Field Listing

Executive branch

240 Results
Filter
All

This entry includes five subentries: chief of state; head of government; cabinet; elections/appointments; election results. Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, and the beginning date in office. Cabinet includes the official name of the executive branch’s high-ranking body and the method of member selection. Elections/appointments includes the process for accession to office, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes each candidate's political affiliation, percent of direct popular vote or indirect legislative/parliamentary percent vote or vote count in the last election.

The executive branches in approximately 80% of the world's countries have separate chiefs of state and heads of government; for the remainder, the chief of state is also the head of government, such as in Argentina, Kenya, the Philippines, the US, and Venezuela. Chiefs of state in just over 100 countries are directly elected, most by majority popular vote; those in another 55 are indirectly elected by their national legislatures, parliaments, or electoral colleges. Another 29 countries have a monarch as the chief of state. In dependencies, territories, and collectivities of sovereign countries - except those of the US - representatives are appointed to serve as chiefs of state.

Heads of government in the majority of countries are appointed either by the president or the monarch or selected by the majority party in the legislative body. Excluding countries where the chief of state is also head of government, in only a few countries is the head of government directly elected through popular vote.

Most of the world's countries have cabinets, the majority of which are appointed by the chief of state or prime minister, many in consultation with each other or with the legislature. Cabinets in only about a dozen countries are elected solely by their legislative bodies.

  • Afghanistan

    chief of state:

    president (vacant); note – before 15 August, 2021, the president was both chief of state and head of government; President Ashraf GHANI departed the country on 15 August 2021; on 7 September 2021, the Taliban announced Mullah Mohammad HASSAN Akhund as the so-called “acting Prime Minister” of a so-called “interim government”; as of November 2021, the group had announced three acting so-called “Deputy Prime Ministers”: Mullah Abdul Ghani BERADER, Mullah Abdul Salam HANAFI, and Maulawi Abdul KABIR



    head of government: president (vacant); note - President Ashraf GHANI departed the country on 15 August 2021; on 7 September 2021, the Taliban announced Mullah Mohammad HASSAN Akhund as the acting Prime Minister of an interim Taliban government; the US does not recognize the Taliban government; as of November 2021, the group had announced three acting Deputy Prime Ministers: Mullah Abdul Ghani BERADER, Mullah Abdul Salam HANAFI, and Maulawi Abdul KABIR

    cabinet: before 15 August 2021, the cabinet formerly consisted of 25 ministers appointed by the president, approved by the National Assembly; the Taliban have announced a so-called “cabinet” which includes 33 ministries

    elections/appointments: the 2004 Afghan constitution directed that the president should be elected by majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 September 2019

    election results: no elections have been held since 2019; in that election, Ashraf GHANI was declared winner by the Independent Election Commission on 18 February 2020; the IEC declared Ashraf GHANI the winner with 50.6% of the vote, Abdullah ABDULLAH, Dr. 39.5%, other 0.9%

  • Akrotiri

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022)

    head of government: Administrator Air Vice-Marshal Peter J.M. SQUIRES (since 1 September 2022); note - administrator reports to the British Ministry of Defense and is also Commander, British Forces Cyprus (BFC); the chief officer, an appointed civilian, is responsible for the day-to-day running of the civil government of the Sovereign Base Areas

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; administrator appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Ministry of Defense

  • Albania

    chief of state: President of the Republic Bajram BEGAJ (since 24 July 2022)

    head of government: Prime Minister Edi RAMA (since 10 September 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Arben AHMETAJ (since 18 September 2021)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by the Assembly

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); a candidate needs three-fifths majority vote of the Assembly in 1 of 3 rounds or a simple majority in 2 additional rounds to become president; election last held in 4 rounds on 16, 23, and 30 May and 4 June 2022 (next election to be held in 2027); prime minister appointed by the president on the proposal of the majority party or coalition of parties in the Assembly

    election results: 2022: Bajram BEGAJ elected president in the fourth round; Assembly vote - 78-4, opposition parties boycotted

    2017:
    Ilir META elected president in the fourth round; Assembly vote - 87-2

  • Algeria

    chief of state: President Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE (since 12 December 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Ayman BENABDERRAHMANE (since 7 July 2021)

     



    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 December 2019 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister nominated by the president after consultation with the majority party in Parliament

    election results: 2019: Abdelmadjid TEBBOUNE (FLN) 58.1%, Abdelkader BENGRINA (El-Bina) 17.4%, Ali BENFLIS (Talaie El Hurriyet) 10.6%, Azzedine MIHOUBI (National Democratic Rally, RND) 7.3%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Front El Mustakbal, FM) 6.7%

    2014: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%

  • American Samoa

    chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

    head of government: Governor Lemanu Peleti MAUGA (since 3 January 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet consists of 12 department directors appointed by the governor with the consent of the Legislature or Fono

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state to serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as American Samoa, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held in November 2024)

    election results: Lemanu Peleti MAUGA elected governor in first round; percent of vote - Lemanu Peleti MAUGA (independent) 60.3%, Gaoteote Palaie TOFAU (independent) 21.9%, I'aulualo Fa'afetai TALIA (independent) 12.3%

  • Andorra

    chief of state: Co-prince Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Patrick STROZDA (since 14 May 2017); and Co-prince Archbishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Josep Maria MAURI (since 20 July 2012)

    head of government: Xaviar Espot ZAMORA (since 16 May 2019)

    cabinet: Executive Council of 12 ministers designated by the head of government

    elections/appointments: head of government indirectly elected by the General Council (Andorran parliament), formally appointed by the co-princes for a 4-year term; election last held on 7 April 2019 (next to be held in April 2023); the leader of the majority party in the General Council is usually elected head of government

    election results: 2019:  Xaviar Espot ZAMORA (DA) elected head of government; percent of General Council vote - 60.7%

    2015: Antoni MARTI elected head of government; percent of General Council vote - 58.3%

  • Angola

    chief of state: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 15 September 2022); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 15 September 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government (2022)

    head of government: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 15 September 2022); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 15 September 2022) (2022)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: the candidate of the winning party or coalition in the last legislative election becomes the president; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); last held on 24 August 2022 (next to be held in 24 August 2027) (2022)

    election results: Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (MPLA) elected president by then winning party following the 24 August 2022 general election (2022)

  • Anguilla

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Dileeni DANIEL-SELVARATNAM
    (since 18 January 2021)

    head of government: Premier Dr. Ellis WEBSTER (since 30 June 2020); note -  starting in 2019, the title of head of government was changed to premier from chief minister of Anguilla

    cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among elected members of the House of Assembly

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

  • Antigua and Barbuda

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Rodney WILLIAMS (since 14 August 2014)

    head of government: Prime Minister Gaston BROWNE (since 13 June 2014)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

  • Argentina

    chief of state: President Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ (since 10 December 2019); Vice President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ (since 10 December 2019); Vice President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2019)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority vote (to win, a candidate must receive at least 45% of votes or 40% of votes and a 10-point lead over the second place candidate; if neither occurs, a second round is held ); the president serves a 4-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 27 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2023)

    election results:
    2019: Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ elected president; percent of vote - Alberto Angel FERNANDEZ (TODOS) 48.1%, Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 40.4%, Roberto LAVAGNA (independent) 6.2%, other 5.3%

