January 2024 with a runoff on 11 February 2024 (next to be held by 28 January 2030); prime minister appointed by Parliament

election results: 2024:  Alexander STUBB elected in the second round; percent of vote in the first round - Alexander STUBB (KoK) 27.2%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 25.8%, Jussi HALLA-AHO (PS) 19.0%, Olli REHN (Kesk) 15.3%; percent of vote in second round - STUBB 51.6%, HAAVISTO 48.4%

2018:
Sauli NIINISTO reelected president; percent of vote - Sauli NIINISTO (independent) 62.7%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 12.4%, Laura HUHTASAARI (PS) 6.9%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (independent) 6.2%, Matti VANHANEN (Kesk) 4.1%, other 7.7%

France

chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister Gabriel ATTAL (since 9 January 2024)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 April 2022 with a runoff held on 24 April 2022 (next to be held in April 2027); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
2022:
Emmanuel MACRON reelected in second round; percent of vote in first round - Emmanuel MACRON (LREM) 27.8%, Marine LE PEN (RN) 23.2%, Jean-Luc MELENCHON (LFI) 22%, Eric ZEMMOUR (Reconquete) 7.1%, Valerie PECRESSE (LR) 4.8%, Yannick JADOT (EELV) 4.6%, other 10.6%; percent of vote in second round - MACRON 58.5%, LE PEN 41.5%

2017: Emmanuel MACRON elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Emmanuel MACRON (EM) 24%, Marine LE PEN (FN) 21.3%, Francois FILLON (LR) 20%, Jean-Luc MELENCHON (FI) 19.6%, Benoit HAMON (PS) 6.4%, other 8.7%; percent of vote in second round - MACRON 66.1%, LE PEN 33.9%

French Polynesia

chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017), represented by High Commissioner of the Republic Eric Spitz (since 23 September 2022)

head of government: President of French Polynesia Moetai BROTHERSON (since 12 May 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers approved by the Assembly from a list of its members submitted by the president

elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; French Polynesia president indirectly elected by Assembly of French Polynesia for a 5-year term (no term limits)

French Southern and Antarctic Lands

chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017), represented by Prefect Florence JEANBLANC-RISLER (since 5 October 2022)

Gabon

chief of state: Transitional President Gen. Brice OLIGUI Nguema (since 4 September 2023); note - on 30 August 2023, Gen. Brice OLIGUI Nguema led a military group called the Committee for the Transition and Restoration of Institutions in a coup in which President Ali BONGO Ondimba was arrested and detained, election results were canceled, and state institutions were dissolved; on 4 September 2023, Gen. OLIGUI was sworn in as transitional president; note- the military government announced on 13 November 2023 that presidential and legislative elections will be held in August 2025

head of government: Interim Prime Minister Raymond Ndong SIMA (since 8 September 2023)

cabinet: formerly the Council of Ministers, appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president

elections/appointments: formerly, the president directly elected by plurality vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 26 August 2023; prime minister appointed by the president; note - on 30 August 2023, Gen. Brice OLIGUI Nguema led a military group called Committee for the Transition and Restoration of Institutions in a coup in which President Ali BONGO Ondimba was arrested and detained, election results were canceled, and state institutions were dissolved; on 4 September 2023, OLIGUI was sworn in as transitional president; a general election is planned for August 2025

election results:
2016:
Ali BONGO Ondimba reelected president; percent of vote - Ali BONGO Ondimba (PDG) 49.8%, Jean PING (UFC) 48.2%, other 2.0%

2009: Ali BONGO Ondimba elected president; percent of vote - Ali BONGO Ondimba (PDG) 41.7%, Andre MBA OBAME (independent) 25.9%, Pierre MAMBOUNDOU (UPG) 25.2%, Zacharie MYBOTO (UGDD) 3.9%, other 3.3%

 

Gambia, The

chief of state: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2022); Vice President Muhammed B.S. JALLOW (24 February 2023; note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2022); Vice President Muhammed B.S. JALLOW (24 February 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 4 December 2021 (next to be held in 2026); vice president appointed by the president

election results:
2021:
Adama BARROW reelected president; percent of vote - Adama BARROW (NPP) 53.2%, Ousainou DARBOE (UDP) 27.7%, Mamma KANDEH (GDC) 12.3%, other 6.8%

2016: Adama BARROW elected president; percent of vote - Adama BARROW (Coalition 2016) 43.3%, Yahya JAMMEH (APRC) 39.6%, Mamma KANDEH (GDC) 17.1%

Georgia

chief of state: President Salome ZOURABICHVILI (since 16 December 2018)

head of government: Prime Minister Irakli KOBAKHIDZE (since 8 February 2024); note - Irakli GARIBASHVILI resigned on 29 January 2024 to prepare for general elections in October 2024

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2018 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister nominated by Parliament, appointed by the president; note - 2017 constitutional amendments made the 2018 election the last where the president was directly elected; future presidents will be elected by a 300-member College of Electors; in light of these changes, ZOURABICHVILI was allowed a six-year term

election results: 2024: Irakli KOBAKHIDZE approved as prime minister by Parliamentary vote 84-10

2018:
 Salome ZOURABICHVILI elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Salome ZOURABICHVILI (independent, backed by Georgian Dream) 59.5%, Grigol VASHADZE (UNM) 40.5%; Irakli GARIBASHVILI approved as prime minister by Parliamentary vote 89-2; note-resigned on January 29, 2024

2013: Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI elected president; Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (Georgian Dream) 62.1%, David BAKRADZE (ENM) 21.7%, Nino BURJANADZE (DM-UG) 10.2%, other 6%

Germany

chief of state: President Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (since 19 March 2017)

head of government: Chancellor Olaf SCHOLZ (since 8 December 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) recommended by the chancellor, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by a Federal Convention consisting of all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equivalent number of delegates indirectly elected by the state parliaments; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 February 2022 (next to be held in February 2027); following the most recent Federal Parliament election, the party or coalition with the most representatives usually elects the chancellor who is appointed by the president to serve a renewable 4-year term; Federal Parliament vote for chancellor last held on 8 December 2021 (next to be held after the Bundestag election in 2025)

election results:
2022:
Frank-Walter STEINMEIER reelected president; Federal Convention vote count - Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (SPD) 1,045, Max OTTE (CDU) 140, Gerhard TRABERT (The Left) 96, Stefanie GEBAUER (Free Voters) 58, abstentions 86

2021:  Olaf SCHOLZ (SPD) elected chancellor; Federal Parliament vote - 395 to 303

2017:  Frank-Walter STEINMEIER elected president; Federal Convention vote count - Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (SPD) 931, Christopher Butterwegge (independent) 128, abstentions 103

Ghana

chief of state: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (since 7 January 2017); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (since 7 January 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the president, approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 December 2020 (next to be held on 7 December 2024)

election results: 2020: Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (NPP) 51.3%, John Dramani MAHAMA (NDC) 47.4%, other 1.3% (2020)

Gibraltar

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Sir David STEEL (since 11 June 2020)

head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 9 December 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor

Greece

chief of state: President Ekaterini SAKELLAROPOULOU (since 13 March 2020)

head of government: Prime Minister Kyriakos MITSOTAKIS (since 26 June 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president elected by Hellenic Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 January 2020 (next to be held by February 2025); president appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party or coalition in the Hellenic Parliament

election results:
2020:
 Katerina SAKELLAROPOULOU (independent) elected president by Parliament - 261 of 300 votes; note - SAKELLAROPOULOU is Greece's first woman president

2015:
Prokopis PAVLOPOULOS (ND) elected president by Parliament - 233 of 300 votes

Greenland

chief of state: King FREDERIK X of Denmark (since 14 January 2024), represented by High Commissioner Mikaela ENGELL (since April 2011) (2024)

head of government: Premier Mute B. EGEDE (since 23 April 2021)

cabinet: Self-rule Government (Naalakkersuisut) elected by the Parliament (Inatsisartut)

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; premier indirectly elected by Parliament for a 4-year term

election results:
2021:
Mute B. EGEDE elected premier; Parliament vote - Mute B. EGEDE (Inuit Ataqatigiit) unanimous

2014: Kim KIELSEN elected premier; Parliament vote - Kim KIELSEN (S) 27.2%, Sara OLSVIG (IA) 25.5%, Randi Vestergaard EVALDSEN (D) 19.5%, other 27.8%

Grenada

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Cecile LA GRENADE (since 7 May 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Dickon MITCHELL (since 24 June 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Guam

chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

head of government: Governor Lourdes LEON GUERRERO (since 7 January 2019); Lieutenant Governor Josh TENORIO (since 7 January 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor with the consent of the Legislature

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state to serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Guam, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); gubernatorial election last held on 8 November 2022 (next to be held in November 2026)

election results: 2022: Lourdes LEON GUERRERO reelected governor; percent of vote - Lourdes LEON GUERRERO (Democratic Party) 55%, Felix CAMACHO (Republican Party) 44%; Josh TENORIO (Democratic Party) elected lieutenant governor

Guatemala

chief of state: President Bernardo ARÉVALO de León (since 15 January 2024); Vice President Karin HERRERA (since 15 January 2024); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Bernardo ARÉVALO de León (since 15 January 2024); Vice President Karin HERRERA (since 15 January 2024)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (not eligible for consecutive terms); election last held on 25 June 2023 with a runoff on 20 August 2023 (next to be held in June 2027)

election results:
2023:
Bernardo ARÉVALO de León elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Sandra TORRES (UNE) 21%; Bernardo ARÉVALO de León (SEMILLA) 15.6%, Manuel CONDE Orellana (VAMOS) 10.4%; Armando CASTILLO Alvarado (VIVA) 9.6%, other 43.4%; percent of vote in second round - Bernardo ARÉVALO de León 60.9%, Sandra TORRES 39.1%

2019:
Alejandro GIAMMATTEI elected president; percent of vote in first round - Sandra TORRES (UNE) 25.5%, Alejandro GIAMMATTEI (VAMOS) 14%, Edmond MULET (PHG) 11.2%, Thelma CABRERA (MLP) 10.4%, Roberto ARZU (PAN-PODEMOS) 6.1%, other 32.8%; percent of vote in second round - Alejandro GIAMMATTEI 58%, Sandra TORRES 42%

Guernsey

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Lieutenant-Governor Richard CRIPWELL (since 15 February 2022)

head of government: Chief Minister Peter FERBRACHE (since 16 October 2020); Bailiff Richard McMAHON (since 11 May 2020); note - the chief minister is the president of the Policy and Resources Committee and is the de facto head of government; the Policy and Resources Committee, elected by the States of Deliberation, functions as the executive; the 5 members all have equal voting rights

cabinet: none

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch; chief minister, who is the president of the Policy and Resources Committee indirectly elected by the States of Deliberation for a 4-year term; last held on 7 October 2020 (next to be held in 2024)

election results:
2020:
Peter FERBRACHE (independent) elected president of the Policy and Resources Committee and chief minister: percent of States of Guernsey vote - 57.5%

2016:
 Gavin ST. PIER (independent) elected president of the Policy and Resources Committee and chief minister

Guinea

chief of state: President Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA (since 1 October 2021); note - on 5 September 2021, Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA led a military coup in which President CONDE was arrested and detained, the constitution suspended, and the government and People's National Assembly dissolved; on 1 October 2021, DOUMBOUYA was sworn in as transitional president

head of government: Prime Minister Mamadou Oury BAH (since 29 February 2024); note - on 19 February 2024, Guinea's military leaders dissolved the government of Prime Minister Bernard GOUMOU; on 27 February 2024, Guinea's military leaders appointed Mamadou Oury BAH as prime minister

cabinet: formerly the Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - on 5 September 2021, the military arrested and detained the president, suspended the constitution, and dissolved the government and legislature

elections/appointments: formerly, the president was directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term) and the prime minister appointed by the president; election last held on 18 October 2020; note - a new election timetable has not been announced by the transitional government

election results: 2020: Alpha CONDE reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 59.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 33.5%, other 7%

Guinea-Bissau

chief of state: President Umaro Sissoco EMBALO (since 27 February 2020); note - President EMBALO was declared winner of the 29 December 2019 runoff presidential election by the electoral commission; in late February 2020, EMBALO inaugurated himself with only military leadership present, even though the Supreme Court of Justice had yet to rule on an electoral litigation appeal lodged by his political rival Domingos Simoes PEREIRA

head of government: Prime Minister Rui Duarte DE BARROS (since 27 December 2023); note - on 4 December 2023 the president dissolved the parliament

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for up to 2 consecutive 5-year terms; election last held on 24 November 2019 with a runoff on 29 December 2019 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the National People's Assembly; note - the president cannot apply for a third consecutive term

election results: 2019: Umaro Sissoco EMBALO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Domingos Simoes PEREIRA (PAIGC) 40.1%, Umaro Sissoco EMBALO (Madem G15) 27.7%, Nuno Gomez NABIAM (APU-PDGB) 13.2%, Jose Mario VAZ (independent) 12.4%, other 6.6%; percent of vote in second round - Umaro Sissoco EMBALO 53.6%, Domingos Simoes PEREIRA 46.5% (2019)

Guyana

chief of state: President Mohammed Irfaan ALI (since 2 August 2020); First Vice President Mark PHILLIPS (since 2 August 2020); Vice President Bharrat JAGDEO (since 2 August 2020); Prime Minister Mark PHILLIPS (since 2 August 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mohammed Irfaan ALI (since 2 August 2020); First Vice President Mark PHILLIPS (since 2 August 2020); Vice President Bharrat JAGDEO (since 2 August 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the National Assembly

elections/appointments: the predesignated candidate of the winning party in the last National Assembly election becomes president for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 2 March 2020 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
2020: Mohammed Irfaan ALI (PPP/C) designated president by the majority party in the National Assembly

2015: David GRANGER (APNU-AFC) designated president by the majority party in the National Assembly

Haiti

chief of state: President (vacant); note - Acting Prime Minister Ariel HENRY assumed executive responsibilities, including naming Cabinet members, following the assassination of President MOÏSE on 7 July 2021; note - on 12 March 2024, amid Haiti's escalating gang violence, Prime Minister HENRY pledged to resign effective when a new transitional presidential council appoints a new interim prime minister.

head of government: Acting Prime Minister Ariel HENRY (since 20 July 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president; parliament must ratify the Cabinet and Prime Minister's governing policy

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a single non-consecutive term); last election was 20 November 2016; new elections were delayed in 2022 and 2023 and have not been scheduled by Acting Prime Minister HENRY

election results:
2016: Jovenel MOÏSE elected president in first round; percent of vote - Jovenel MOÏSE (PHTK) 55.6%, Jude CELESTIN (LAPEH) 19.6%, Jean-Charles MOÏSE (PPD) 11%, Maryse NARCISSE (FL) 9%; other 4.8%