    2015: Mauricio MACRI elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Daniel SCIOLI (PJ) 37.1%, Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 34.2%, Sergio MASSA (FR/PJ) 21.4%, other 7.3%; percent of vote in second round - Mauricio MACRI (PRO) 51.4%, Daniel SCIOLI (PJ) 48.6%

  • Armenia

    chief of state: President Vahagn KHACHATURYAN (since 13 March 2022)

    head of government: Prime Minister Nikol PASHINYAN (since 10 September 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Mher GRIGORYAN (since 3 August 2021) and Hambardzum MATEVOSYAN (since 25 November 2021); note - Prime Minister Nikol PASHINYAN resigned on 25 April 2021; he was reappointed by the president on 2 August 2021 and sworn in on 10 September 2021

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly in 3 rounds if needed for a single 7-year term; election last held on 2-3 March 2022; prime minister elected by majority vote in 2 rounds if needed by the National Assembly; election last held 2 August 2021; the next parliamentary elections are expected to be held in Armenia by 2026

    election results:

     
    2022: Vahagn KHACHATURYAN elected president in second round; note - Vahagn KHACHATURYAN ran unopposed and won the Assembly vote 71-0

    2018:
    Armen SARKISSIAN elected president in first round; note - Armen SARKISSIAN ran unopposed and won the Assembly vote 90-10

    note: Nikol PASHINYAN was first elected prime minister on 8 May 2018 and reelected on January 2019; in response to a political crisis that followed Armenia's defeat in the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War in late 2020, PASHINYAN called an early legislative election for June 2021; his party won the election and PASHINYAN was elected to the prime ministership for a third time; his election was confirmed by the president on 2 August 2021, and he was sworn in on 10 September 2021

  • Aruba

    chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER of the Netherlands (since 30 April 2013); represented by Governor General Alfonso BOEKHOUDT (since 1 January 2017)

    head of government: Prime Minister Evelyn WEVER-CROES (since 17 November 2017)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Legislature (Staten)

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch for a 6-year term; prime minister and deputy prime minister indirectly elected by the Staten for 4-year term; election last held on 25 June 2021 (next to be held by June 2026)

    election results: as leader of the majority party of the ruling coalition, Evelyn WEVER-CROES (MEP) elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA

  • Australia

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General David HURLEY (since 1 July 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Anthony ALBANESE (since 23 May 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister from among members of Parliament and sworn in by the governor general

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general

  • Austria

    chief of state: President Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (since 26 January 2017); note - President Alexander VAN DER BELLEN was re-elected to a second six year term on 9 October 2022

    head of government: Chancellor Karl NEHAMMER (since 6 December 2021); note - Chancellor Alexander SCHALLENBERG resigned on 2 December 2021

    cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 24 April 2016 (first round), 22 May 2016 (second round, which was annulled), and 4 December 2016 (second round re-vote) (next election to be held on 9 October 2022); chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor

    election results: 2016: Alexander VAN DER BELLEN elected in second round; percent of vote in first round - Norbert HOFER (FPOe) 35.1%, Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (independent, allied with the Greens) 21.3%, Irmgard GRISS (independent) 18.9%, Rudolf HUNDSTORFER (SPOe) 11.3%, Andreas KHOL (OeVP) 11.1%, Richard LUGNER (independent) 2.3%; percent of vote in second round re-vote - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN 53.8%, Norbert HOFER 46.2%

    2010:  Heinz FISCHER re-elected; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER 79.3%, Barbara ROSENKRANZ 15.2%, Rudolf GEHRING 5.4%

  • Azerbaijan

    chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003); First Vice President Mehriban ALIYEVA (since 21 February 2017)

    head of government: Prime Minister Ali ASADOV (since 8 October 2019); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds (if needed) for a 7-year term; a single individual is eligible for unlimited terms; election last held on 11 April 2018 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum expanded the presidential term from 5 to 7 years; a separate constitutional amendment approved in the same referendum also introduced the post of first vice-president and additional vice-presidents, who are directly appointed by the president

    election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president (11 April 2018) in first round; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 86%, Zahid ORUJ (independent) 3.1%, other 10.9%

    note: OSCE observers noted shortcomings in the election, including a restrictive political environment, limits on fundamental freedoms, a lack of genuine competition, and ballot box stuffing

  • Bahamas, The

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Cornelius A. SMITH (since 28 June 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Philip DAVIS (since 17 September 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by governor general on recommendation of prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

  • Bahrain

    chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (born 21 October 1969)

    head of government: Prime Minister Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (since 11 November 2020); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Infrastructure KHALID bin Abdallah Al Khalifa (since 13 June 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

  • Bangladesh

    chief of state: President Abdul HAMID (since 24 April 2013); note - Abdul HAMID served as acting president following the death of Zillur RAHMAN in March 2013; HAMID was subsequently indirectly elected by the National Parliament and sworn in 24 April 2013

    head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wazed (since 6 January 2009)

    cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister, appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 February 2018 (next to be held by 2023); the president appoints as prime minister the majority party leader in the National Parliament

    election results: 2018: President Abdul HAMID (AL) reelected by the National Parliament unopposed for a second term; Sheikh HASINA reappointed prime minister as leader of the majority AL party following parliamentary elections in 2018

  • Barbados

    chief of state: President Sandra MASON (since 30 November 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Mia MOTTLEY (since 25 May 2018)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the president is elected by an electoral college of both Houses of Parliament for a four year renewable term; election last held 20 October 2021; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

    election results: Sandra MASON elected as first president on 20 October 2021

  • Belarus

    chief of state: President Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA (since 20 July 1994)

    head of government: Prime Minister Raman HALOWCHENKA (since 4 June 2020); First Deputy Prime Minister Mikalay SNAPKOW (since 4 June 2020); Deputy Prime Ministers Uladzimir KUKHARAW, Ihar PETRYSHENKA (since 18 August 2018), Yuryy NAZARAW (since 3 March 2020), Alyaksandr SUBOTSIN (since 4 June 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); first election took place on 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999; however, Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held on 9 September 2001; an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and allowed the President LUKASHENKA to run and win in a third (19 March 2006), fourth (19 December 2010), fifth (11 October 2015), and sixth (9 August 2020); next election to be held in (2025); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and approved by the National Assembly

    election results: Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA reelected president (9 August 2022); percent of vote - Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA (independent) 80.1%, Svyatlana TSIKHANOWSKAYA (independent) 10.1%, other 9.8%; note - widespread street protests erupted following announcement of the election results amid allegations of voter fraud

    Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA president (11 October 2015); percent of vote - Alyaksandr LUKASHENKA (independent) 84.1%, Tatsyana KARATKEVICH 4.4%, Sergey GAYDUKEVICH 3.3%, other 8.2%.

  • Belgium

    chief of state: King PHILIPPE (since 21 July 2013); Heir Apparent Princess ELISABETH (daughter of the monarch, born 25 October 2001)

    head of government: Prime Minister Alexander DE CROO (since 1 October 2020); Deputy Prime Ministers Vincent Van QUICKENBORNE (since 1 October 2020), Sophie WILMES (since 1 October 2020), Vincent VAN PETEGHEM (since 1 October 2020), Frank VANDENBROUCKE (since 1 October 2020), Pierre-Yves DERMAGNE (since 1 October 2020), Petra DE SUTTER (since 1 October 2020), Georges GILKINET (since 1 October 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers formally appointed by the monarch

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary and constitutional; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch and approved by Parliament

  • Belize

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Froyla TZALAM (since 27 May 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Juan Antonio BRICENO (since 12 November 2020); Deputy Prime Minister Cordel HYDE (since 16 November 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among members of the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister

  • Benin

    chief of state: President Patrice TALON (since 6 April 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Patrice TALON (since 6 April 2016); prime minister position abolished

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 April 2021 (next to be held in April 2026)

    election results: Patrice TALON elected to a second term; percent of vote - Patrice TALON (independent) 86.4%, Alassane SOUMANOU (FCBE) 11.3%, other 2.3% (2021)

  • Bermuda

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Rena LALGIE (since 14 December 2020)

    head of government: Premier David BURT (since 19 July 2017)

    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

  • Bhutan

    chief of state: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK (since 14 December 2006); note - King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK abdicated the throne on 14 December 2006 to his son

    head of government: Prime Minister Lotay TSHERING (since 7 November 2018)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers or Lhengye Zhungtshog members nominated by the monarch in consultation with the prime minister and approved by the National Assembly; members serve 5-year terms

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary but can be removed by a two-thirds vote of Parliament; leader of the majority party in Parliament is nominated as the prime minister, appointed by the monarch

  • Bolivia

    chief of state: President Luis Alberto ARCE Catacora (since 8 November 2020); Vice President David CHOQUEHUANCA Cespedes (since 8 November 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Luis Alberto ARCE Catacora (since 8 November 2020); Vice President David CHOQUEHUANCA Cespedes (since 8 November 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot one of 3 ways: candidate wins at least 50% of the vote, or at least 40% of the vote and 10% more than the next highest candidate; otherwise a second round is held and the winner determined by simple majority vote; president and vice president are elected by majority vote to serve a 5-year term; no term limits (changed from two consecutive term limit by Constitutional Court in late 2017); election last held on 18 October 2020 (next to be held in October 2025)

    election results:
    2020: Luis Alberto ARCE Catacora elected president; percent of vote - Luis Alberto ARCE Catacora (MAS) 55.1%; Carlos Diego MESA Gisbert (CC) 28.8%; Luis Fernando CAMACHO Vaca (Creemos) 14%; other 2.1%

    2018: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (MAS) 61%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana (UN) 24.5%; Jorge QUIROGA Ramirez (POC) 9.1%; other 5.4%; note - MORALES resigned from office on 10 November 2019 over alleged election rigging; resignations of all his constitutionally designated successors followed, including the Vice President, President of the Senate, President of the Chamber of Deputies, and First Vice President of the Senate, leaving the Second Vice President of the Senate, Jeanine ANEZ Chavez, the highest-ranking official still in office; her appointment to the presidency was endorsed by Bolivia's Constitutional Court, and she served as interim president until the 8 November 2020 inauguration of Luis Alberto ARCE Catacora, who was winner of the 18 October 2020 presidential election

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina

    chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Sefik DZAFEROVIC (chairman since 20 March 2022; presidency member since 20 November 2018 - Bosniak seat); Zeljko KOMSIC  (presidency member since 20 November 2018 - Croat seat); Milorad DODIK (presidency member since 20 November 2018 - Serb seat)

    head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Zoran TEGELTIJA  (since 5 December 2019)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman, approved by the state-level House of Representatives

    elections/appointments: 3-member presidency (1 Bosniak and 1 Croat elected from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1 Serb elected from the Republika Srpska) directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for 4 years); the presidency chairpersonship rotates every 8 months with the new member of the presidency elected with the highest number of votes starting the new mandate as chair; election last held on 2 October 2022 (next to be held in October 2026); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives

    election results: 2022: percent of vote - Denis BECIROVIC - (SDP BiH) 57.4% - Bosniak seat; Zeljko KOMSIC (DF) 55.8% - Croat seat; Zeljka CVIJANOVIC (SNSD) 51.7% - Serb seat

    2018:
    percent of vote - Milorad DODIK (SNSD) 53.9% - Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC (DF) 52.6% - Croat seat; Sefik DZAFEROVIC (SDA) 36.6% - Bosniak seat

    2014: percent of vote - Mladen IVANIC (PDP) 48.7% - Serb seat; Dragan COVIC (HDZ-BiH) 52.2% - Croat seat; Bakir IZETBEGOVIC (SDA) 32.9% - Bosniak seat

    note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Marinko CAVARA (since 9 February 2015); Vice Presidents Melika MAHMUTBEGOVIC (since 9 February 2015), Milan DUNOVIC (since 9 February 2015); President of the Republika Srpska Zeljka CVIJANOVIC (since 18 November 2018); Vice Presidents Ramiz SALKIC (since 24 November 2014), Josip JERKOVIC (since 24 November 2014)

  • Botswana

    chief of state: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); 

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 October 2019 (next to be held in 2024 October); vice president appointed by the president

    election results: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008) stepped down on 1 April 2018 having completed the constitutionally mandated 10-year term limit; upon his retirement, then Vice President MASISI became president; national elections held on 23 October 2019 gave MASISI'S BPD 38 seats in the National Assembly which then selected MASISI as President (2019)

  • Brazil

    chief of state: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Jair BOLSONARO (since 1 January 2019); Vice President Antonio Hamilton Martins MOURAO (since 1 January 2019)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term (eligible for an immediate second term, and additional terms after a one-term break); election last held on 2 October 2022 with runoff on 30 October 2022 (next to be held on 4 October 2026)

    election results:

    2022: Luiz Inacio LULA da Silva elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Luiz Inacio LULA da Silva (PT) 48.4%, Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 43.2%, Simone TEBET (MDB) 4.2%, Ciro GOMES (PDT) 3%, other 1.2%; percent of vote in second round - Luiz Inacio LULA da Silva (PT) 50.9%, Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 49.1%; note - LULA will take office 1 January 2023

    2018:
    Jair BOLSONARO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 46%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 29.3%, Ciro GOMEZ (PDT) 12.5%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 4.8%, other 7.4%; percent of vote in second round - Jair BOLSONARO (PSL) 55.1%, Fernando HADDAD (PT) 44.9%

    2014:  Dilma ROUSSEFF reelected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) 51.6%, Aecio NEVES (PSDB) 48.4%; note - on 12 May 2016, Brazil's Senate voted to hold an impeachment trial of President Dilma ROUSSEFF, who was then suspended from her executive duties; Vice President Michel TEMER took over as acting president; on 31 August 2016 the Senate voted 61-20 in favor of conviction and her removal from office; TEMER served as president for the remainder of ROUSSEFF's term, which ended 1 January 2019

  • British Indian Ocean Territory

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022)

    head of government: Commissioner Paul CANDLER (since 8 July 2021); Administrator Kit PYMAN; note - both reside in the UK and are represented by Commander Steven R. DRYSDALE, RN, commanding British Forces on Diego Garcia (since 19 February 2021)

    cabinet: NA

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; commissioner and administrator appointed by the monarch

  • British Virgin Islands

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor John J. RANKIN (since 29 January 2021)

    head of government: Premier Dr. Natalio WHEATLEY (since 5 May 2022)

    cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of the House of Assembly

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

    note; on 5 May 2022, Premier Andrew FAHIE removed by a no confidence vote in House of Assembly following his arrest on drug trafficking and money laundering charges on 28 April 2022; Premier Dr. Natalio WHEATLEY sworn in as premier on 5 May 2022