2011: Michel MARTELLY elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Michel MARTELLY (Peasant's Response) 68%, Mirlande MANIGAT (RDNP) 32%

Holy See (Vatican City)

chief of state: Pope FRANCIS (since 13 March 2013)

head of government: President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City and President of the Governorate of the Vatican City State is Fernando VERGEZ ALZAGA (since 1 October 2021)

cabinet: Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City appointed by the pope

elections/appointments: pope elected by the College of Cardinals, usually for life or until voluntary resignation; election last held on 13 March 2013 after the resignation of Pope BENEDICT XVI (next to be held after the death or resignation of the current pope); Secretary of State appointed by the pope

election results: 2013: Jorge Mario BERGOGLIO, former Archbishop of Buenos Aires, elected Pope FRANCIS

Honduras

chief of state: President Iris Xiomara CASTRO de Zelaya (since 27 January 2022); Vice Presidents Salvador NASRALLA, Doris GUTIÉRREZ, and Renato FLORENTINO (all since 27 January 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; CASTRO is Honduras' first female president

head of government: President Iris Xiomara CASTRO de Zelaya (since 27 January 2022); Vice Presidents Salvador NASRALLA, Doris GUTIÉRREZ, and Renato FLORENTINO (all since 27 January 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term; election last held on 28 November 2021 (next to be held on 30 November 2025); note - in 2015, the Constitutional Chamber of the Honduran Supreme Court struck down the constitutional provisions on presidential term limits

election results:
2021: Iris Xiomara CASTRO de Zelaya elected president; percent of vote - Iris Xiomara CASTRO de Zelaya (LIBRE) 51.1%, Nasry Juan ASFURA Zablah (PNH) 36.9%, Yani Benjamin ROSENTHAL Hidalgo (PL) 10%, other 2%

2017:
Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (PNH) 43%, Salvador NASRALLA (Alianza de Oposicion contra la Dictadura) 41.4%, Luis Orlando ZELAYA Medrano (PL) 14.7%, other 0.9%

Hong Kong

chief of state: President of China XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013)

head of government: Chief Executive John LEE Ka-chiu (since 1 July 2022)

cabinet: Executive Council or ExCo appointed by the chief executive

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 March 2023 (next to be held in March 2028); chief executive indirectly elected by the Election Committee and appointed by the PRC Government for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 8 May 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

election results: 2022: John LEE was the only candidate and won with over 99% of the vote by the Election Committee

2017:
Carrie LAM elected; Election Committee vote - Carrie LAM (non-partisan) 777, John TSANG (non-partisan) 365, WOO Kwok-hing (non-partisan) 21, 23 ballots rejected (1,186 votes cast)

note: electoral changes that Beijing imposed in March 2021 expanded the Election Committee to 1,500 members

Hungary

chief of state: President Tamas SULYOK (since 5 March 2024)

head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in first round or simple majority vote in second round for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 February 2024 (next to be held in spring 2029); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held on 3 April 2022 (next to be held in April or May 2027)

election results:
2024: Tamas SULYOK elected president; National Assembly vote - 134 to 5

2022: Katalin NOVAK (Fidesz) elected president; National Assembly vote - 137 to 51

Iceland

chief of state: President Gudni Thorlacius JOHANNESSON (since 1 August 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Bjarni BENEDIKTSSON (since 9 April 2024); note - Katrin JAKOBSDOTTIR resigned on 5 April 2024 in order to be a candidate in the 1 June 2024 presidential election.

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (no term limits); election last held on 27 June 2020 (next to be held on 1 June 2024); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition becomes prime minister

election results:
2020:
Gudni Thorlacius JOHANNESSON reelected president; percent of vote - Gudni Thorlacius JOHANNESSON (independent) 92.2%, Gudmundur Franklin JONSSON (independent) 7.8%

2016: Gudni Thorlacius JOHANNESSON elected president; Gudni Thorlacius JOHANNESSON (independent) 39.1%, Halla TOMASDOTTIR (independent) 27.9%, Andri Snær MAGNASON (Democracy Movement) 14.3%, David ODDSSON (independent) 13.7%, other 5%

India

chief of state: President Droupadi MURMU (since 25 July 2022); Vice President Jagdeep DHANKHAR (since 11 August 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)

cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18 July 2022 (next to be held in July 2027); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 5 August 2022 (next to be held in August 2027); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by Lok Sabha members of the majority party

election results:
2022: Droupadi MURMU elected president; percent of electoral college vote - Droupadi MURMU (BJP) 64%, Yashwant SINHA (AITC) 35.9%; Jagdeep DHANKHAR elected vice president; percent of electoral college vote - Jagdeep DHANKHAR (BJP) 74.4%, Margaret ALVA (INC) 25.6%

2017: Ram Nath KOVIND elected president; percent of electoral college vote - Ram Nath KOVIND (BJP) 65.6%, Meira KUMAR (INC) 34.4%; Venkaiah NAIDU elected vice president; percent of electoral college vote - Venkaiah NAIDU (BJP) 67.9%, Gopal-krishna GANDHI 32.1%

Indonesia

chief of state: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 14 February 2024 (next to be held in 2029)

election results: 2024: PRABOWO Subianto elected president; percent of vote - PRABOWO Subianto (GERINDRA) 58.6%, Anies Rasyid BASWEDAN (Independent) 24.9%, GANJAR Pranowo (PDI-P) 16.5%

2019
: Joko WIDODO reelected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 55.5%, PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo (GERINDRA) 44.5%

Iran

chief of state: Supreme Leader Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)

head of government: President Ebrahim RAISI (since 18 June 2021); First Vice President Mohammad MOKHBER (since 8 August 2021)

cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president with legislative approval; the supreme leader has some control over appointments to several ministries

elections/appointments: supreme leader appointed for life by Assembly of Experts; president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term and an additional nonconsecutive term); election last held on 18 June 2021 (next to be held in June 2025)

election results:
2021: Ebrahim RAISI elected president; percent of vote - Ebrahim RAISI (independent) 72.4%, Mohsen REZAI (RFII) 13.8%, Abbdolnaser HEMATI (ECP) 9.8%, Amir-Hosein Qazizadeh-HASHEMI (Islamic Law Party) 4%

2017: Hasan Fereidun RUHANI reelected president; percent of vote - Hasan Fereidun RUHANI (Moderation and Development Party) 58.8%, Ebrahim RAISI (Combat Clergy Association) 39.4%, Mostafa Mir-SALIM Islamic Coalition Party) 1.2%, Mostafa HASHEMI-TABA (Executives of Construction Party) 0.5%

Iraq

chief of state: President Latif RASHID (since 13 October 2022); vice presidents (vacant)

head of government: Prime Minister Mohammed Shia al-SUDANI (since 27 October 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, approved by Council of Representatives (COR)

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by COR to serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); COR parliamentary election for president last held on 13 October 2022 (next to be held NA)

election results:
2022:
Latif RASHID elected president in second round; COR vote in first round - Latif RASHID (PUK) 157, Barham SALIH (PUK) 99; COR vote in second round - Latif RASHID 167, Barham SALIH 99; Mohammed Shia' al-SUDANI approved as prime minister

2018:
Barham SALIH elected president in second round; COR vote in first round - Barham SALIH (PUK) 165, Fuad HUSAYN (KDP) 90; COR vote in second round - Barham SALIH 219, Fuad HUSAYN 22; Adil ABD AL-MAHDI approved as prime minister

Ireland

chief of state: President Michael D. HIGGINS (since 11 November 2011)

head of government: Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Simon HARRIS (since 9 April 2024); note - Taoiseach Leo VARADKAR resigned from the ruling party on 20 March 2024 but remained as the caretaker taoiseach until a successor was appointed

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, approved by the Dali Eireann (lower house of Parliament)

elections/appointments: president directly elected by majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 October 2018 (next to be held no later than November 2025); taoiseach (prime minister) nominated by the House of Representatives (Dail Eireann), appointed by the president

election results:
2024:
Simon HARRIS is elected taoiseach by parliament, 88 votes to 69, and is appointed taoiseach by the president

2018:
Michael D. HIGGINS reelected president in first round; percent of vote in first round - Michael D. HIGGINS (independent) 55.8%, Peter CASEY (independent) 23.3%, Sean GALLAGHER (independent) 6.4%, Liadh NI RIADA (Sinn Fein) 6.4%, Joan FREEMAN (independent) 6%, Gavin DUFFY (independent) 2.2%

2011: Michael D. HIGGINS elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Michael D. HIGGINS (Labor) 39.6%, Sean GALLAGHER (independent) 28.5%, Martin McGuinness (Sinn Féin) 13.7%, Gay Mitchell (Fine Gael) 6.4%, David Norris (independent) 6.2%, Mary DAVIS (independent) 2.7%; percent of vote in second round - Michael D. HIGGINS 56.8%, Sean GALLAGHER 35.5%

Isle of Man

chief of state: Lord of Mann King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir John LORIMER (since 29 September 2021)

head of government: Chief Minister Alfred CANNAN (since 12 October 2021)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the lieutenant governor

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister indirectly elected by the Tynwald for a 5-year term (eligible for second term); election last held on 23 September 2021 (next to be held in 2026)

election results:
2021:
Alfred CANNAN (independent) elected chief minister; Tynwald House of Keys vote - 21 of 24

2016: Howard QUAYLE elected chief minister; Tynwald House of Keys vote - 21 of 33

Israel

chief of state: President Isaac HERZOG (since 7 July 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Benyamin NETANYAHU (since 29 December 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Knesset for a single 7-year term; election last held on 2 June 2021 (next to be held in June 2028); following legislative elections, the president, in consultation with party leaders, tasks a Knesset member (usually the member of the largest party) with forming a new government

election results:
2021: Isaac HERZOG elected president; Knesset vote in first round - Isaac HERZOG (independent) 87, Miriam PERETZ (independent) 26, invalid/blank 7

2014: Reuven RIVLIN elected president in second round; Knesset vote - Reuven RIVLIN (Likud) 63, Meir SHEETRIT (The Movement) 53, other/invalid 4

 

Italy

chief of state: President Sergio MATTARELLA (since 3 February 2015)

head of government: Prime Minister Giorgia MELONI (since 22 October 2022); the prime minister's official title is President of the Council of Ministers; Deputy Prime Ministers Matteo SALVINI and Antonio TAIANI (since 22 October 2022); the deputy prime ministers' official titles are Vice Presidents of the Council of Ministers

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, known officially as the President of the Council of Ministers and locally as the Premier; nominated by the president; deputy prime ministers are known officially as Vice Presidents of the Council of Ministers

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 24-29 January 2022 (eight rounds) (next to be held in 2029); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by parliament

election results:
2022: Sergio MATTARELLA (independent) reelected president; electoral college vote count in eighth round - 759 out of 1,009 (505 vote threshold)

2015: Sergio MATTARELLA (independent) elected president; electoral college vote count in fourth round - 665 out of 995 (505 vote threshold)

 

Jamaica

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Sir Patrick L. ALLEN (since 26 February 2009); note - the Jamaican Government, in May 2023, announced plans to hold a referendum in 2024 to determine whether or not to remain in the Commonwealth or become a republic

head of government: Prime Minister Andrew HOLNESS (since 3 March 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general

Japan

chief of state: Emperor NARUHITO (since 1 May 2019); note - succeeded his father who abdicated on 30 April 2019

head of government: Prime Minister Fumio KISHIDA (since 4 October 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister

election results: 2021: Fumio KISHIDA reelected prime minister on 10 November 2021; upper house vote - Fumio KISHIDA (LDP) 141, Yukio EDANO (CDP) 60; lower house vote - Fumio KISHIDA 297, Yukio EDANO 108

Jersey

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Lieutenant Governor Jerry KYD (since 8 October 2022)

head of government: Chief Minister Kristina MOORE (since 12 July 2022); Bailiff Timothy Le COCQ (since 17 October 2019)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed individually by the states

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; Council of Ministers, including the chief minister, indirectly elected by the Assembly of States; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch

Jordan

chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HUSSEIN (eldest son of the monarch, born 28 June 1994); the monarchy is hereditary

head of government: Prime Minister Bisher AL-KHASAWNEH (since 7 October 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch in consultation with the prime minister

elections/appointments: prime minister appointed by the monarch

Kazakhstan

chief of state: President Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV (since 20 March 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Olzhas BEKTENOV (since 6 February 2024); note - Alikhan SMAILOV resigned on 5 February 2024

cabinet: the president appoints ministers based on the prime minister's recommendations; the president has veto power over all appointments and independently appoints the ministers of defense, internal affairs, and foreign affairs

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 7-year term (prior to September 2022, the president of Kazakhstan could serve up to two 5-year terms; legislation passed in September 2022 reduced the maximum number of terms to one 7-year term); election last held on 20 November 2022 (next to be held in 2029); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Mazhilis

election results: 2024: Olzhas BEKTENOV elected as prime minister; 69-0 in parliament

2022
: Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Kassym-Jomart TOKAYEV (Amanat) 81.3%, Zhiguli DAYRABAEV (Auyl) 3.4%, Qaraqat or Karakat ÄBDEN (KÄQŪA) 2.6%, Meyram KAZHYKEN (Amanat) 2.5%, Nurlan AUYESBAYEV (NSDP) 2.2%, Saltanat TURSYNBEKOVA (QA-DJ) 2.1%, other 5.8%

2019: Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV elected president; percent of vote - Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV (Amanat) 71%, Amirzhan KOSANOV (Ult Tagdyry) 16.2%, Daniya YESPAYEVA (Ak Zhol) 5.1%, other 7.7%

Kenya

chief of state: President William RUTO (since 13 September 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President William RUTO (since 13 September 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president and deputy president directly elected on the same ballot by majority vote nationwide and at least 25% of the votes cast in at least 24 of the 47 counties; failure to meet these thresholds requires a runoff between the top two candidates; election last held on 9 August 2022 (next to be held on 10 August 2027)

election results: 2022:  William RUTO elected president in first round; percent of vote - William RUTO (UDA) 50.5%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 48.9%, other 0.6%

2017
:  Uhuru KENYATTA reelected president; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA (JP) 98.3%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 1%, other 0.7%; note - Kenya held a previous presidential election on 8 August 2017, but Kenya's Supreme Court on 1 September 2017 nullified the results, citing irregularities; the political opposition boycotted the October vote

Kiribati

chief of state: President Taneti MAAMAU (since 11 March 2016); Vice President Teuea TOATU (since 19 June 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Taneti MAAMAU (since 11 March 2016); Vice President Teuea TOATU (since 19 June 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among House of Assembly members