  • Brunei

    chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; note - 4 additional advisory councils appointed by the monarch are the Religious Council, Privy Council for constitutional issues, Council of Succession, and Legislative Council; Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah is also Minister of Finance, Defense, and Foreign Affairs and Trade

    elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary

  • Bulgaria

    chief of state: President Rumen RADEV (since 22 January 2017); Vice President Iliana IOTOVA (since 22 January 2017)

    head of government: Prime Minister Gulub DONEV (since 2 August 2022); note - Prime Minister DONEV leads a caretaker government until snap elections are held on 2 October 2022

    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 14 and 21 November 2021 (next to be held in fall 2026); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly

    election results: 2021: Rumen RADEV reelected president in second round; percent of vote in the first round - Rumen RADEV (independent) 49.4%, Anastas GERDZHIKOV (independent) 22.8%, Mustafa KARADAYI (DPS) 11.6%, Kostadin KOSTADINOV (Revival) 3.9%, Lozan PANOV (independent) 3.7%, other 8.6%; percent of vote in the second round - Rumen RADEV 66.7%, Anastas GERDZHIKOV 31.8%, neither 1.5%

    2016: Rumen RADEV elected president in second round; percent of vote in the second round - Rumen RADEV (independent, supported by Bulgarian Socialist Party) 59.4%, Tsetska TSACHEVA (GERB) 36.2%, neither 4.5%

    2011: Rosen PLEVNELIEV elected president in the second round; percent of vote in the second round - Rosen PLEVNELIEV (independent) 52.6%, Ivailo KALFIN (BSP) 47.4%

  • Burkina Faso

    chief of state: transitional President Capt Ibrahim TRAORE (since 30 September 2022); note - on 30 September 2022, a military junta led by TRAORE, took power and ousted President Lt. Col. Paul-Henri Sandaogo DAMIBA and took over as head of the Patriotic Movement for Safeguard and Restoration.

    head of government: Prime Minister Albert OUEDRAOGO (since 3 March 2022); note - transitional President Lt. Col. DAMIBA appointed OUEDRAOGO Prime Minister on 3 March 2022; the position had been vacant since 24 January 2022 when the military ousted former Prime Minister Lassina ZERBO

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second); last held on 22 November 2020 (next to be held in November 2025); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of the National Assembly; note - on 1 March 2022 a transition charter was adopted, allowing military authorities to rule for three years and barring transitional President Lt. Col. Paul-Henri Sandaogo DAMIBA from being an electoral candidate after the transition.

    election results: 2020: Roch Marc Christian KABORE reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Roch Marc Christian KABORE (MPP) 57.9%, Eddie KOMBOIGO (CDP) 15.5%, Zephirin DIABRE (UPC)12.5%, other 14.1%

    2015: Roch Marc Christian KABORE elected president in first round; percent of vote - Roch Marc Christian KABORE (MPP) 53.5%, Zephirin DIABRE (UPC) 29.6%, Tahirou BARRY (PAREN) 3.1%, Benewende Stanislas SANKARA (UNIR-MS) 2.8%, other 10.9%

  • Burma

    chief of state: Prime Minister, State Administration Council (SAC) Chair, Sr. Gen. MIN AUNG HLAING (since 1 August 2021); note - MIN AUNG HLAING self-appointed himself to the role of prime minister of a “caretaker” provisional government that subsumed the SAC on 1 August 2021; the SAC, chaired by MIN AUNG HLAING, has served as the executive governing body since 2 February 2021, following the 1 February 2021 military takeover of the government and the declaration of a state of emergency and still exists under the provisional government according to state media

    head of government: Prime Minister, State Administration Council (SAC) Chair, Sr. Gen. MIN AUNG HLAING (since 1 August 2021); MIN AUNG HLAING self-appointed himself to the role of prime minister of a “caretaker” provisional government that subsumed the SAC on 1 August 2021

    cabinet: Cabinet appointments shared by the president and the commander-in-chief; note - after 1 February, the military junta replaced the cabinet

    elections/appointments: prior to the military takeover, president was indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the full Assembly of the Union from among 3 vice-presidential candidates nominated by the Presidential Electoral College (consists of members of the lower and upper houses and military members); the other 2 candidates become vice presidents (president elected for a 5-year term); election last held on 28 March 2018; the military junta pledged to hold new elections in 2023

    election results: 2018: WIN MYINT elected president in an indirect by-election held on 28 March 2018 after the resignation of HTIN KYAW; Assembly of the Union vote - WIN MYINT (NLD) 403, MYINT SWE (USDP) 211, HENRY VAN THIO (NLD) 18, 4 votes canceled (636 votes cast); note - WIN MYINT and other key leaders of the ruling NLD party were placed under arrest following the military takeover on 1 February 2021

    2016: Assembly of the Union vote - HTIN KYAW elected president; HTIN KYAW (NLD) 360, MYINT SWE (USDP) 213, HENRY VAN THIO (NLD) 79 (652 votes cast)

    state counsellor: State Counselor AUNG SAN SUU KYI (since 6 April 2016); note - under arrest since 1 February 2021 (has been sentenced to 26 years in prison as of October 2022); formerly served as minister of foreign affairs and minister for the office of the president

    note: a parliamentary bill creating the position of "state counsellor" was signed into law by former President HTIN KYAW on 6 April 2016; a state counsellor serves the equivalent term of the president and is similar to a prime minister in that the holder acts as a link between the parliament and the executive branch

  • Burundi

    chief of state: President Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE (since 18 June 2020); Vice President Prosper BAZOMBANZA (since 24 June 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE (since 18 June 2020); Vice President Prosper BAZOMBANZA (since 24 June 2020); Prime Minister Gervais NDIRAKOBUCA (since 7 September 2022)


     

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2020 (next to be held in 2025); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by Parliament; note - a 2018 constitutional referendum effective for the 2020 election, increased the presidential term from 5 to 7 years with a 2-consecutive-term limit, reinstated the position of the prime minister position, and reduced the number of vice presidents from 2 to 1 (2020)

    election results: Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE elected president; percent of vote - Evariste NDAYISHIMIYE (CNDD-FDD) 71.5%, Agathon RWASA (CNL) 25.2%, Gaston SINDIMWO (UPRONA) 1.7%, OTHER 1.6%

  • Cabo Verde

    chief of state: President Jose Maria NEVES (since 9 November 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Ulisses CORREIA E. SILVA (since 22 April 2016)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 October 2021 (next to be held on 17 October 2026); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president (2021)

    election results: Jose Maria NEVES elected president; percent of vote - Jose Maria NEVES (APICV) 51.73%, Carlos VEIGA (MFD) 42.37%, Casimiro DE PINA (Independent) 1.81%, Fernando Rocha DELGADO (Independent) 1.36%, Helio SANCHES (Independent) 1.14%, Gilson ALVES (Independent)  0.84%, Joaquim MONTEIRO (Independent) 3.4%

    Jorge Carlos FONSECA reelected president; percent of vote - Jorge Carlos FONSECA (MPD) 74.1%, Albertino GRACA (independent) 22.5%, other 3% (2021)

    African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (APICV)
    Movement for Democracy (MFD)

  • Cambodia

    chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)

    head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch

    elections/appointments: monarch chosen by the 9-member Royal Council of the Throne from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the monarch

  • Cameroon

    chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)

    head of government: Prime Minister Joseph Dion NGUTE (since 4 January 2019); Deputy Prime Minister Amadou ALI (since 2014)

    cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 7 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2025); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: Paul BIYA reelected president; percent of vote - Paul BIYA (CPDM) 71.3%, Maurice KAMTO (MRC) 14.2%, Cabral LIBII (Univers) 6.3%, other 8.2% (2018)

  • Canada

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Mary SIMON (since 6 July 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU (Liberal Party) (since 4 November 2015)

    cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among members of his/her own party sitting in Parliament

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general

    note: the governor general position is largely ceremonial

  • Cayman Islands

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Martyn ROPER (since 29 October 2018)

    head of government: Premier Wayne PANTON (since 21 April 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet selected from the Parliament and appointed by the governor on the advice of the premier

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition appointed premier by the governor

  • Central African Republic

    chief of state: President Faustin-Archange TOUADERA (since 30 March 2016)

    head of government: Prime Minister Felix MOLOUA (since 7 February 2022); note - Prime Minister Henri-Marie DONDRA resigned on 2 February 2022

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: under the 2015 constitution, the president is elected by universal direct suffrage for a period of 5 years (eligible for a second term); election last held 27 December 2020 (next to be held in December 2025); note - Central African Republic held presidential and partial legislative elections on December 27, 2020; voting was disrupted in some areas, so those constituencies held the first round of their legislative elections on March 14, 2021 while some of the constituencies that did vote on December 27, 2020 held runoff elections for their legislators.

    election results: 2020/2021: Faustin-Archange TOUADERA reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Faustin-Archange TOUADERA (independent) 53.9%, Anicet Georges DOLOGUELE (URCA) 21%, other 25.1%

    2015: Faustin-Archange TOUADERA elected president in the second round; percent of vote in first round - Anicet-Georges DOLOGUELE (URCA) 23.7%, Faustin-Archange TOUADERA (independent) 19.1%, Desire KOLINGBA (RDC) 12%, Martin ZIGUELE (MLPC) 11.4%, other 33.8%; percent of vote in second round - Faustin-Archange TOUADERA 62.7%, Anicet-Georges DOLOGUELE 37.3%

  • Chad

    chief of state: Interim President Mahamat Idriss DEBY (since 20 April 2021); note - on 20 April 2021, newly reelected President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. died of injuries he sustained following clashes between government forces he was commanding and insurgents in the northern part of the country; following his death, Mahamat Idriss DEBY took control of the country and dismissed the Chadian parliament, establishing a Transitional Military Council and promising elections within eighteen months

    head of government: Interim Prime Minister Albert Pahimi PADACKE (since 26 April 2021); note - PADACKE was appointed interim prime minister by the Transitional Military Council led by Mahamat Idriss DEBY

    cabinet: Council of Ministers

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 11 April 2021; note - on 20 April 2021, military officials suspended the Constitution and formed a Transitional Military Council, pledging to hold democratic elections in October 2022

    election results: 2021: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 79.3%, Pahimi PADACKET Albert (RNDT) 10.3%, Lydie BEASSEMDA (Party for Democracy and Independence) 3.2%, other 7.2%

    2016: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 61.6%, Saleh KEBZABO (UNDR) 12.8%, Laokein Kourayo MEDAR (CTPD) 10.7%, Djimrangar DADNADJI (CAP-SUR) 5.1%, other 9.8%

  • Chile

    chief of state: President Gabriel BORIC (since 11 March 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Gabriel BORIC (since 11 March 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 21 November 2021 with a runoff held on 19 December 2021 (next to be held on 23 November 2025 with runoff if needed on 20 December)

    election results:
    2021: Gabriel BORIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jose Antonio KAST (FSC) 27.9%; Gabriel BORIC (AD) 25.8%; Franco PARISI (PDG) 12.8%; Sebastian SICHEL (ChP+) 12.8%; Yasna PROVOSTE (New Social Pact) 11.6%; other 9.1%; percent of vote in second round - Gabriel BORIC (AD) 55.9%; Jose Antonio KAST (FSC) 44.1%

    2017:
     Sebastian PINERA Echenique elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Sebastian PINERA Echenique (independent) 36.6%; Alejandro GUILLIER (independent) 22.7%; Beatriz SANCHEZ (independent) 20.3%; Jose Antonio KAST (independent) 7.9%; Carolina GOIC (PDC) 5.9%; Marco ENRIQUEZ-OMINAMI (PRO) 5.7%; other 0.9%; percent of vote in second round - Sebastian PINERA Echenique 54.6%, Alejandro GUILLIER 45.4%

  • China

    chief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President WANG Qishan (since 17 March 2018)

    head of government: Premier LI Keqiang (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premiers HAN Zheng (since 19 March 2018), SUN Chunlan (since 19 March 2018), LIU He (since 19 March 2018), HU Chunhua (since 19 March 2018)

    cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by National People's Congress (no term limits); election last held on 17 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2023); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress

    election results: 2018: XI Jinping reelected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,970 (unanimously); WANG Qishan elected vice president with 2,969 votes

    2013: XI Jinping elected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,952; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with 2,839 votes

    note - in March 2018, the PRC’s National People’s Congress passed an amendment abolishing presidential term limits, opening the door for XI to seek a third five-year term in 2023

  • Christmas Island

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General of the Commonwealth of Australia General David HURLEY (since 1 July 2019)

    head of government: Acting Administrator Sarah VANDENBROEK (since 4 October 2022)

    cabinet: NA

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Australian prime minister; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia for a 2-year term and represents the monarch and Australia

  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General of the Commonwealth of Australia General David HURLEY (since 1 July 2019)

    head of government: Acting Administrator Sarah VANDENBROEK (since 4 October 2022)

    cabinet: NA

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Australian prime minister; administrator appointed by the governor general for a 2-year term and represents the monarch and Australia

  • Colombia

    chief of state: President Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego (since 7 August 2022); Vice President Francia Elena MARQUEZ Mina (since 7 August 2022); the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego (since 7 August 2022); Vice President Francia Elena MARQUEZ Mina (since 7 August 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 29 May 2022 with a runoff held on 19 June 2022 (next to be held on 31 May 2026); note - political reform in 2015 eliminated presidential reelection

    election results:
    2022:
    Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego (PHxC) 40.3%, Rodolfo HERNANDEZ Suarez (LIGA) 28.2%, Federico GUTIERREZ (Team for Colombia / CREEMOS) 23.9%, other 7.6%; percent of vote in second round - Gustavo Francisco PETRO Urrego (PHxC) 50.4%, Rodolfo HERNANDEZ Suarez (LIGA) 47.3%

    2018:
     Ivan DUQUE Marquez elected president in second round; percent of vote - Ivan DUQUE Marquez (CD) 54%, Gustavo PETRO (Humane Colombia) 41.8%, other/blank/invalid 4.2%

  • Comoros

    chief of state: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 May 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 May 2016)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote in 2 rounds for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 March 2019 (next to be held in 2024)

    election results: 2019: AZALI Assoumani (CRC) elected president in first round - AZALI Assoumani (CRC) 60.8%, Ahamada MAHAMOUDOU (PJ) 14.6%, Mouigni Baraka Said SOILIHI (Independent) 5.6%, other 19%