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote following nomination of candidates from among House of Assembly members for a 4-year term (eligible for 2 additional terms); election last held on 22 June 2020 (next to be held in 2024); vice president appointed by the president

election results: 2020: Taneti MAAMAU reelected president; percent of vote - Taneti MAAMAU (TKB) 59.3%, Banuera BERINA (BKM) 40.7%

Korea, North

chief of state: State Affairs Commission President KIM Jong Un (since 17 December 2011); note - within the North Korean system, KIM Jong Un's role as chief of state is secondary to his role as general secretary of the Korean Workers' Party; chief of state is used to engage with non-communist countries such as the US; North Korea revised its constitution in 2019 to define "the Chairman of the State Affairs Commission" as "the supreme leader who represents the state"; functions as the commander-in-chief and chief executive; the specific titles associated with this office have changed multiple times under KIM's tenure, however, KIM Jong Un has been supreme leader since his father's death in 2011

head of government: Supreme People's Assembly President CHOE Ryong Hae (since 11 April 2019); note - functions as the technical head of state and performs related duties, such as receiving ambassadors' credentials

cabinet: Cabinet or Naegak members appointed by the Supreme People's Assembly except the Minister of People's Armed Forces

elections/appointments: chief of state and premier indirectly elected by the Supreme People's Assembly; election last held on 10 March 2019 (next to be held in March 2024)

election results: 2019: KIM Jong Un reelected unopposed

note 1: KIM Jong Un's titles include general secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea (KWP), chairman of the KWP Central Military Commission, president of the State Affairs Commission, and supreme commander of the Korean People's Army

Korea, South

chief of state: President YOON Suk Yeol (since 10 May 2022); the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister HAN Duck-soo (since 21 May 2022) serves as the principal executive assistant to the president, similar to the role of a vice president

head of government: President YOON Suk Yeol (since 10 May 2022)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime minister's recommendation

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 5-year term; election last held on 9 March 2022 (next to be held in March 2027); prime minister appointed by president with consent of the National Assembly

election results:
2022
: YOON Suk-yeol elected president; YOON Suk-yeol (PPP) 48.6%, LEE Jae-myung (DP) 47.8%; other 3.6%

2017: MOON Jae-in elected president; MOON Jae-in (DP) 41.1%, HONG Joon-pyo (Liberty Korea Party) 24%, AHN Cheol-soo (PP) 21.4%, YOO Seung-min (Bareun Party) 6.8%, SIM Sang-jung (Justice Party) 6.2%

Kosovo

chief of state: President Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu (since 4 April 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Albin KURTI (since 22 March 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Assembly

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly for a 5-year term; if a candidate does not attain a two-thirds threshold in the first two ballots, the candidate winning a simple majority vote in the third ballot is elected (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 to 4 April 2021 (next to be held in 2026); prime minister indirectly elected by the Assembly

election results: 2021:  Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu elected president in third ballot; Assembly vote - Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu (Guxo!) 71 votes; Albin KURTI (LVV) elected prime minister; Assembly vote - 67 for, 30 against

2017: Ramush HARADINAJ (AAK) elected prime minister; Assembly vote - 61 for, 1 abstention, 0 against (opposition boycott)

2016: Hashim THACI elected president in third ballot; Assembly vote - Hashim THACI (PDK) 71 votes

Kuwait

chief of state: Amir Sheikh MISHAL al-Ahmad al-Sabah (since 16 December 2023); he succeeded his brother, Amir Sheikh NAWAF al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah following his death on 16 December 2023

head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh MOHAMMAD Sabah Al Salim Al Sabah (since 4 January 2024); First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior Sheikh TALAL al-Khalid Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah (since 16 October 2022); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for Cabinet Affairs Khalid al-FADIL (since 9 April 2022); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Oil Bader Hamed Yusef Al-Mula (since 16 October 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by the amir

elections/appointments: amir chosen from within the ruling family, confirmed by the National Assembly; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the amir; crown prince appointed by the amir and approved by the National Assembly

Kyrgyzstan

chief of state: President Sadyr JAPAROV (since 28 January 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Sadyr JAPAROV (since 28 January 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 January 2021 (next to be held in 2027)

election results:
2021:
Sadyr JAPAROV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Sadyr JAPAROV (Mekenchil) 79.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (United Kyrgyzstan) 6.8%, other 14%

2017: Sooronbay JEENBEKOV elected president; Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan) 54.7%, Omurbek BABANOV (independent) 33.8%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (United Kyrgyzstan) 6.6%, other 4.9%

note: the President is both Chief of State and Head of Government.

Laos

chief of state: President THONGLOUN Sisoulith (since 22 March 2021); Vice Presidents PANY Yathotou and BOUNTHONG Chitmany (since 22 March 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister SONEXAY Siphandon (since 30 December 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 22 March 2021 (next to be held in March 2026); prime minister nominated by the president, elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term

election results:
2021:
THONGLOUN Sisoulith elected president; National Assembly vote - THONGLOUN Sisoulith (LPRP) 161-1; PANY Yathotou and BOUNTHONG Chitmany (LPRP) elected vice presidents; National Assembly vote - NA; PHANKHAM Viphavanh (LPRP) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 158-3

2016: BOUNNHANG Vorachit (LPRP) elected president; PHANKHAM Viphavanh (LPRP) elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA; THONGLOUN Sisoulith (LPRP) elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - NA

Latvia

chief of state: President Edgars RINKEVICS (since 8 July 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Evika SILINA (since 15 September 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by Parliament

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Parliament for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 31 May 2023 (next to be held in 2027); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by Parliament

election results:
2023:
Edgars RINKEVICS elected president in the third round; Parliament vote - Edgars RINKEVICS (Unity Party) 52, Uldis Pīlēns (independent) 25; Evika SILINA confirmed as prime minister 53-39

2019:
Egils LEVITS elected president; Parliament vote - Egils LEVITS (independent) 61, Didzis SMITS (KPV LV) 24, Juris JANSONS (independent) 8; Krisjanis KARINS confirmed as prime minister 61-39

note: on 15 September 2023, Parliament voted 53-39 to approve Prime Minister Evika SILINA

Lebanon

chief of state: president (vacant)

head of government: Caretaker Prime Minister Najib MIQATI (since 20 September 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president and Parliament

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Parliament with two-thirds majority vote in the first round and if needed absolute majority vote in a second round for a 6-year term (eligible for non-consecutive terms); last held on 31 October 2016; prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with Parliament; deputy prime minister determined during cabinet formation

election results:
2023: on 14 June 2023, Parliament failed in its twelfth attempt to elect a president; note - the Hezbollah bloc withdrew following the first round of voting and a second round was not possible since Parliament lacked the required 86-member quorum for a second round of voting

2016:
Michel AWN elected president in second round; Parliament vote - Michel AWN (FPM) 83; the president was finally elected in its 46th attempt on 31 October 2016

Lesotho

chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996); note - King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from November 1990 to February 1995 while his father was in exile

head of government: Prime Minister Ntsokoane Samuel MATEKANE (28 October 2022)

cabinet: consists of the prime minister, appointed by the King on the advice of the Council of State, the deputy prime minister, and 18 other ministers; the prime minister is the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the National Assembly 

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary, but under the terms of the constitution that came into effect after the March 1993 election, the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" with no executive or legislative powers; under traditional law, the College of Chiefs has the power to depose the monarch, to determine next in line of succession, or to serve as regent in the event that a successor is not of mature age

Liberia

chief of state: President Joseph BOAKAI (since 22 January 2024); Vice President Jeremiah KUONG (since 22 January 2024); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joseph BOAKAI (since 22 January 2024); Vice President Jeremiah KUONG (since 22 January 2024)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, confirmed by the Senate

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 October 2023 with a runoff on 14 November 2023 (next to be held in October 2029)

election results: 2023: Joseph BOAKAI elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - George WEAH (CDC) 43.8%, Joseph BOAKAI (UP) 43.4%, Edward APPLETON (GDM) 2.2%, Lusinee KAMARA (ALCOP) 2%, Alexander B. CUMMINGS, Jr. (CPP) 1.6%, Tiawan Saye GONGLOE (LPP) 1.4%, other 5.6%; percentage of vote in second round - Joseph BOAKAI 50.6%, George WEAH 49.4%

Libya

chief of state: President, Presidential Council, Mohammed Al MENFI (since 5 February 2021)

head of government: GNU Interim Prime Minister Abdul Hamid DUBAYBAH (since 5 February 2021)

elections/appointments:

Libya’s first direct presidential election, scheduled for 24 December 2021, was not held; no new date has been set for elections

Liechtenstein

chief of state: Prince HANS-ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers on 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent and Regent of Liechtenstein Prince ALOIS (son of the monarch, born 11 June 1968); note - on 15 August 2004, HANS-ADAM II transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but Prince HANS-ADAM II retains status of chief of state

head of government: Prime Minister Daniel RISCH; Deputy Prime Minister Sabine MONAUNI (both since 25 March 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in Parliament usually appointed the head of government by the monarch, and the leader of the largest minority party in Parliament usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch if there is a coalition government

Lithuania

chief of state: President Gitanas NAUSEDA (since 12 July 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Ingrida SIMONYTE (since 24 November 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 and 26 May 2019 (next to be held on 12 May 2024); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by Parliament

election results:
2019:
Gitanas NAUSEDA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Gitanas NAUSEDA (independent) 66.7%, Ingrida SIMONYTE (independent) 33.3%

2014: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE elected president; percent of vote - Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (independent) 59.1%, Zigmantas BALCYTIS (Social Democratic Party) 40.9%

Luxembourg

chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)

head of government: Prime Minister Luc FRIEDEN (since 17 November 2023); Deputy Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 17 November 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

Macau

chief of state: President of China XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013)

head of government: Chief Executive HO lat Seng (since 20 December 2019)

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the chief executive

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 March 2023 (next to be held in March 2028); chief executive chosen by a 400-member Election Committee for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 August 2019 (next to be held in 2024)

election results: 2019: HO lat Seng (unopposed; received 392 out of 400 votes) 

2014: Fernando CHUI Sai (unopposed; received 380 of 396 votes)

Madagascar

chief of state: President Andry RAJOELINA (since 16 December 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Christian NTSAY (since 6 June 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 November 2023 (next to be held in November 2028); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly, appointed by the president

election results:
2023
: Andry RAJOELINA reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Andry RAJOELINA (TGV) 59.0%, Siteny Thierry RANDRIANASOLONIAIKO 14.4%, Marc RAVALOMANANA (TIM) 12.1%, other 14.5%

2018
: Andry RAJOELINA elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Andry RAJOELINA (TGV) 39.2%, Marc RAVALOMANANA (TIM) 35.4%, other 25.4%; percent of vote in second round - Andry RAJOELINA 55.7%, Marc RAVALOMANANA 44.3%

Malawi

chief of state: President Lazarus CHAKWERA (since 28 June 2020); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 3 February 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Lazarus CHAKWERA (since 28 June 2020); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 3 February 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet named by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 June 2020 (next to be held in 2025)

election results:
2020: Lazarus CHAKWERA elected president; Lazarus CHAKWERA (MCP) 59.3%, Peter Mutharika (DPP) 39.9%, other 0.8%

2014: Peter MUTHARIKA elected president; percent of vote - Peter MUTHARIKA (DPP) 36.4%, Lazarus CHAKWERA (MCP) 27.8%, Joyce BANDA (PP) 20.2%, Atupele MULUZI (UDF) 13.7%, other 1.9% 

Malaysia

chief of state: King Sultan IBRAHIM ibni al-Marhum Sultan Iskandar (since 31 January 2024); the position of the king is primarily ceremonial, but he is the final arbiter on the appointment of the prime minister

head of government: Prime Minister ANWAR Ibrahim (since 25 November 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament with the consent of the king

elections/appointments: king elected by and from the hereditary rulers of 9 states for a 5-year term; election is on a rotational basis among rulers of the 9 states; election last held on 24 October 2023 (next to be held in October 2028 with installation in January 2029); prime minister designated from among members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister

Maldives

chief of state: President Mohamed MUIZZU (since 17 November 2023); Vice President-elect Hussain Mohamed LATHEEF (since 30 September 2023); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Mohamed MUIZZU (since 17 November 2023); Vice President-elect Hussain Mohamed LATHEEF (since 30 September 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); first round held on 9 September 2023 and runoff held on 30 September 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results:
2023:
Mohamed MUIZZU elected president in the second round; percent of vote in first round - Mohamed MUIZZU (PNC) 46.1%, Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH (MDP) 39.1%, Ilyas LABEEB (DEMS) 7.1%, other 7.7%; percent of vote in the second round - Mohamed MUIZZU 54%, Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH 46%

2018: Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH elected president in first round; Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH (MDP) 58.3%, Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom (PPM) 41.7%

Mali

chief of state: Transition President Assimi GOITA (since 7 June 2021); note - an August 2020 coup d'état deposed President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA; on 21 September 2020, a group of 17 electors chosen by the Malian military junta, known as the National Committee for the Salvation of the People (CNSP) and led by Colonel Assimi GOITA, selected Bah NDAW as transition president; GOITA served as vice president of the transition government which was inaugurated on 25 September 2020; Vice President GOITA seized power on 25 May 2021; NDAW resigned on 26 May 2021; on 6 June 2022, GOITA's government announced a transition period of 24 months with a planned return to civilian rule by March 2024

head of government: Transition Prime Minister Choguel MAIGA (appointed by Transition President Assimi GOITA on 7 June 2021)

note: former transition Prime Minister Moctar OUANE was arrested and detained by the military on 24 May 2021 and resigned on 26 May 2021

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 July 2018 with runoff on 12 August 2018; prime minister appointed by the president; note - on 21 February 2022, the transition government adopted a charter allowing transition authorities to rule for up to 5 years, but a referendum pushed through by the junta in June 2023 consolidated power in the presidency and would allow junta leaders to serve in a new government, creating the potential for transition President GOITA to maintain his hold on power indefinitely

election results:
2018
: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 41.7%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 17.8%, other 40.5%; percent of vote in second round - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 67.2%, Soumaila CISSE 32.8%

2013: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 39.8%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 19.7%, other 40.5%; percent of vote in second round - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 22.4%

Malta

chief of state: President Myriam Spiteri DEBONO (since 4 April 2024)

head of government: Prime Minister Robert ABELA (13 January 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the House of Representatives for a single 5-year term; election last held on 27 March 2024 (next to be held by March 2029); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president for a 5-year term; deputy prime minister appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

election results: 2024:  Myriam SPITERI DEBONO elected president; House of representatives vote - unanimous

2020:
Robert ABELA (PL) appointed prime minister

2019:
George VELLA (PL) elected president; House of Representatives vote - unanimous

Marshall Islands

chief of state: President Hilda C. HEINE (since 3 January 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Hilda C. HEINE (since 3 January 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president from among members of the Nitijela, appointed by Nitijela speaker