    2016: AZALI Assoumani (CRC) elected president in the second round; percent of vote in first round - Mohamed Ali SOILIHI (UPDC) 17.6%, Mouigni BARAKA (RDC) 15.1%, AZALI Assoumani (CRC) 15%, Fahmi Said IBRAHIM (PEC) 14.5%, other 37.8%; percent of vote in second round - AZALI Assoumani (CRC) 41.4%, Mohamed Ali SOILIHI (UPDC) 39.7%; Mouigni BARAKA (RDC) 19%

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the

    chief of state: President Felix TSHISEKEDI (since 24 January 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Anatole Collinet MAKOSSO (since 12 May 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Jose MAKILA, Leonard She OKITUNDU, Henri MOVA Sankanyi (since February 2018)

    cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 30 December 2018 (next to be held in December 2023); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: Felix TSHISEKEDI elected president; percent of vote - Felix TSHISEKEDI (UDPS) 38.6%, Martin FAYULU (Lamuka coalition) 34.8%, Emmanuel Ramazani SHADARY (PPRD) 23.9%, other 2.7%; note - election marred by serious voting irregularities (2018)

  • Congo, Republic of the

    chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (since 25 October 1997)

    head of government: Prime Minister Clement MOUAMBA (since 24 April 2016); note - a constitutional referendum held in 2015 approved the change of the head of government from the president to the prime minister (2019)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 additional terms); election last held on 21 March 2021 (next to be held on 21 March 2026)

    election results: Denis SASSOU-Nguesso reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-Nguesso (PCT) 88.4%, Guy Price Parfait KOLELAS (MCDDI) 8.0%, other 3.6%  (2021)

  • Cook Islands

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Sir Tom J. MARSTERS (since 9 August 2013); New Zealand High Commissioner Ms Tui DEWES (since October 2020)

    head of government: Prime Minister Mark BROWN (since 1 October 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; UK representative appointed by the monarch; New Zealand high commissioner appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes prime minister

  • Costa Rica

    chief of state: President Rodrigo CHAVES Robles (since 8 May 2022); First Vice President Stephan BRUNNER Neibig (since 8 May 2022); Second Vice President Mary Denisse MUNIVE Angermuller (since 8 May 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Rodrigo CHAVES Robles (since 8 May 2022); First Vice President Stephan BRUNNER Neibig (since 8 May 2022); Second Vice President Mary Denisse MUNIVE Angermuller (since 8 May 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice presidents directly elected on the same ballot by modified majority popular vote (40% threshold) for a 4-year term (eligible for non-consecutive terms); election last held on 6 February 2022 with a runoff on 3 April 2022 (next to be held in February 2026 with a runoff in April 2026)

    election results:

    2022: Rodrigo CHAVES Robles elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (PLN) 27.3%, Rodrigo CHAVES Robles (PPSD) 16.8%, Fabricio ALVARADO Munoz (PNR) 14.9%, Eliecer FEINZAIG Mintz (PLP) 12.4%, Lineth SABORIO Chaverri (PUSC) 12.4%, Jose Maria VILLALTA Florez-Estrada 8.7% (PFA), other 7.5%; percent of vote in second round - Rodrigo CHAVES Robles (PPSD) 52.8%, Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (PLN) 47.2%

    2018: Carlos ALVARADO Quesada elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Fabricio ALVARADO Munoz (PRN) 25%; Carlos ALVARADO Quesada (PAC) 21.6%; Antonio ALVAREZ (PLN) 18.6%; Rodolfo PIZA (PUSC) 16%; Juan Diego CASTRO (PIN) 9.5%; Rodolfo HERNANDEZ (PRS) 4.9%, other 4.4%; percent of vote in second round - Carlos ALVARADO Quesada (PAC) 60.7%; Fabricio ALVARADO Munoz (PRN) 39.3%

  • Cote d'Ivoire

    chief of state: President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA (since 4 December 2010); Vice President Tiémoko Meyliet KONE (since 19 April 2022); note - Vice President Tiémoko Meyliet KONE was appointed by President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA before a Congressional meeting on 19 April 2022

    head of government: Prime Minister Patrick ACHI (since 19 April 2022); note - Prime Minister ACHI resigned on 13 April 2022 and was reappointed by President Alassane Dramane OUATTARA before a Congressional meeting on 19 April 2022

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single renewable 5-year term ; election last held on 31 October 2020 (next to be held in October 2025); vice president elected on same ballot as president; prime minister appointed by the president; note – because President OUATTARA promulgated the new constitution during his second term, he has claimed that the clock is reset on term limits, allowing him to run for up to two additional terms

    election results: Alassane OUATTARA reelected president; percent of vote - Alassane OUATTARA (RDR) 94.3%, Kouadio Konan BERTIN (PDCI-RDA) 2.0%, other 3.7% (2020)

  • Croatia

    chief of state: President Zoran MILANOVIC (since 18 February 2020)

    head of government: Prime Minister Andrej PLENKOVIC (since 19 October 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Damir KRSTICEVIC (since 19 October 2016), Predrag STROMAR (since 9 June 2017), Marija Pejcinovic BURIC (since 19 June 2017), and Tomislav TOLUSIC (since 25 May 2018)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 December 2019 with a runoff on 5 January 2020 (next to be held in 2024); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly

    election results:
    2019: Zoran MILANOVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Zoran MILANOVIC (SDP) 52.7%, Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 47.3%

    2015: Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote in second round - Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 50.7%, Ivo JOSIPOVIC (Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance) 49.3%

  • Cuba

    chief of state: President Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (since 19 April 2018); Vice President Salvador Antonio VALDES Mesa (since 10 October 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Manuel MARRERO Cruz (since 21 December 2019); Deputy Prime Ministers Ramiro VALDES Menendez, Ines Maria CHAPMAN Waugh, Jorge Luis TAPIA Fonseca, Alejandro GIL Fernandez, Ricardo CABRISAS Ruiz (since 21 December 2019), and Jorge Luis PERDOMO DI-LELLA (since 20 April 2021)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president and appointed by the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (may be reelected for another 5-year term); election last held on 10 October 2019 (next to be held NA)

    election results:
    2019: Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (PCC) elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 98.8%; Salvador Antonio VALDES Mesa (PCC) elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - 98.1%

    2018: Miguel DIAZ-CANEL Bermudez (PCC) elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 98.8%; Salvador Antonio VALDES Mesa (PCC) elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100%

    note - on 19 April 2018, DIAZ-CANEL succeeded Raul CASTRO as president of the Councils of State and Ministers; on 10 October 2019 he was elected to the newly created position of President of the Republic, which replaced the position of President of the Councils of State and Ministers

  • Curacao

    chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER of the Netherlands (since 30 April 2013); represented by Governor Lucille A. GEORGE-WOUT (since 4 November 2013)

    head of government: Prime Minister Gilmar PISAS (since 14 June 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet sworn-in by the governor

    elections/appointments: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually elected prime minister by the Parliament of Curacao; last election 19 March 2021 (next to be held in 2025)

  • Cyprus

    chief of state: President Nikos ANASTASIADIS (since 28 February 2013); the president is both chief of state and head of government; note - vice presidency reserved for a Turkish Cypriot, but vacant since 1974 because Turkish Cypriots do not participate in the Republic of Cyprus Government

    head of government: President Nikos ANASTASIADIS (since 28 February 2013)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - under the 1960 constitution, 3 of the ministerial posts reserved for Turkish Cypriots, appointed by the vice president; positions currently filled by Greek Cypriots