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Nitijela from among its members for a 4-year term (no term limits); election last held on 2 January 2023 (next to be held in 2027)

election results: 2023: Hilda C. HEINE elected president; National Parliament vote - Hilda C. HEINE (independent) 17, David KABUA (independent) 16

2020: David KABUA elected president; National Parliament vote - David KABUA (independent) 20, Hilda C. HEINE (independent) 12

Mauritania

chief of state: President Mohamed Ould Cheikh el GHAZOUANI (since 1 August 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed Ould BILAL (since 6 August 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers - nominees suggested by the prime minister, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 June 2019 (next to be held on 22 June 2024); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
2019:
Mohamed Ould Cheikh El GHAZOUANI elected president in first round; percent of vote - Mahamed Ould Cheikh El GHAZOUANI (UPR) 52%, Biram Dah Ould ABEID (independent) 18.6%, Sidi Mohamed Ould BOUBACAR (independent) 17.9%, other 11.5%

2014: Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ elected president in first round; percent of vote - Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ (UPR) 81.9%, Biram Dah ABEID (IRA) 8.7%, Boidiel Ould HOUMEIT (El Wiam) 4.5%, Ibrahima Moctar SARR (SJD/MR) 4.4%, other 0.5%

Mauritius

chief of state: President Prithvirajsing ROOPUN (since 2 December 2019); Vice President Marie Cyril EDDY Boissézon (since 2 December 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Pravind JUGNAUTH (since 23 January 2017); note - Prime Minister Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH stepped down on 23 January 2017 in favor of his son, Pravind Kumar JUGNAUTH, who was then appointed prime minister; following 7 November 2019 parliamentary elections, Pravind JUGNAUTH remained prime minister and home affairs minister and also became defense minister

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers (Council of Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for 5-year renewable terms; election last held on 7 November 2019 (next to be held in 2024); the president appoints the prime minister and deputy prime minister who have the majority support in the National Assembly

election results:
2019
: Prithvirajsing ROOPUN (MSM) elected president by the National Assembly - unanimous vote

2015: Ameenah GURIB-FAKIM (independent) elected president by the National Assembly - unanimous vote; note - GURIB-FAKIM, who was Mauritius' first female president, resigned on 23 March 2018; acting presidents served from March 2018 until ROOPUN's appointment in 2019

Mexico

chief of state: President Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held on 2 June 2024)

election results:
2018: Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR elected president; percent of vote - Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (MORENA) 53.2%, Ricardo ANAYA Cortés (PAN) 22.3%, José Antonio MEADE Kuribreña (PRI) 16.4%, Jaime RODRÍGUEZ Calderón 5.2% (independent), other 2.9%

2012: Enrique PEÑA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PEÑA NIETO (PRI) 38.2%, Andrés Manuel LÓPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.6%, Josefina Eugenia VÁZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.4%, other 4.8%

Micronesia, Federated States of

chief of state: President Wesley W. SIMINA (since 12 May 2023); Vice President Aren B. PALIK (since 12 May 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Wesley W. SIMINA (since 12 May 2023); Vice President Aren B. PALIK (since 12 May 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet includes the vice president and the heads of the 8 executive departments

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by Congress from among the 4 'at large' senators for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 May 2023 (next to be held in 2027)

election results: David W. PANUELO elected president by Congress; Yosiwo P. GEORGE reelected vice president

Moldova

chief of state: President Maia SANDU (since 24 December 2020)

head of government: Prime Minister Dorin RECEAN (since 16 February 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister-designate, nominated by the president, approved through a vote of confidence in Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 November 2020 (next to be held in fall 2024); prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence for his/her proposed work program from the Parliament

election results:
2020:
Maia SANDU elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Maia SANDU (PAS) 57.7%, Igor DODON (PSRM) 42.3%

2016: Igor DODON elected president in second round; percent of vote - Igor DODON (PSRM) 52.1%, Maia SANDU (PAS) 47.9%

Monaco

chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)

head of government: Minister of State Pierre DARTOUT (since 1 September 2020)

cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Mongolia

chief of state: President Ukhnaagiin KHURELSUKH (since 25 June 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Luvsannamsrai OYUN-ERDENE (since 27 January 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Sainbuyen AMARSAIKHAN (since 8 September 2022) and Chimed KHURELBAATAR (since 5 January 2023)

cabinet: directly appointed by the prime minister following a constitutional amendment ratified in November 2019; prior to the amendment, the cabinet was nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)

elections/appointments: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in the State Great Hural and directly elected by simple majority popular vote for one 6-year term; election last held on 9 June 2021 (next to be held in 2027); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural

election results: 2021: Ukhnaagiin KHURELSUKH elected president in first round; percent of vote - Ukhnaagiin KHURELSUKH (MPP) 68%, Dangaasuren ENKHBAT (RPEC) 20.1%, Sodnomzundui ERDENE (DP) 6%

Montenegro

chief of state: President Jakov MILATOVIC (since 20 May 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Milojko SPAJIC (since 31 October 2023)

cabinet: ministers act as cabinet

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 March 2023 with a runoff on 2 April 2023 (next to be held in 2028); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly

election results:
2023:
Jakov MILATOVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Milo DUKANOVIC (DPS) 35.4%, Jakov MILATOVIC (Europe Now!) 28.9%, Andrija MANDIC (DF) 19.3%, Aleksa BECIC (DCG) 11.1%, other 5.3%; percent of vote in second round - Jakov MILATOVIC 58.9%, Milo DUKANOVIC 41.1%

2018:
Milo DJUKANOVIC elected president in first round; percent of vote - Milo DJUKANOVIC (DPS) 53.9%, Mladen BOJANIC (independent) 33.4%, Draginja VUKSANOVIC (SDP) 8.2%, Marko MILACIC (PRAVA) 2.8%, other 1.7%

Montserrat

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Sarah TUCKER (since 6 April 2023)

head of government: Premier Easton TAYLOR-FARRELL (since 19 November 2019); note - effective with Constitution Order 2010, October 2010, the office of premier replaced the office of chief minister

cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the premier, 3 other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance secretary

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes premier

Morocco

chief of state: King MOHAMMED VI (since 30 July 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Aziz AKHANNOUCH (since 7 October 2021)

cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the prime minister in consultation with Parliament and appointed by the monarch; the monarch chooses the ministers of Interior, Foreign Affairs, Islamic Affairs, and National Defense Administration

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from the majority party following legislative elections

Mozambique

chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Adriano Afonso MALEIANE (since 3 March 2022); note - President NYUSI removed Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO from office on 3 March 2022 as part of a cabinet reshuffle

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president elected directly by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2019 (next to be held on 9 October 2024); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
2019
: Filipe NYUSI reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 73.0%, Ossufo MOMADE (RENAMO) 21.9%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 5.1%

2014:  Filipe NYUSI elected president in first round; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%

Namibia

chief of state: Acting President Nangolo MBUMBA (since 4 February 2024); Acting Vice President Netumbo NANDI-NDAITWAHNOTE (since 4 February 2024); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; President Hage GEINGOB died on 4 February 2024, and Vice President MBUMBA was sworn in to run the government until the next presidential election in November 2024

head of government: Acting President Nangolo MBUMBA (since 4 February 2024); Acting Vice President Netumbo NANDI-NDAITWAHNOTE (since 4 February 2024); Prime Minister Saara KUUGONGELWA-AMADHILA (since 21 March 2015); note - the prime minister is appointed by the president to coordinate the work of the cabinet, advise the president, and is second in line of succession if the president is unable to serve; note - President Hage GEINGOB died on 4 February 2024, and the Vice President MBUMBA was sworn in to run the government until the next presidential election in November 2024

 



cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2019 (next to be held in November 2024)

election results:
2019: Hage GEINGOB reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Hage GEINGOB (SWAPO) 56.3%, Panduleni ITULA (independent) 29.4%, McHenry VENAANI (PDM) 5.3%, other .9%

2014: Hage GEINGOB elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Hage GEINGOB (SWAPO) 86.7%, McHenry VENAANI (DTA) 5%, Hidipo HAMUTENYA (RDP) 3.4%, Asser MBAI (NUDO)1.9%, Henk MUDGE (RP) 1%, other 2%

Nauru

chief of state: President David ADEANG (since 30 October 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President David ADEANG (since 30 October 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of Parliament

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Parliament for 3-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 30 October 2023 (next to be held in 2026)

election results: 2023: David ADEAGN elected president over Delvin THOMA, 10-8

Nepal

chief of state: President Ram Chandra POUDEL (since 13 March 2023); Vice President Ram Sahaya Prasad YADAV (since 20 March 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (since 26 December 2022); Deputy Prime Ministers Narayan Kaji SHRESTHA (since 26 December 2022), Rabi LAMICHHANE (since 26 December 2022), Raghubir MAHASETH (since 6 March 2024), Upendra YADAV (since 10 March 2024) (an)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet split between Nepali Congress, Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist Centre, and various coalition partners

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of the Federal Parliament and of the state assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 March 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results: 2023: Ram Chandra POUDEL elected president; electoral college vote - Ram Chandra POUDEL (NC) 33,802, Subash Chandra NEMBANG (CPN-UML) 15,518

Netherlands

chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER (since 30 April 2013); Heir Apparent Princess CATHARINA-AMALIA (daughter of King WILLEM-ALEXANDER, born 7 December 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Mark RUTTE (since 14 October 2010); Deputy Prime Ministers Sigrid KAAG and Wopke HOEKSTRA (since 10 January 2022), Carola SCHOUTEN (since 26 October 2017); note - Mark RUTTE's ruling coalition collapsed on 8 July 2023; he is serving as prime minister in a caretaker status until a new prime minister is named following the 22 November 2023

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers are appointed by the monarch

New Caledonia

chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by High Commissioner Louise LEFRANC (since 6 February 2023)

head of government: President of the Government Louis MAPOU (since 22 July 2021); Vice President Isabelle CHAMPMOREAU (since 22 July 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet elected from and by the Territorial Congress

elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of New Caledonia elected by Territorial Congress for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 8 July 2021 (next to be held in 2026)

election results:
2021:
Louis MAPOU (PALIKA) elected president by Territorial Congress with 6 of 11 votes

2019: Thierry SANTA (The Republicans) elected president by Territorial Congress with 6 of 11 votes

New Zealand

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor-General Dame Cindy KIRO (since 21 October 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Christopher LUXON (since 27 November 2023); Deputy Prime Minister Winston PETERS (since 27 November 2023)

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor-general on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor-general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor-general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor-general

note: according to Prime Minister LUXON, the Winston PETERS of the New Zealand First Party would be the deputy prime minister in the first half of the term while Act party leader, David SEYMOUR, would take the role for the second half of the term

Nicaragua

chief of state: President Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 January 2007); Vice President Rosario MURILLO Zambrana (since 10 January 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 January 2007); Vice President Rosario MURILLO Zambrana (since 10 January 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified plurality vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 7 November 2021 (next to be held on 1 November 2026)

election results:
2021: Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra reelected president for a fourth consecutive term; percent of vote - Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 75.9%, Walter ESPINOZA (PLC) 14.3%, Guillermo OSORNO (CCN) 3.3%, Marcelo MONTIEL (ALN) 3.1%, other 3.4%

2016:
Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra reelected president for a third consecutive term; percent of vote - Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 72.4%, Maximino RODRIGUEZ (PLC) 15%, Jose del Carmen ALVARADO (PLI) 4.5%, Saturnino CERRATO Hodgson (ALN) 4.3%, other 3.7%

Niger

chief of state: President of the National Council for Safeguarding of the Homeland (CNSP) General Abdourahame TIANI (since 28 July 2023); note - deposed president BAZOUM has been under house arrest since a military coup on 26 July 2023

head of government: Prime Minister Ali Mahaman Lamine ZEINE (since 9 August 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the CNSP since the military coup and suspension of the constitution; previously appointed by the elected president

elections/appointments: the CNSP dissolved the constitution as part of the 26 July 2023 military coup and rules by decree; note - prior to the coupe, president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 27 December 2020 with a runoff held on 21 February 2021 (next election was to be held in 2025); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly

election results:
2020/2021
: Mohamed BAZOUM elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Mohamed BAZOUM (PNDS-Tarrayya) 39.3%, Mahamane OUSMANE (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 9%, Albade ABOUDA (MPR-Jamhuriya) 7.1%, other 27.6%; percent of vote in second round - Mohamed BAZOUM 55.7%, Mahamane OUSMANE 44.3%

2016: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%

Nigeria

chief of state: President Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU (since 29 May 2023); Vice President Kashim SHETTIMA (since 29 May 2023); note - the president is chief of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces

head of government: President Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU (since 29 May 2023); Vice President Kashim SHETTIMA (since 29 May 2023)

cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president but constrained constitutionally to include at least one member from each of the 36 states

elections/appointments: president directly elected by qualified majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 February 2023 (next to be held on 27 February 2027)

election results:
2023: Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU elected president; percent of vote - Bola Ahmed Adekunle TINUBU (APC) 36.6%, Atiku ABUBAKAR (PDP) 29.1%, Peter OBI (LP) 25.4%, Rabiu KWANKWASO (NNPP) 6.4%, other 2.5%

2019: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 53%, Atiku ABUBAKAR (PDP) 39%, other 8%

 

Niue

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor-General of New Zealand Cindy KIRO (since 21 October 2021); the UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner Mark GIBBS (since 5 March 2024)

head of government: Premier Dalton TAGELAGI (since 10 June 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the premier

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; premier indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly for a 3-year term; election last held on 8 May 2023 (next to be held in 2026)

election results: Dalton TAGELAGI reelected premier; Legislative Assembly vote - Dalton TAGELAGI (independent) 16, O'Love JACOBSEN (independent) 4

Norfolk Island

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General of the Commonwealth of Australia General David HURLEY (since 1 July 2019)

head of government: Administrator Eric HUTCHINSON (since 1 April 2017)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of 4 Legislative Assembly members

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia for a 2-year term and represents the monarch and Australia

North Macedonia

chief of state: President Stevo PENDAROVSKI (since 12 May 2019)

head of government: Caretaker Prime Minister Talat XHAFERI (since 28 January 2024)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Assembly by simple majority vote

elections/appointments: president directly elected using a modified 2-round system; a candidate can only be elected in the first round with an absolute majority from all registered voters; in the second round, voter turnout must be at least 40% for the result to be deemed valid; president elected for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 April and 5 May 2019 (next to be held in 2024); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the Assembly

election results: 2024: Talat XHAFERI elected caretaker Prime Minister; Assembly vote - 65 for (opposition boycott)

2022:
Dimitar KOVACEVSKI elected Prime Minister; Assembly vote - NA

2019:
Stevo PENDAROVSKI elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 44.8%, Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA (VMRO-DPMNE) 44.2%, Blerim REKA (independent) 11.1%; percent of vote in second round - Stevo PENDAROVSKI 53.6%, Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA 46.4%

Northern Mariana Islands

chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

head of government: Governor Arnold PALACIOS (since 9 January 2023); Lieutenant Governor David APATANG (since 9 January 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of the Northern Mariana Islands do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican party presidential primary elections; governor directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; election last held on 8 November 2022 with a runoff held on 25 November 2022 (next to be held in 2026)

election results: Arnold PALACIOS elected governor in second round; percent of vote in first round - Ralph TORRES (Republican) 38.8%; Arnold PALACIOS (independent) 32.2%, Tina SABLAN (Democrat) 28%; percent of vote - Arnold PALACIOS 54%, Ralph TORRES 46%; David APATANG (independent) elected lieutenant governor

Norway

chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (son of the monarch, born 20 July 1973)

head of government: Prime Minister Jonas Gahr STORE (since 14 October 2021)

cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament

Oman

chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister HAITHAM bin Tarik Al Said (since 11 January 2020); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime HAITHAM bin Tarik Al Said (since 11 January 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

Pakistan

chief of state: President Asif Ali ZARDARI (since 10 March 2024)

head of government: Caretaker Prime Minister Shahbaz SHARIF (since 3 March 2024)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 9 March 2024 (next to be held in 2029)

election results: 2024: Asif Ali ZARDARI elected president; National Assembly vote - Asif Ali ZARDARI (PPP) 411 votes, Mehmood Khan ACHAKZALI (PMAP) -181 votes; Shahbaz SHARIF elected prime minister on 3 March 2024; National Assembly vote - Shahbaz SHARIF (PML-N) 201, Omar AYUB (PTI) 92

2018: Arif ALVI elected president; Electoral College vote - Arif ALVI (PTI) 352, Fazl-ur-REHMAN (MMA) 184, Aitzaz AHSAN (PPP) 124; Imran KHAN elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - Imran KHAN (PTI) 176, Shehbaz SHARIF (PML-N) 96

Palau

chief of state: President Surangel WHIPPS Jr. (since 21 January 2021); Vice President Jerrlyn Uduch Sengebau SENIOR (since 21 January 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Surangel WHIPPS Jr. (since 21 January 2021); Vice President Jerrlyn Uduch Sengebau SENIOR (since 21 January 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate; also includes the vice president; the Council of Chiefs consists of chiefs from each of the states who advise the president on issues concerning traditional laws, customs, and their relationship to the constitution and laws of Palau

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on separate ballots by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held on 12 November 2024)

election results:
2020: Surangel WHIPPS, Jr. elected president in second round; percent of vote - Surangel WHIPPS, Jr. (independent) 56.7%, Raynold OILUCH (independent) 43.3%

2016: Tommy REMENGESAU reelected president in the second round; percent of vote - Tommy REMENGESAU (independent) 51.3%, Surangel WHIPPS, Jr. (independent) 48.7%; Antonio BELLS elected vice president

Panama

chief of state: President Laurentino "Nito" CORTIZO Cohen (since 1 July 2019); Vice President Jose Gabriel CARRIZO Jaen (since 1 July 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Laurentino "Nito" CORTIZO Cohen (since 1 July 2019); Vice President Jose Gabriel CARRIZO Jaen (since 1 July 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term; president eligible for a single non-consecutive term); election last held on 5 May 2019 (next to be held on 5 May 2024)

election results:
2019: Laurentino "Nito" CORTIZO Cohen elected president; percent of vote - Laurentino CORTIZO Cohen (PRD) 33.3%, Romulo ROUX (CD) 31%, Ricardo LOMBANA (independent) 18.8%, Jose BLANDON (Panamenista Party) 10.8%, Ana Matilde GOMEZ Ruiloba (independent) 4.8%, other 1.3%

2014: Juan Carlos VARELA elected president; percent of vote - Juan Carlos VARELA (PP) 39.1%, Jose Domingo ARIAS (CD) 31.4%, Juan Carlos NAVARRO (PRD) 28.2%, other 1.3%

Papua New Guinea

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Grand Chief Sir Bob DADAE (since 28 February 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister James MARAPE (since 30 May 2019)

cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general nominated by the National Parliament and appointed by the chief of state; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general pending the outcome of a National Parliament vote

election results: James MARAPE reelected prime minister; National Parliament vote - 105 out of 118

Paraguay

chief of state: President Santiago PEÑA Palacios (since 15 August 2023); Vice President Pedro Lorenzo ALLIANA Rodríguez (since 15 August 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Santiago PEÑA Palacios (since 15 August 2023); Vice President Pedro Lorenzo ALLIANA Rodríguez (since 15 August 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a single 5-year term; election last held on 30 April 2023 (next to be held in April 2028)

election results:
2023: Santiago PEÑA Palacios elected president; percent of vote - Santiago PEÑA Palacios (ANR) 43.9%, Efraín ALEGRE (PLRA) 28.3%, Paraguayo "Payo" CUBAS Colomés (PCN) 23.6%, other 4.2%

2018:
Mario ABDO BENÍTEZ elected president; percent of vote - Mario ABDO BENÍTEZ (ANR) 49%, Efraín ALEGRE (PLRA) 45.1%, other 5.9%

Peru

chief of state: President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra (since 7 December 2022); first vice president (vacant); second vice president (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra (since 7 December 2022); first vice president (vacant); second vice president (vacant)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 11 April 2021 with a runoff on 6 June 2021 (next to be held in April 2026)

election results:
2021: Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones (PL) 18.9%, Keiko Sofia FUJIMORI Higuchi (FP) 13.4%, Rafael LOPEZ ALIAGA Cazorla (RP) 11.8%, Hernando DE SOTO Polar (Social Integration Party) 11.6%, Yonhy LESCANO Ancieta (AP) 9.1%, Veronika MENDOZA Frisch (JP) 7.9%, Cesar ACUNA Peralta (APP) 6%, George FORSYTH Sommer (VN) 5.7%, Daniel Belizario URRESTI Elera (PP) 5.6%, other 10%; percent of vote second round - Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones 50.1%, Keiko Sofia FUJIMORI Higuchi 49.9%

2016: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (FP) 39.9%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (PPK) 21.1%, Veronika MENDOZA (FA) 18.7%, Alfredo BARNECHEA (AP) 7%, Alan GARCIA (APRA) 5.8%, other 7.5%; percent of vote in second round - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 49.9%

note 1: First Vice President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra assumed the office of the president on 7 December 2022 after President Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones was impeached and arrested; BOLUARTE is the first woman to become president of Peru

note 2: Prime Minister Gustavo ADRIANZÉN (since 6 March 2024) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president; on 5 March 2024, Prime Minister Alberto OTÁROLA resigned amid allegations of corruption

Philippines

chief of state: President Ferdinand "BongBong" MARCOS, Jr. (since 30 June 2022); Vice President Sara DUTERTE-Carpio (since 30 June 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ferdinand "BongBong" MARCOS, Jr. (since 30 June 2022); Vice President Sara DUTERTE-Carpio (since 30 June 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments, an independent body of 25 Congressional members including the Senate president (ex officio chairman), appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on separate ballots by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 9 May 2022 (next to be held on 9 May 2028)

election results:
2022:
Ferdinand MARCOS, Jr. elected president; percent of vote - Ferdinand MARCOS, Jr. (PFP) 58.7%, Leni ROBREDO (independent) 27.9%, Manny PACQUIAO (PROMDI) 6.8%, other 6.6%; Sara DUTERTE-Carpio elected vice president; percent of vote Sara DUTERTE-Carpio (Lakas-CMD) 61.5%, Francis PANGILINAN (LP) 17.8%, Tito SOTTO 15.8%, other 4.9%

2016: Rodrigo DUTERTE elected president; percent of vote - Rodrigo DUTERTE (PDP-Laban) 39%, Manuel "Mar" ROXAS (LP) 23.5%, Grace POE (independent) 21.4%, Jejomar BINAY (UNA) 12.7%, Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO (PRP) 3.4%; Leni ROBREDO elected vice president; percent of vote Leni ROBREDO (LP) 35.1%, Bongbong MARCOS (independent) 34.5%, Alan CAYETANO 14.4%, Francis ESCUDERO (independent) 12%, other 4%

Pitcairn Islands

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by UK High Commissioner to New Zealand and Governor (nonresident) of the Pitcairn Islands Iona THOMAS (since 9 August 2022)

head of government: Mayor and Chairman of the Island Council Simon YOUNG (since 1 January 2023)

cabinet: none

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor and commissioner appointed by the monarch; island mayor directly elected by majority popular vote for a 3-year term; election last held on 9 November 2022 (next to be held no later than December 2025)

election results: Simon YOUNG elected mayor and chairman of the Island Council; Island Council vote - NA

Poland

chief of state: President Andrzej DUDA (since 6 August 2015)

head of government: Prime Minister Donald TUSK (since 11 December 2023); Deputy Prime Ministers Wladyslaw KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ, Krzysztof GAWKOWSKI (both since 11 December 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by the Sejm

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 June 2020 with a second round on 12 July 2020 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister, deputy prime ministers, and Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm; all presidential candidates resign their party affiliation

election results:
2020: Andrzej DUDA reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Andrzej DUDA (independent) 51%, Rafal TRZASKOWSKI (KO) 49%

2015:
Andrzej DUDA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Andrzej DUDA (independent) 51.5%, Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI (independent) 48.5%

 

Portugal

chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis MONTENEGRO (since 2 April 2024)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2021 (next to be held in January 2026); following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results:
2021: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 60.7%, Ana GOMES (ran as an independent but is a member of PS) 13%, Andre VENTURA (CH) 11.9%, João FERREIRA (PCP-PEV) 4.3%, other 10.1%

2016: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 52%, António SAMPAIO DA NOVOA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATIAS (BE) 10.1%, Maria DE BELEM ROSEIRA (PS) 4.2%, other 10.8%

 



note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

Puerto Rico

chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

head of government: Governor Pedro PIERLUISI (since 2 January 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by governor with the consent of the Legislative Assembly

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of Puerto Rico do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican party presidential primary elections; governor directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (no term limits); election last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held on 5 November 2024)

election results:
2020: Pedro PIERLUISI elected governor; percent of vote - Pedro PIERLUISI (PNP) 32.9%, Carlos DELGADO (PPD) 31.6%, Alexandra LUGARO (independent) 14.2%, Juan DALMAU (PIP) 13.7%, other 7.6%

2016: Ricardo ROSSELLO elected governor; percent of vote - Ricardo ROSSELLO (PNP) 41.8%, David BERNIER (PPD) 38.9%, Alexandra LUGARO (independent) 11.1%, Manuel CIDRE (independent) 5.7%

Qatar

chief of state: Amir TAMIM bin Hamad Al Thani (since 25 June 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister and Foreign Minister MUHAMMAD bin Abd al-Rahman Al Thani (since 7 March 2023); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for Defense Affairs KHALID bin Muhammad al-Attiyah (since 14 November 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the amir

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the amir

Romania

chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Marcel CIOLACU (since 15 June 2023); Deputy Prime Ministers Sorin GRINDEANU (since 25 November 2021) and Hunor KELEMEN (since 23 December 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 November 2019 with a runoff on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in November 2024); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament

election results:
2019:
Klaus IOHANNIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 66.1%, Viorica DANCILA (PSD) 33.9%

2014: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%

Russia

chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012); no vice president position

head of government: Premier Mikhail Vladimirovich MISHUSTIN (since 16 January 2020); First Deputy Premier Andrey Removich BELOUSOV (since 21 January 2020); Deputy Premiers Yuriy TRUTNEV (since 31 August 2013), Tatiana Alekseyevna GOLIKOVA (since 18 May 2018), Dmitriy Yuriyevich GRIGORENKO, Viktoriya Valeriyevna ABRAMCHENKO, Aleksey Logvinovich OVERCHUK, Marat Shakirzyanovich KHUSNULLIN, Dmitriy Nikolayevich CHERNYSHENKO (all since 21 January 2020), Aleksandr NOVAK (since 10 November 2020), Denis Valentinovich MANTUROV (since 15 July 2022)

cabinet: the government is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers, all appointed by the president; the premier is also confirmed by the Duma

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (2020 constitutional amendments allow a second consecutive term); election last held on 15 to 17 March 2024 (next to be held 2030)

election results:
2024: Vladimir PUTIN reelected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN (independent) 88.5%, Nikolay KHARITONOV (Communist Party) 4.4%, Vladislav DAVANKOV (New People party) 3.9%, Leonid SLUTSKY (Liberal Democrats) 3.2%

2018: Vladimir PUTIN reelected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN (independent) 77.5%, Pavel GRUDININ (CPRF) 11.9%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY (LDPR) 5.7%, other 4.9%; Mikhail MISHUSTIN (independent) approved as premier by Duma; vote - 383 to 0

2012:
Vladimir PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN (United Russia) 63.6%, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV (CPRF) 17.2%, Mikhail PROKHOROV (CP) 8%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY (LDPR) 6.2%, Sergey MIRONOV (A Just Russia) 3.9%, other 1.1%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV (United Russia) approved as premier by Duma; vote - 299 to 144

note: there is also a Presidential Administration that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president

Rwanda

chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Edouard NGIRENTE (since 30 August 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); note - a constitutional amendment approved in December 2016 reduced the presidential term from 7 to 5 years but included an exception that allowed President KAGAME to serve another 7-year term in 2017, potentially followed by two additional 5-year terms; election last held on 4 August 2017 (next to be held on 15 July 2024); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
2017: Paul KAGAME reelected president; Paul KAGAME (RPF) 98.8%, Philippe MPAYIMANA (independent), other 1.2%

2010: Paul KAGAME reelected president; Paul KAGAME (RPF) 93.1%, Jean NTAWUKURIRYAYO (PSD) 5.1%, other 1.8% 

 

Saint Barthelemy

chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017), represented by Prefect Vincent BERTON (since 28 March 2022)

head of government: President of Territorial Council Xavier LEDEE (since 3 April 2022)

cabinet: Executive Council elected by the Territorial Council; note - there is also an advisory, economic, social, and cultural council

elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior; president of Territorial Council indirectly elected by its members for a 5-year term; election last held on 27 March 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

election results:
2022: Xavier LEDEE (Saint Barth United) elected president; Territorial Council vote - 13 votes for, 6 blank votes

2017:
Bruno MAGRAS (Saint Barth First!) elected president; Territorial Council vote - 14 out of 19 votes

Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022)

head of government: Governor Nigel PHILLIPS (since 13 August 2022)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, 3 ex-officio officers, and 5 elected members of the Legislative Council

elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch

note: the constitution order provides for an administrator for Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, appointed by the governor

Saint Kitts and Nevis

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Marcella LIBURD (since 1 February 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Terrance DREW (since 6 August 2022); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Geoffrey HANLEY (since 13 August 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by governor general in consultation with prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by governor general

Saint Lucia

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Acting Governor General Errol CHARLES (since 11 November 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Philip J. PIERRE (since 28 July 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by governor general

Saint Martin

chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Prefect Vincent BERTON (since 28 March 2022)

head of government: President of Territorial Council Louis MUSSINGTON (since 3 April 2022); First Vice President Alain RICHARDSON (since 3 April 2022)

cabinet: Executive Council; note - there is also an advisory economic, social, and cultural council

elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prefect appointed by French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior; president of Territorial Council elected by its members for a 5-year term; election last held on 3 April 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

election results:
2022: Louis MUSSINGTON (RSM) elected president; Territorial Council vote - unanimous

2017:
Daniel Gibbs (UD) elected president; Territorial Council vote - 18 of 23 votes

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Prefect Christian POUGET (since 6 January 2021)

head of government: President of Territorial Council Bernard BRIAND (since 13 October 2020)

cabinet: Le Cabinet du Prefet

elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 April and 24 April 2022 (next to be held in 2027); prefect appointed by French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior; Territorial Council president elected by Territorial Council councilors by absolute majority vote; term NA; election last held on 13 October 2020 (next to be held in NA)

election results:
2020: Bernard BRIAND elected President of Territorial Council; Territorial Council vote - 17 for, 2 abstentions

2017: Stephane LENORMAND elected President of Territorial Council vote - NA

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Susan DOUGAN (since 1 August 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Ralph E. GONSALVES (since 29 March 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

Samoa

chief of state: TUIMALEALI'IFANO Va’aletoa Sualauvi II (since 21 July 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister FIAME Naomi Mata’afa (since 24 May 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the chief of state on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: chief of state indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a 5-year term (2-term limit); election last held on 23 August 2022 (next to be held in 2026); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the chief of state, approved by the Legislative Assembly

election results: TUIMALEALI'IFANO Va’aletoa Sualauvi II (independent) unanimously reelected by the Legislative Assembly

San Marino

chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captains Regent Alessandro ROSSI and Milena GASPERONI (for the period 1 April 2024 - 30 September 2024)

head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Luca BECCARI (since 8 January 2020)

cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Grand and General Council

elections/appointments: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 6-month term; election last held in March 2024 (next to be held in September 2024; Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 5-year term; election last held on 28 December 2019 (next to be held by November 2024)

election results: March 2024:  Alessandro ROSSI (Free San Marino) and Milena GASPERONI (We for the Republic) elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA

September 2023:
Filippo TAMAGNINI and Gaetano TROINA elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA

2019: Luca BECCARI (PDCS) elected Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA

note: the captains regent preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 7 other members who are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 7 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has some prime ministerial roles

Sao Tome and Principe

chief of state: President Carlos Manuel VILA NOVA (since 2 October 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Patrice TROVOADA (since 11 November 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 July 2021 with a runoff on 5 September 2021 (next to be held in 2026); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president

election results:
2021: Carlos Manuel VILA NOVA elected president in the second round; percent of vote in the first round - Carlos Manuel VILA NOVA (IDA) 39.5%; Guilherme POSSER DA COSTA (MLSTP-PSD) 20.8%; Delfim NEVES (PCD-GR) 16.9%; Abel BOM JESUS (independent) 3.6%; Maria DAS NEVES (independent) 3.3%; other 15.9%; percent of the vote in second round - Carlos Manuel VILA NOVA 57.5%, Guilherme POSSER DA COSTA 42.5%

2016:
Evaristo CARVALHO elected president; percent of vote - Evaristo CARVALHO (ADI) 49.8%, Manuel Pinto DA COSTA (independent) 24.8%, Maria DAS NEVES (MLSTP-PSD) 24.1%; note - first round results for CARVALHO were revised downward from just over 50%, prompting the 7 August runoff; however, on 1 August 2016 DA COSTA withdrew from the runoff, citing voting irregularities, and Evaristo CARVALHO was declared the winner

Saudi Arabia

chief of state: King SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 23 January 2015); Crown Prince MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (born 31 August 1985)

head of government: Crown Prince and Prime Minister MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 27 September 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch every 4 years and includes many royal family members

elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary; an Allegiance Council created by royal decree in October 2006 established a committee of Saudi princes for a voice in selecting future Saudi kings

Senegal

chief of state: President Bassirou Diomaye FAYE (since 2 April 2024)

head of government: Prime Minister Ousmane SONKO (since 2 April 2024)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single, renewable 5-year term; election last held on 24 March 2024 (next to be held in 2029)

election results: 2024: Bassirou Diomaye FAYE elected president in first round; percent of vote - Bassirou Diomaye FAYE (PASTEF) 54%, Amadou BA (APR) 36%, other 10%

2019:
Macky SALL reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 58.3%, Idrissa SECK (Rewmi) 20.5%, Ousmane SONKO (PASTEF) 15.7%, other 5.5%

 

Serbia

chief of state: President Aleksandar VUCIC (since 31 May 2017)

head of government: Acting Prime Minister Ivica DACIC (since 20 March 2024); note - former Prime Minister Ana BRNABIC stepped down on 20 March 2024 after her election as parliament speaker; Ivica DACIC will be acting prime minister until the next election (date not yet set)

cabinet: Cabinet elected by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 December 2023 (next to be held in 2028); prime minister elected by the National Assembly; note - on 1 November 2023 President VUCIC dissolved parliament and called for snap elections on 17 December 2023

election results:
2022: Aleksandar VUCIC reelected in first round; percent of vote - Aleksandar VUCIC (SNS) 60%, Zdravko PONOS (US) 18.9%, Milos JOVANOVIC (NADA) 6.1%, Bosko OBRADOVIC (Dveri-POKS) 4.5%, Milica DJURDJEVIC STAMENKOVSKI (SSZ) 4.3%, other 6.2%

2017: Aleksandar VUCIC elected president in first round; percent of vote - Aleksandar VUCIC (SNS) 55.1%, Sasa JANKOVIC (independent) 16.4%, Luka MAKSIMOVIC (independent) 9.4%, Vuk JEREMIC (independent) 5.7%, Vojislav SESELJ (SRS) 4.5%, other 7.3%, invalid/blank 1.6%; Prime Minister Ana BRNABIC reelected by the National Assembly on 5 October 2020; National Assembly vote - NA

Seychelles

chief of state: President Wavel RAMKALAWAN (since 26 October 2020); Vice President Ahmed AFIF (since 27 October 2020); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Wavel RAMKALAWAN (since 26 October 2020); Vice President Ahmed AFIF (since 27 October 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 to 24 October 2020 (next to be held in 2025)

election results:
2020: Wavel RAMKALAWAN elected president; Wavel RAMKALAWAN (LDS) 54.9%, Danny FAURE (US) 43.5%, other 1.6%

2015:  President James Alix MICHEL reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - James Alix MICHEL (PL) 47.8%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (SNP) 35.3%, other 16.9%; percent of vote in second round - James Alix MICHEL 50.2%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN 49.8%

Sierra Leone

chief of state: President Julius Maada BIO (since 27 June 2023); Vice President Mohamed Juldeh JALLOH (since 27 June 2023); note - the president is chief of state, head of government, and Minister of Defense

head of government: President Julius Maada BIO (since 27 June 2023); Vice President Mohamed Juldeh JALLOH (since 27 June 2023)

cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president, approved by Parliament; the cabinet is responsible to the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by 55% in the first round or absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 June 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results:
2023: Julius Maada BIO reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Julius Maada BIO (SLPP) 56.2%, Samura KAMARA (APC) 41.2%, other 2.6%

2018:
Julius Maada BIO elected president in second round; percent of vote - Julius Maada BIO (SLPP) 51.8%, Samura KAMARA (APC) 48.2%

Singapore

chief of state: President THARMAN Shanmugaratnam (since 14 September 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Cabinet responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 6-year term (no term limits); election last held on 1 September 2023 (next to be held in 2029); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition appointed prime minister by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: 2023: THARMAN Shanmugaratnam elected president; percent of vote - THARMAN Shanmugaratnam (independent) 70.4%, NG Kok Song (independent) 15.7%, TAN Kin Lian (independent) 13.9%

2017
: HALIMAH Yacob declared president on 13 September 2017, being the only eligible candidate

2011: Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president; percent of vote - Tony TAN Keng Yam (independent) 35.2%, TAN Cheng Bock (independent) 34.9%, TAN Jee Say (independent) 25%, TAN Kin Lian (independent) 4.9%

Sint Maarten

chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER of the Netherlands (since 30 April 2013); represented by Governor Ajamu G. BALY (since 10 October 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Silveria JACOBS (since 28 March 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the governor

elections/appointments: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch for a 6-year term; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party usually elected prime minister by Parliament

Slovakia

chief of state: President Zuzana CAPUTOVA (since 15 June 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 25 October 2023); Deputy Prime Ministers Robert KALINAK, Denisa SAKOVA, Tomas TARABA, and Peter KMEC (all since 25 October 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election first round 23 March 2024 with a runoff on 6 April 2024 (next to be held in 2029); following National Council elections (every 4 years), the president designates a prime minister candidate, usually the leader of the party or coalition that wins the most votes, who must win a vote of confidence in the National Council

election results:
2024:
Peter PELLEGRINI elected president in the second round; percent of vote in first round - Ivan KORCOK (independent) 42.5%; Peter PELLEGRINI (Hlas-SD) 37%; Stefan HARABIN (independent) 11.7%, other 8.8%; percent of vote in second round Peter PELLEGRINI (Hlas-SD) 53.1%; Ivan KORCOK (independent) 46.9%; PELLEGRINI will takeoffice on 15 June 2024

2019:
 Zuzana CAPUTOVA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Zuzana CAPUTOVA (PS) 58.4%, Maros SEFCOVIC (independent) 41.6%

2014: Andrej KISKA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Andrej KISKA (independent) 59.4%, Robert FICO (Smer-SD) 40.6%

Slovenia

chief of state: President Natasa PIRC MUSAR (since 23 December 2022); note - PIRC MUSAR is Slovenia's first female president

head of government: Prime Minister Robert GOLOB (since 1 June 2022)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 23 October 2022 with a runoff on 13 November 2022 (next to be held in 2027); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually nominated prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly

election results:
2022:
Natasa PIRC MUSAR elected president in second round: percent of vote in first round - Anze LOGAR (SDS) 34%, Natasa PIRC MUSAR (independent) 26.9%, Milan BRGLEZ (SD) 15.5%, Vladimir PREBILIC (independent) 10.6%, Sabina SENCAR (Resni.ca) 5.9%, Janez CIGLER KRALJ (NSi) 4.4%, other 2.7%; percent of vote in second round - Natasa PIRC MUSAR 53.9%, Anze LOGAR 46.1%; Robert GOLOB (GS) elected prime minister on 25 May 2022, National Assembly vote - 54-30

2017:
Borut PAHOR reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Borut PAHOR (independent) 47.1%, Marjan SAREC (Marjan Sarec List) 25%, Romana TOMC (SDS) 13.7%, Ljudmila NOVAK (NSi) 7.2%, other 7%; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR 52.9%, Marjan SAREC 47.1%

Solomon Islands

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General David VUNAGI (since 8 July 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Manasseh SOGAVARE (since 24 April 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the National Parliament for up to 5 years (eligible for a second term); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by the National Parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among members of the National Parliament

election results: Manasseh SOGAVARE (OUR Party) elected prime minister on 24 April 2019

Somalia

chief of state: President HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (since 23 May 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Hamza Abdi BARRE (since 25 June 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by the House of the People

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament by two-thirds majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 15 May 2022 (next to be held in 2026); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of the People; note - elections were originally scheduled for 10 October 2021 but did not take place; on 13 April 2022, the election of the House of the People representatives was completed and the presidential election date was set for 15 May 2022

election results:
2022:
HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud elected president in third round - Federal Parliament percent of vote in first round - Said ABDULLAHI DENI (Kaah) 20.2%, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (TPP) 18.3%, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 16.2%, Hassan Ali KHAYRE (independent) 14.6%, other 30.7%; Federal Parliament percent of vote in second round - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud 34.1%, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" 25.7%, Said ABDULLAHI DENI 21%, Hassan Ali KHAYRE 19.2%; Federal Parliament percent of vote in third round - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud  66%, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" 34%

2017: Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" elected president in second round; Federal Parliament number of votes in first round - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 88, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (TPP) 72, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed (ARS) 49, other 37; Federal Parliament number of votes in second round - Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" 184, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud 97, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed 45

South Africa

chief of state: President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 15 February 2018); Deputy President Paul MASHSATILE (since 7 March 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Deputy President David MABUZA resigned 1 March 2023

head of government: President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 15 February 2018); Deputy President Paul MASHSATILE (since 7 March 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 May 2019 (next to be held in 2024)

election results:
2019: Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (ANC) elected president by the National Assembly unopposed

2014: Jacob ZUMA (ANC) reelected president by the National Assembly unopposed 

 

South Sudan

chief of state: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); Vice Presidents Riek MACHAR Teny Dhurgon, TABAN Deng Gai, James Wani IGGA, Rebecca Nyandeng Chol GARANG de Mabior, Hussein ABDELBAGI Ayii (all since 22 February 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); Vice Presidents Riek MACHAR Teny Dhurgon, TABAN Deng Gai, James Wani IGGA, Rebecca Nyandeng Chol GARANG de Mabior, Hussein ABDELBAGI Ayii (all since 22 February 2020)

cabinet: National Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Transitional National Legislative Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 to 15 April 2010 (originally scheduled for 2015 but postponed several times, currently to be held in December 2024)

election results: 2010: Salva KIIR Mayardit elected leader of then-Southern Sudan; percent of vote - Salva KIIR Mayardit (SPLM) 93%, Lam AKOL (SPLM-DC) 7%

Spain

chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias (daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005)

head of government: President of the Government of Spain (prime minister-equivalent) Pedro SANCHEZ PEREZ-CASTEJON (since 2 June 2018); Vice President Nadia Maria CALVINO Santamaria (since 12 July 2021)

cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the monarch usually proposes as president the leader of the majority party or coalition, who is then indirectly elected by the Congress of Deputies; election last held on 23 July 2023 (next to be held on 31 July 2027); vice president and Council of Ministers appointed by the president

election results: Congress of Deputies vote - NA

note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding

Sri Lanka

chief of state: President Ranil WICKREMESINGHE (since 20 July 2022); the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Dinesh GUNAWARDENA (since 22 July 2022); note - prime minister functions as deputy to the president)

head of government: President Ranil WICKREMESINGHE (since 20 July 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by preferential majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 November 2019 (next to be held on 30 September 2024); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of Parliament for a 5-year term)

election results: Ranil WICKREMESINGHE elected president by Parliament on 20 July 2022; Parliament vote - WICKREMESINGHE (UNP) 134, Dullas ALAHAPPERUMA (SLPP) 82