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term; election last held on 28 January 2018 with a runoff on 4 February 2018 (next to be held in February 2023)

    election results: 2018: Nikos ANASTASIADIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS (DISY) 35.5%, Stavros MALAS (AKEL) 30.2%, Nicolas PAPADOPOULOS (DIKO) 25.7%, other 8.6%; percent of vote in second round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS 56%, Stavros MALAS 44%

    2013: Nikos ANASTASIADIS elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS 45.5% (DISY), Stavros  MALAS 26.9% (AKEL), Georgos LILLIKAS 24.9% (SP), other 2.7%; percent of vote in second round - Nikos ANASTASIADIS 57.5%, Savros MALAS 42.5%

    note: the first round of the TRNC presidential election, originally scheduled for 26 April 2020, was postponed to 11 October 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic; the second round was held on 18 October 2020; percent of vote in the first round - Ersin TATAR (UBP) 32.4%, Mustafa AKINCI (independent) 29.8%, Tufan ERHURMAN (RTP) 21.7%, Kudret OZERSAY (independent) 5.7%, Erhan ARIKLI (YDP) 5.4%, Serdar DENKTAS (independent) 4.2%, other 0.8%; percent of vote in the second round - Ersin TATAR 51.7%, Mustafa AKINCI 48.3%

  • Czechia

    chief of state: President Milos ZEMAN (since 8 March 2013)

    head of government: Prime Minister Petr FIALA (since 17 December 2021); First Deputy Prime Minister Vit RAKUSAN (since 17 December 2021), Deputy Prime Ministers Marian JURECKA, Ivan BARTOS, Vlastimil VALEK (all since 17 December 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); elections last held on 12-13 January 2018 with a runoff on 26-27 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2023); prime minister appointed by the president for a 4-year term

    election results:
    2018:
    Milos ZEMAN reelected president in the second round; percent of vote - Milos ZEMAN (SPO) 51.4%, Jiri DRAHOS (independent) 48.6%

    2013: Milos ZEMAN elected president; percent of vote - Milos ZEMAN (SPO) 54.8%, Karel SCHWARZENBERG (TOP 09) 45.2%

  • Denmark

    chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK (elder son of the monarch, born on 26 May 1968)

    head of government: Prime Minister Mette FREDERIKSEN (since 27 June 2019)

    cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch

  • Dhekelia

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022)

    head of government: Administrator Air Vice-Marshal Peter J.M. SQUIRES (since 1 September 2022); note - the administrator reports to the British Ministry of Defense and is also Commander, British Forces Cyprus (BFC); the chief officer, an appointed civilian, is responsible for the day-to-day running of the civil government of the Sovereign Base Areas

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; administrator appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Ministry of Defense

  • Djibouti

    chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)

    head of government: Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil MOHAMED (since 1 April 2013)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term; election last held on 9 April 2021 (next to be held in April 2026); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: 2021: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president for a fifth term; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH (RPP) 97.4%, Zakaria Ismael FARAH (MDEND) 2.7%

    2016: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH (RPP) 87%, Omar Elmi KHAIREH (CDU) 7.3%, other 5.6%

  • Dominica

    chief of state: President Charles A. SAVARIN (since 2 October 2013)

    head of government: Prime Minister Roosevelt SKERRIT (since 8 January 2004)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president nominated by the prime minister and leader of the opposition party and elected by the House of Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 1 October 2018 (next to be held in October 2023); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: Charles A. SAVARIN (DLP) reelected president unopposed

  • Dominican Republic

    chief of state: President Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (since 16 August 2020); Vice President Raquel PENA de Antuna (since 16 August 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (since 16 August 2020); Vice President Raquel PENA de Antuna (since 16 August 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a maximum of two consecutive terms); election last held on 5 July 2020 (next to be held in 2024); note - the 2020 election was rescheduled from 17 May to 5 July 2020 due to COVID-19 pandemic

    election results:
    2020: Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona elected president in first round; percent of vote - Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (PRM) 52.5%, Gonzalo CASTILLO Terrero (PLD) 37.5%, Leonel Antonio FERNANDEZ Reyna (FP) 8.9% other 1.1%

    2016: Danilo MEDINA Sanchez reelected president; percent of vote - Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (PLD) 61.7%, Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (PRM) 35%, other 3.3%; Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (PLD) reelected vice president

  • Ecuador

    chief of state: President Guillermo LASSO Mendoza (since 24 May 2021); Vice President Alfredo Enrique BORRERO Vega (since 24 May 2021); the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Guillermo LASSO Mendoza (since 24 May 2021); Vice President Alfredo Enrique BORRERO Vega (since 24 May 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 February 2021 with a runoff on 11 April 2021 (next to be held in February 2025)

    election results:
    2021: Guillermo LASSO Mendoza elected president; first round election results: percent of vote - Andres ARAUZ (UNES) 32.72%, Guillermo LASSO Mendoza (CREO) 19.74%, Yaku PEREZ Guartambel (MUPP) 19.38%, Xavier HERVAS Mora (Independent) 15.68%, other 12.48%; second round election results: percent of vote - Guillermo LASSO Mendoza (CREO) 52.5%, Andres ARAUZ (UNES) 47.5%

    2017: Lenin MORENO Garces elected president in second round; percent of vote - Lenin MORENO Garces (Alianza PAIS Movement) 51.1%, Guillermo LASSO (CREO) 48.9%

  • Egypt

    chief of state: President Abdelfattah ELSISI (since 8 June 2014)

    head of government: Prime Minister Mostafa MADBOULY (since 7 June 2018)

    cabinet: Cabinet ministers nominated by the executive branch and approved by the House of Representatives

    elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for 3 consecutive terms); election last held on 26-28 March 2018 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of Representatives; note - following  a constitutional amendment approved by referendum in April 2019, the presidential term was extended from 4 to 6 years and eligibility extended to 3 consecutive terms

    election results: 2018: Abdelfattah ELSISI reelected president in first round; percent of valid votes cast - Abdelfattah ELSISI (independent) 97.1%, Moussa Mostafa MOUSSA (El Ghad Party) 2.9%; note - more than 7% of ballots cast were deemed invalid

  • El Salvador

    chief of state: President Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (since 1 June 2019); Vice President Felix Augusto Antonio ULLOA Garay (since 1 June 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (since 1 June 2019); Vice President Felix Augusto Antonio ULLOA Garay (since 1 June 2019)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 5-year term; election last held on 3 February 2019 (next to be held on February 2024)

    election results:
    2019: Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez elected president - Nayib Armando BUKELE Ortez (GANA) 53.1%, Carlos CALLEJA Hakker (ARENA) 31.72%, Hugo MARTINEZ (FMLN) 14.41%, other 0.77%

    2014: Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN (FMLN) 48.9%, Norman QUIJANO (ARENA) 39%, Antonio SACA (CN) 11.4%, other 0.7%; percent of vote in second round - Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN 50.1%, Norman QUIJANO 49.9%

  • Equatorial Guinea

    chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup); Vice President Teodoro Nguema OBIANG Mangue (since 2012)

    head of government: Prime Minister Francisco Pascual Eyegue OBAMA Asue (since 23 June 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Clemente Engonga NGUEMA Onguene (since 23 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Angel MESIE Mibuy (since 5 February 2018); Third Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso Nsue MOKUY (since 23 June 2016)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and overseen by the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 April 2016 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

    election results: Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG Nguema Mbasogo (PDGE) 93.5%, other 6.5% (2016)