Note: amid public protests which began in March 2022, President Gotabaya RAJAPAKSA fled the country on 13 July and Ranil WICKREMESINGHE became acting president; RAJAPAKSA announced his resignation on the 14th, which was accepted by the speaker of Parliament the following day

Sudan

chief of state: Sovereign Council Chair and Commander-in-Chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces General Abd-al-Fatah al-BURHAN Abd-al-Rahman; note – the 2019 Constitutional Declaration established a collective chief of state of the "Sovereign Council," which was chaired by al-BURHAN; on 25 October 2021, al-BURHAN dissolved the Sovereign Council but reinstated it on 11 November 2021, replacing its civilian members (previously selected by the umbrella civilian coalition the Forces for Freedom and Change) with civilians of the military’s choosing but then relieved the newly appointed civilian members of their duties on 6 July 2022; note - Sovereign Council currently consists of only the 5 generals

head of government: Sovereign Council Chair and Commander-in-Chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces General Abd-al-Fatah al-BURHAN Abd-al-Rahman; Acting Prime Minister Osman HUSSEIN (since 19 January 2022); note - former Prime Minister Abdallah HAMDOUK resigned on 2 January 2022; HAMDOUK served as prime minister from August 2019 to October 2019 before he was kidnapped; he was later freed and reinstated as prime minister on 21 November 2021

cabinet: most members of the Council of Ministers were forced from office in October 2021 by the military and subsequently resigned in November 2021; the military allowed a handful of ministers appointed by former armed opposition groups to retain their posts; at present, most of the members of the Council are senior civil servants serving in an acting minister capacity appointed either by Prime Minister HAMDOUK prior to his resignation or by the military

elections/appointments: the 2019 Constitutional Declaration originally called for elections to be held in late 2022 at the end of the transitional period; that date was pushed back to late 2023 by the Juba Peace Agreement; the methodology for future elections has not yet been defined; according to the 2019 Constitutional Declaration, civilian members of the Sovereign Council and the prime minister were to have been nominated by an umbrella coalition of civilian actors known as the Forces for Freedom and Change; this methodology was followed in selecting HAMDOUK as prime minister in August 2019; the military purports to have suspended this provision of the 2019 Constitutional Declaration in October 2021; Prime Minister HAMDOUK’s restoration to office in November 2021 was the result of an agreement signed between him and Sovereign Council Chair BURHAN; military members of the Sovereign Council are selected by the leadership of the security forces; representatives of former armed groups to the Sovereign Council are selected by the signatories of the Juba Peace Agreement

election results: NA

Suriname

chief of state: President Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI (since 16 July 2020); Vice President Ronnie BRUNSWIJK (since 16 July 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI (since 16 July 2020); Vice President Ronnie BRUNSWIJK (since 16 July 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly; president and vice president serve a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 13 July 2020 (next to be held in May 2025)

election results: 2020: Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI elected president unopposed; National Assembly vote - NA

Svalbard

chief of state: King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince Haakon MAGNUS (son of the king, born 20 July 1973)

head of government: Governor Lars FAUSE (since 24 June 2021); Assistant Governor Solvi ELVEDAHL (since 1 May 2020)

elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice

Sweden

chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 15 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree (daughter of the monarch, born 14 July 1977)

head of government: Prime Minister Ulf KRISTERSSON (since 18 October 2022); Deputy Prime Minister Ebba BUSCH (since 18 October 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister

Switzerland

chief of state: President of the Swiss Confederation Viola AMHERD (since 1 January 2024); Vice President Karin KELLER-SUTTER (since 1 January 2024); note - the Federal Council, comprised of 7 federal councillors, constitutes the federal government of Switzerland; council members rotate the 1-year term of federal president

head of government: President of the Swiss Confederation Viola AMHERD (since 1 January 2024); Vice President Karin KELLER-SUTTER (since 1 January 2024)

cabinet: Federal Council or Bundesrat (in German), Conseil Federal (in French), Consiglio Federale (in Italian) indirectly elected by the Federal Assembly for a 4-year term

elections/appointments: president and vice president elected by the Federal Assembly from among members of the Federal Council for a 1-year, non-consecutive term; election last held on 13 December 2023 (next to be held in December 2024)

election results: 2023:  Viola AMHERD elected president for 2024; Federal Assembly vote - Viola AMHERD (The Center) 158 of 204; Karin Keller-Sutter (FDP.The Liberals) elected vice president for 2024; Federal Assembly vote - 138 of 196

2022:  Alain BERSET elected president for 2023; Federal Assembly vote - Alain BERSET (SP) 140 OF 181; Viola AMHERD elected vice president; Federal assembly vote - 207 of 223



 

Syria

chief of state: President Bashar al-ASAD (since 17 July 2000); Vice President Najah al-ATTAR (since 23 March 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Hussein ARNOUS (since 30 August 2020); Deputy Prime Minister Ali Abdullah AYOUB (Lt. Gen.) (since 30 August 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 May 2021 (next to be held in 2028); the president appoints the vice president, prime minister, and deputy prime minister

election results:  Bashar al-ASAD elected president; percent of vote - Bashar al-ASAD (Ba'th Party) 95.2%, Mahmoud Ahmad MAREI (Democratic Arab Socialist Union) 3.3%, other1.5%

Taiwan

chief of state: President TSAI Ing-wen (since 20 May 2016); Vice President LAI Ching-te (since 20 May 2020)

head of government: Premier CHEN Chien-jen (President of the Executive Yuan) (since 31 January 2023); Vice Premier CHENG Wen-tsan (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) (since 31 January 2023)

cabinet: Executive Yuan - ministers appointed by president on recommendation of premier

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 January 2024 (next to be held in 2028); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier

election results: 2023: LAI Ching-te elected president; percent of vote - LAI Ching-te (DPP) 40.1%, HOU Yu-ih (KMT) 33.5%, KO Wen-je (TPP) 26.5%; note - LAI takes office on 20 May 2024

2020:
TSAI Ing-wen reelected president; percent of vote - TSAI Ing-wen (DPP) 57.1%, HAN Kuo-yu (KMT) 38.6%, James SOONG (PFP) 4.3%; note - TSAI is the first woman elected president of Taiwan


Tajikistan

chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly Chairman since 19 November 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (two-term limit); however, as the "Leader of the Nation" President RAHMON can run an unlimited number of times; election last held on 11 October 2020 (next to be held in 2027); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
2020: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 92.1%, Rustam LATIFZODA (APT) 3.1%, and other 4.8%

2013: Emomali RAHMOND reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMOND (PDPT) 84%, Ismoil TALBAKOV CPT) 5%, other 11%

Tanzania

chief of state: President Samia Suluhu HASSAN (since 19 March 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; note - following the death of President John MAGUFULI in March 2021, then Vice President Samia Suluhu HASSAN assumed the presidency; Vice President Philip MPANGO (since 31 March 2021)

head of government: President Samia Suluhu HASSAN (since 19 March 2021); Vice President Philip MPANGO; Prime Minister Kassim MAJALIWA (since 20 November 2015) has authority over the day-to-day functions of the government, is the leader of government business in the National Assembly, and is head of the Cabinet

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 October 2020 (next to be held in October 2025); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
2020: John MAGUFULI reelected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 84.4%, Tundu LISSU (CHADEMA) 13%, other 2.6%; note - President MAGUFULI died on 17 March 2021 and his Vice President, Samia Suluhu HASSAN, assumed the office of the President on 19 March 2021

2015: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%

note: Zanzibar elects a president as head of government for internal matters; elections were held on 28 October 2020; Hussein MWINYI (CCM) 76.3%, Maalim Seif SHARIF (ACT-Wazalendo) 19.9%, other 3.8%

Thailand

chief of state: King WACHIRALONGKON, also spelled Vajiralongkorn (since 1 December 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister SRETTHA Thawisin (since 5 September 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the king; a Privy Council advises the king

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister candidate approved by the House of Representatives and Senate and appointed by the king; starting in 2024, approval of prime minister needed only by the House of Representatives

note: following its May 2023 election win, the MJP formed an eight-party coalition and put forward its leader PITA Limjaroenrat for prime minister; however, the Senate blocked PITA from becoming prime minister in the first National Assembly vote in July 2023, and the Assembly subsequently voted that he could not submit his name again; the Constitutional Court also suspended PITA after accepting cases accusing him of violating election law; in August 2023, MJP handed over the lead in forming a new government to the second largest party in the coalition, PTP, which then formed a new coalition without MJP; PTP put forward SRETTHA Thavisin for prime minister, and he was approved by the National Assembly 482 votes out of a possible 747

Timor-Leste

chief of state: President José RAMOS-HORTA (since 20 May 2022); note - the president is commander in chief of the military and can veto legislation, dissolve parliament, and call national elections

head of government: Prime Minister Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO (since 1 July 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers; ministers proposed to the prime minister by the coalition in the Parliament and sworn in by the President of the Republic

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last election held on 19 March 2022 with a runoff on 19 April 2022 (next to be held in April 2027); following parliamentary elections, the president appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition as the prime minister

election results:
2022: José RAMOS-HORTA elected president in second round - RAMOS-HORTA (CNRT) 62.1%, Francisco GUTERRES (FRETILIN) 37.9%

2017: Francisco GUTERRES elected president; Francisco GUTERRES (FRETILIN) 57.1%, António da CONCEICAO (PD) 32.5%, other 10.4%

Togo

chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Victoire Tomegah DOGBE (since 28 September 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 22 February 2020 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
2020: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 70.8%, Agbeyome KODJO (MPDD) 19.5%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 4.7%, other 5%

2015: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 58.8%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 35.2%, Tchaboure GOGUE (ADDI) 4%, other 2%

 

Tokelau

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor-General of New Zealand Dame Cindy KIRO (since 21 September 2021); New Zealand is represented by Administrator Don HIGGINS (since June 2022)

head of government: (Ulu o Tokelau) Alapati TAVITE (since 12 March 2024); note - position rotates annually among the three Faipule (village leaders) of the atolls

cabinet: Council for the Ongoing Government of Tokelau (or Tokelau Council) functions as a cabinet; consists of 3 village leaders (Faipule) and 3 village mayors (Pulenuku)

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; administrator appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade in New Zealand; head of government chosen from the Council of Faipule to serve a 1-year term

note: the meeting place of the Tokelau Council rotates annually among the three atolls; this tradition has given rise to the somewhat misleading description that the capital rotates yearly between the three atolls; in actuality, it is the seat of the government councilors that rotates since Tokelau has no capital

Tonga

chief of state: King TUPOU VI (since 18 March 2012); Heir Apparent Crown Prince Siaosi Manumataogo 'Alaivahamama'o 'Ahoeitu Konstantin Tuku'aho, son of the king (born 17 September 1985)

head of government: Prime Minister Siaosi SOVALENI (since 27 December 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly and appointed by the monarch; election last held on 18 November 2021 (next to be held in November 2025)

election results: Siaosi SOVALENI elected prime minister by the Legislative Assembly; Siaosi SOVALENI 16 votes, Aisake EKE 10

note: a Privy Council advises the monarch

Trinidad and Tobago

chief of state: President Christine KANGALOO (since 20 March 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Keith ROWLEY (since 9 September 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among members of Parliament

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of selected Senate and House of Representatives members for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 January 2023 (next to be held by February 2028); the president usually appoints the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives as prime minister

election results:
2023: Christine KANGALOO elected president by the electoral college on 20 January 2023; electoral college vote  Christine KANGALOO (PNM) 48, Israel KHAN (UNC) 22

2018: Paula-Mae WEEKES (independent) elected president; ran unopposed and was elected without a vote; she was Trinidad and Tabago's first female head of state

Tunisia

chief of state: President Kais SAIED (since 23 October 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed HACHANI (since 1 August 2023)

cabinet: prime minister appointed by the president; cabinet members appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 15 September 2019 with a runoff on 13 October 2019 (next to be held in 2024)

election results:
2019:
Kais SAIED elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Kais SAIED (independent) 18.4%, Nabil KAROUI (Heart of Tunisia) 15.6%, Abdelfattah MOUROU (Nahda Movement) 12.9%, Abdelkrim ZBIDI (independent) 10.7%, Youssef CHAHED (Long Live Tunisia) 7.4%, Safi SAID (independent) 7.1%, Lotfi MRAIHI (Republican People's Union) 6.6%, other 21.3%; percent of vote in second round - Kais SAIED 72.7%, Nabil KAROUI 27.3%

 

 

 

 

 

 



note: the president can dismiss any member of government on his own initiative or in consultation with the prime minister

Turkey (Turkiye)

chief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (chief of state since 28 August 2014; head of government since 9 July 2018); Vice President Cevdet YILMAZ (since 3 June 2023); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (head of government since 9 July 2018; chief of state since 28 August 2014)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 14 May 2023 with a runoff on 28 May 2023 (next to be held in 2028)

election results:
2023:
Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN reelected president in second round - Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 52.2%, Kemal KILICDAROGLU (CHP) 47.8%

2018:
Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN reelected president in first round - Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 52.6%, Muharrem INCE (CHP) 30.6%, Selahattin DEMIRTAS (HDP) 8.4%, Meral AKSENER (IYI) 7.3%, other 1.1%

Turkmenistan

chief of state: President Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOV (since 19 March 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOV (since 19 March 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 12 March 2022 (next to be held in 2029); note - on 11 February 2022, President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOV announced his intent to retire, setting up the early presidential election

election results:
2022:
Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOV elected president; percent of vote - Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOW (DPT) 73%,  Khydyr NUNNAYEV (independent) 11.1%, Agadzhan BEKMYRADOV (IAP) 7.2%, other 8.7%; note - Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOV is the son of previous president Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOV

2017: Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOV reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (DPT) 97.7%, other 2.3%

Turks and Caicos Islands

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Dileeni Daniel-SELVARATNAM (since 29 June 2023)

head of government: Premier Washington MISICK (since 19 February 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor from among members of the House of Assembly

elections/appointments: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is appointed premier by the governor

Tuvalu

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Tofiga Vaevalu FALANI (since 29 August 2021)

head of government: Prime Minister Feleti Penitala TEO (since 27 February 2024)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on recommendation of the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from members of House of Assembly following parliamentary elections

election results: 2019: Kausea NATANO elected prime minister by House of Assembly; House of Assembly vote - 10 to 6

Uganda

chief of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 26 January 1986); Vice President Jessica Rose Epel ALUPO (since 21 June 2021)

head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 26 January 1986); Vice President Jessica Rose Epel ALUPO (since 21 June 2021); Prime Minister Robinah NABBANJA (since 21 June 2021); First Deputy Prime Minister Rebecca KADAGA (since 24 June 2021); Second Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 21 June 2021); note - the prime minister is appointed by the president, with the approval of parliament, to coordinate the work of the cabinet and advise the president.    

 



cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly or persons who qualify to be elected as members of the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 14 January 2021 (next to be held in 2026)

election results:
2021:
Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 58.6%, Robert Kyagulanyi SSENTAMU (aka Bobi WINE) (NUP) 34.8%, Patrick Oboi AMURIAT (FDC) 3.2%, other 3.4%

2016:
Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 60.6%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 35.6%, other 3.8%

Ukraine

chief of state: President Volodymyr ZELENSKYY (since 20 May 2019)

head of government: Prime Minister Denys SHMYHAL (since 4 March 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, approved by the Verkhovna Rada

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 31 March and 21 April 2019 (next to be held in March 2024); prime minister selected by the Verkhovna Rada

election results:
2019:
Volodymyr ZELENSKYY elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Volodymyr ZELENSKYY (Servant of the People) 30.2%, Petro POROSHENKO (BPP-Solidarity) 15.6%, Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (Fatherland) 13.4%, Yuriy BOYKO (Opposition Platform-For Life) 11.7%, 35 other candidates 29.1%; percent of vote in the second round - Volodymyr ZELENSKYY 73.2%, Petro POROSHENKO 24.5%, other 2.3%; Denys SHMYHAL (independent) elected prime minister; Verkhovna Rada vote - 291-59

2014: Petro POROSHENKO elected president in first round; percent of vote - Petro POROSHENKO (independent) 54.5%, Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (Fatherland) 12.9%, Oleh LYASHKO (Radical Party) 8.4%, other 24.2%; Volodymyr HROYSMAN (BPP) elected prime minister; Verkhovna Rada vote - 257-50

note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a presidential administration helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president

United Arab Emirates

chief of state: President MUHAMMAD BIN ZAYID Al Nuhayyan (since 14 May 2022); Co-Vice President MUHAMMAD BIN RASHID Al Maktum (since 5 January 2006); Co-Vice President MANSUR bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan (since 29 March 2023); Crown Prince KHALID bin Muhammad Al Nuhayyan, the eldest son of the monarch, born 14 November 1982; note - MUHAMMAD BIN ZAYID Al Nuhayyan elected president by the Federal Supreme Council following the death of President KHALIFA bin Zayid Al nNuhayyan on 13 May 2022

head of government: Prime Minister and Co-Vice President MUHAMMAD BIN RASHID Al Maktum (since 5 January 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers SAIF bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan, MANSUR bin Zayid Al Nuhayyan (both since 11 May 2009) and MAKTUM bin Muhammad bin Rashid Al Maktum (since 25 September 2021)

cabinet: Council of Ministers announced by the prime minister and approved by the president

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the Federal Supreme Council - composed of the rulers of the 7 emirates - for a 5-year term (no term limits); unscheduled election held on 14 May 2022, following the death of President KHALIFA bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan (next election expected in 2027); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president

election results: 2022: MUHAMMAD BIN ZAYID Al-Nuhayyan elected president; Federal Supreme Council vote - NA

note: the Federal Supreme Council (FSC) is composed of the 7 emirate rulers and is the highest constitutional authority in the UAE; the FSC establishes general policies and sanctions federal legislation; meets 4 times a year; Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) and Dubayy (Dubai) rulers have effective veto power

United Kingdom

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); Heir Apparent Prince WILLIAM (son of the king, born 21 June 1982); note - CHARLES succeeded his mother, Queen ELIZABETH II, after serving as Prince of Wales (heir apparent) for over 64 years - the longest such tenure in British history

head of government: Prime Minister Rishi SUNAK (Conservative) (since 25 October 2022)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister; election last held on 12 December 2019 (next to be held no later than 28 January 2025)

note: in addition to serving as the UK head of state, the British sovereign is the constitutional monarch for 14 additional Commonwealth countries (these 15 states are each referred to as a Commonwealth realm)


United States

chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, approved by the Senate

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by the Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held on 5 November 2024)

election results:
2020:
Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. elected president; electoral vote - Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. (Democratic Party) 306, Donald J. TRUMP (Republican Party) 232; percent of direct popular vote - Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. 51.3%, Donald J. TRUMP 46.9%, other 1.8%

2016: Donald J. TRUMP elected president; electoral vote - Donald J. TRUMP (Republican Party) 304, Hillary D. CLINTON (Democratic Party) 227, other 7; percent of direct popular vote - Hillary D. CLINTON 48.2%, Donald J. TRUMP 46.1%, other 5.7%

Uruguay

chief of state: President Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (since 1 March 2020); Vice President Beatriz ARGIMON Cedeira (since 1 March 2020); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (since 1 March 2020); Vice President Beatriz ARGIMON Cedeira (since 1 March 2020)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the General Assembly

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 27 October 2019 with a runoff on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in October 2024 and a runoff, if needed, in November 2024)

election results:
2019: Luis Alberto LACALLE POU elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Daniel MARTINEZ (FA) 40.7%, Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (Blanco) 29.7%, Ernesto TALVI (Colorado Party) 12.8%, Guido MANINI RIOS (Open Cabildo) 11.3%, other 5.5%; percent of vote in second round - Luis Alberto LACALLE POU 50.6%, Daniel MARTINEZ 49.4%

2014: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president in second round; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ (Socialist Party) 56.5%, Luis Alberto LACALLE Pou (Blanco) 43.4%

Uzbekistan

chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 14 December 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended to 7 years by a 2023 constitutional amendment); election last held on 9 July 2023  (next to be held in 2030); prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011 but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president

election results: 2023: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV reelected president in snap election; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 87.71%, Robaxon Maxmudova (Adolat) 4.47%, Ulugbek Inoyatov (PDP) 4.05%, Abdushukur Xamzayev (Ecological Party) 3.77%

2021: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 80.3%, Maqsuda VORISOVA (PDP) 6.7%, Alisher QODIROV (National Revival Democratic Party) 5.5%, Narzullo OBLOMURODOV (Ecological Party) 4.1%, Bahrom ABDUHALIMOV (Adolat) 3.4%

2016: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Hotamjon KETMONOV (PDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURODOV (National Revival Democratic Party) 2.4%, other 1.8%

Vanuatu

chief of state: President Nikenike VUROBARAVU (since 23 July 2022)

head of government: Prime Minister Charlot SALWAI (since 6 October 2023)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of Parliament and presidents of the 6 provinces; Vanuatu president serves a 5-year term; election last held on 23 July 2022 (next to be held in 2027); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by Parliament from among its members; election for prime minister last held on 20 April 2020 (next to be held following general elections in 2024)

election results: 2022: Nikenike VUROBARAVU elected president in eighth round; electoral college vote - Nikenike VUROBARAVU (VP) 48 votes, Solas MOLISA (VP) 4 votes; note - Charlot SALWAI (RMC) elected prime minister on 6 October 2023, 29 votes for, 0 against; Prime Minister Sato KILMAN lost no-confidence vote on 6 October 2023, requiring a new election

Venezuela

chief of state: Notification Statement: the United States does not recognize Nicolas MADURO Moros as president of Venezuela

President Nicolas MADURO Moros (since 19 April 2013); Executive Vice President Delcy RODRIGUEZ Gomez (since 14 June 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Nicolas MADURO Moros (since 19 April 2013); Executive Vice President Delcy RODRIGUEZ Gomez (since 14 June 2018)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 6-year term (no term limits); election last held on 20 May 2018 (next to be held in the second half of 2024)

election results:
2018: Nicolas MADURO Moros reelected president; percent of vote - Nicolas MADURO Moros (PSUV) 67.9%, Henri FALCON (AP) 20.9%, Javier BERTUCCI 10.8%; note - the election was reportedly marred by serious shortcomings and electoral fraud

2013: Nicolas MADURO Moros elected president; percent of vote - Nicolas MADURO Moros (PSUV) 50.6%, Henrique CAPRILES Radonski (PJ) 49.1%, other 0.3%

Vietnam

chief of state: Acting President Vo Thi Anh XUAN (since 21 March 2024); note - President Vo Van THUONG resigned on 20 March 2024

head of government: Prime Minister Pham Minh CHINH (since 26 July 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister, confirmed by the National Assembly, and appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly from among its members for a single 5-year term; prime minister recommended by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers confirmed by the National Assembly and appointed by the president

election results: 2023: Vo Van THUONG elected president

2021: Nguyen Xuan PHUC (CPV) elected president; Pham Minh CHINH (CPV) confirmed as prime minister

2016: NGUYEN Xuan PHUC (CPV) confirmed as prime minister

note: Nguyen Phu TRONG is the General Secretary of the Vietnam Communist Party

Virgin Islands

chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

head of government: Governor Albert BRYAN, Jr. (since 7 January 2019), Lieutenant Governor Tregenza ROACH (since 7 January 2019)

cabinet: Territorial Cabinet appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate

elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of the Virgin Islands do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in the Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 8 November 2022 (next to be held in November 2026)

election results: 2022: Albert BRYAN, Jr. reelected governor; percent of vote - Albert BRYAN, Jr. (Democratic Party) 56%, Kurt VIALET (independent) 38%

Wallis and Futuna

chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Administrator Superior Blaise GOURTAY (since 1 August 2023)

head of government: President of the Territorial Assembly Munipoese MULI'AKA'AKA (since 20 March 2022)

cabinet: Council of the Territory appointed by the administrator superior on the advice of the Territorial Assembly

elections/appointments: French president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); administrator superior appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the Territorial Government and the Territorial Assembly elected by assembly members

note: there are 3 traditional kings with limited powers

World

chief of state: there are 27 countries with royal families in the World, most are in Asia (13) and Europe (10), three are in Africa, and one in Oceania; monarchies by continent are as follows: Asia (Bahrain, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, United Arab Emirates); Europe (Belgium, Denmark, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom); Africa (Eswatini, Lesotho, Morocco); Oceania (Tonga)

note 1: Andorra and the Holy See (Vatican) are also monarchies of a sort, but they are not ruled by royal houses; Andorra has two co-princes (the president of France and the bishop of Urgell) and the Holy See is ruled by an elected pope

note 2: the sovereign of Great Britain is also the monarch for 14 of the countries (including Australia, Canada, Jamaica, New Zealand) that make up the Commonwealth; that brings to 43 the total number of countries with some type of monarchies

Yemen

chief of state: Chairperson, Presidential Leadership Council Rashad Muhammad al-ALIMI, Dr. (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairpersons and Presidential Leadership Council members Sultan al-ARADA, Faraj Salmin al- BAHSANI, Brig. Gen. Abdullah Al-Alimi BA WAZIR, Uthman Hussain Faid al-MUJALI, TARIQ Muhammad Abdallah Salih, Brig. Gen., 'Abd-al-Rahman ABU ZARA'A al-Muharrami al-Yafai, Brig. Gen., Aydarus Qasim al-ZUBAYDI, Maj. Gen. (all since 19 April 2022); note - Abdrabbuh Mansur HADI served as acting president beginning in early 2012 but was forced to resign in late January 2015 by the Houthis - a rebel group aligned with Iran - in the midst of mass protests; subsequently, the Houthis and supporters of Yemen's first president, Ali Abdullah SALEH, seized the presidential palace and placed HADI under house arrest

head of government: Chairperson, Presidential Leadership Council Rashad Muhammad al-ALIMI, Dr. (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairpersons and Presidential Leadership Council members Sultan al-ARADA, Faraj Salmin al- BAHSANI, Brig. Gen. Abdullah Al-Alimi BA WAZIR, Uthman Hussain Faid al-MUJALI, TARIQ Muhammad Abdallah Salih, Brig. Gen., 'Abd-al-Rahman ABU ZARA'A al-Muharrami al-Yafai, Brig. Gen., Aydarus Qasim al-ZUBAYDI, Maj. Gen. (all since 19 April 2022); on 5 February 2024, Foreign Minister Ahmad Awad Bin MUBAREK was appointed prime minister by the Presidential Leadership Council

cabinet: 24 members from northern and southern Yemen, with representatives from Yemen's major political parties

elections/appointments: formerly, the president was directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2012 (next election NA); note - a special election was held on 21 February 2012 to remove Ali Abdallah SALIH under the terms of a Gulf Cooperation Council-mediated deal during the political crisis of 2011; vice president appointed by the president; prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI (GPC) elected consensus president

note: on 7 April 2022, President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI announced his abdication, the dismissal of Vice President ALI MUHSIN al-Ahmar and the formation of a Presidential Leadership Council, an eight-member body chaired by former minister Rashad AL-ALIMI; on 19 April 2022, the Council was sworn in before Parliament and began assuming the responsibilities of the president and vice president and carrying out the political, security, and military duties of the government

Zambia

chief of state: President Hakainde HICHILEMA (since 24 August 2021); Vice President Mutale NALUMANGO (since 24 August 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Hakainde HICHILEMA (since 24 August 2021); Vice President Mutale NALUMANGO (since 24 August 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 12 August 2021 (next to be held in 2026)

election results:
2021
: Hakainde HICHILEMA elected president; percent of the vote - Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 57.9%, Edgar LUNGU (PF) 37.3%, other 4.8%

2016: Edgar LUNGU reelected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2%

Zimbabwe

chief of state: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 4 September 2023); First Vice President Constantino CHIWENGA (since 4 September 2023); Second Vice President Kembo MOHADI (8 September 2023); note - Robert Gabriel MUGABE resigned on 21 November 2017, after ruling for 37 years

head of government: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 4 September 2023); First Vice President Constantino CHIWENGA (since 4 September 2023); Second Vice President Kembo MOHADI (8 September 2023)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president, responsible to National Assembly

elections/appointments: each presidential candidate nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least 1 candidate from each province) and directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 23 August 2023 (next to be held in 2028); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership

election results: 2023: Emmerson MNANGAGWA reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Emmerson MNANGAGWA (ZANU-PF) 52.6%, Nelson CHAMISA (MDC-T) 44%, Wilbert MUBAIWA (NPC) 1.2%, other 2.2%

2018:
Emmerson MNANGAGWA elected president in first round; percent of vote - Emmerson MNANGAGWA (ZANU-PF) 50.7%, Nelson CHAMISA (MDC-T) 44.4%, Thokozani KHUPE (MDC-N) 0.9%, other 4%