  • Eritrea

    chief of state: President ISAIAS Afwerki (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly

    head of government: President ISAIAS Afwerki (since 8 June 1993)

    cabinet: State Council appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); the only election was held on 8 June 1993, following independence from Ethiopia (next election postponed indefinitely)

    election results: 1993: ISAIAS Afwerki elected president by the transitional National Assembly; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS  Afwerki (PFDJ) 95%, other 5%

  • Estonia

    chief of state: President Alar KARIS (since 11 October 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Kaja KALLAS (since 26 January 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament

    elections/appointments:

    president indirectly elected by Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); if a candidate does not secure two thirds of the votes after 3 rounds of balloting, then an electoral college consisting of Parliament members and local council members elects the president, choosing between the 2 candidates with the highest number of votes; election last held on 30-31 August 2021 (next to be held in 2026); in a first round of voting on 30 August, parliament failed to elect a president; in a second round on 31 August, the sole candidate, Alar KARIS, received 72 votes of 101 votes (there were 8 blank votes and 21 electors not present); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament



    election results:

    2021: Alar KARIS elected president; parliamentary vote Alar KARIS (independent) 72 of 101 votes;  KALLAS is Estonia's first female prime minister

    2016: Kersti KALJULAID is indirectly elected president with 81 of 98 votes in parliament (17 ballots blank). She is sworn in on October 10 as the first female head of state of Estonia.

  • Eswatini

    chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)

    head of government: Prime Minister Cleopas DLAMINI (since since 19 July 2021); Deputy Prime Minister Themba MASUKU (since 6 November 2018)

    cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister, confirmed by the monarch; at least one-half of the cabinet membership must be appointed from among elected members of the House of Assembly

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among members of the House of Assembly

  • Ethiopia

    chief of state: President SAHLE-WORK Zewde (since 25 October 2018)

    head of government: Prime Minister ABIY Ahmed Ali (since April 2018); Deputy Prime Minister DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen (since 29 November 2012)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election held on 21 June 2021 and 30 September 2021 (the scheduled 29 August 2020 election was postponed by Prime Minister ABIY due to the COVID-19 pandemic); prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections

    election results: 2021: SAHLE-WORK elected president during joint session of Parliament, vote - 659 (unanimous); ABIY confirmed Prime Minister by House of Peoples' Representatives (4 October 2021)

    2018: SAHLE-WORK elected president during joint session of Parliament, vote - 659 (unanimous); note - snap election held on 25 October 2018 due to resignation of President MULATA Teshome

    note: SAHLE-WORK Zewde is the first female elected head of state in Ethiopia; she is currently the only female president in Africa.

  • European Union

    under the EU treaties there are three distinct institutions, each of which conducts functions that may be regarded as executive in nature:
    European Council - brings together heads of state and government, along with the president of the European Commission, and meets at least four times a year; its aim is to provide the impetus for the development of the Union and to issue general policy guidelines; the Treaty of Lisbon established the position of "permanent" (full-time) president of the European Council; leaders of the EU member states appoint the president for a 2 1/2 year term, renewable once; the president's responsibilities include chairing the EU summits and providing policy and organizational continuity; the current president is Charles MICHEL (Belgium), since 1 December 2019, succeeding Donald TUSK (Poland; 2014 - 2019)
    Council of the European Union - consists of ministers of each EU member state and meets regularly in 10 different configurations depending on the subject matter; it conducts policymaking and coordinating functions as well as legislative functions; ministers of EU member states chair meetings of the Council of the EU based on a 6-month rotating presidency except for the meetings of EU Foreign Ministers in the Foreign Affairs Council that are chaired by the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
    European Commission - headed by a College of Commissioners comprised of 27 members (one from each member country) including the president; each commissioner is responsible for one or more policy areas; the Commission's main responsibilities include the sole right to initiate EU legislation (except for foreign and security/defense policy), promoting the general interest of the EU, acting as "guardian of the Treaties" by monitoring the application of EU law, implementing/executing the EU budget, managing programs, negotiating on the EU's behalf in core policy areas such as trade, and ensuring the Union's external representation in some policy areas; its current president is Ursula VON DER LEYEN (Germany) elected on 16 July 2019 (took office on 1 December 2019); the president of the European Commission is nominated by the European Council and formally "elected" by the European Parliament; the Commission president allocates specific responsibilities among the members of the College (appointed by common accord of the member state governments in consultation with the president-elect); the European Parliament confirms the entire Commission for a 5-year term.



    note: for external representation and foreign policy making, leaders of the EU member states appointed Joseph BORRELL (Spain) as the High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy; BORRELL took office on 1 December 2019, succeeding Federica MOGHERINI (Italy (2014 - 2019); the High Representative's concurrent appointment as Vice President of the European Commission was meant to bring more coherence to the EU’s foreign policy (horizontally, between policies managed by the Commission that are particularly relevant for EU external relations, such as trade, humanitarian aid and crisis management, neighborhood policy and enlargement; and vertically, between member-state capitals and the EU); the High Representative helps develop and implement the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy and Common Security and Defense Policy components, chairs the Foreign Affairs Council, represents and acts for the Union in many international contexts, and oversees the European External Action Service, the diplomatic corps of the EU, established on 1 December 2010

  • Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Alison BLAKE (since 23 July 2022)

    head of government: Chief Executive Andy KEELING (since April 2021)

    cabinet: Executive Council elected by the Legislative Council

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; chief executive appointed by the governor

  • Faroe Islands

    chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Lene Moyell JOHANSEN, chief administrative officer (since 15 May 2017)

    head of government: Prime Minister Bardur A STEIG NIELSEN (since 16 September 2019)

    cabinet: Landsstyri appointed by the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by the Faroese Parliament; election last held on 31 August 2019 (next to be held in 2023)

    election results: 2019: Bardur A STEIGNIELSEN elected prime minister; Parliament vote - NA

    2015:  Aksel V. JOHANNESEN elected prime minister; Parliament vote - NA

  • Fiji

    chief of state: President Ratu Wiliame KATONIVERE (since 12 November 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Voreqe "Frank" BAINIMARAMA (since 22 September 2014)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament

    elections/appointments: president elected by Parliament for a 3-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 October 2021 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister endorsed by the president

    election results: Ratu Wiliame KATONIVERE elected president with 28 votes against 23 votes for Teimumu KEPA

  • Finland

    chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)

    head of government: Prime Minister Sanna MARIN (since 10 December 2019)

    cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2024); prime minister appointed by Parliament

    election results: 2018: Sauli NIINISTO reelected president; percent of vote - Sauli NIINISTO (independent) 62.7%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 12.4%, Laura HUHTASAARI (PS) 6.9%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (independent) 6.2%, Matti VANHANEN (Kesk) 4.1%, other 7.7%

    2012: Sauli NIINISTO elected president; percent of vote - Sauli NIINISTO (National Coalition Party) 62.6%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 37.4%

  • France

    chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017)

    head of government: Prime Minister Élisabeth BORNE (since 16 May 2022)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 April 2022 with a runoff held on 24 April 2022 (next to be held in April 2027); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: 2022: Emmanuel MACRON reelected in second round; percent of vote in first round - Emmanuel MACRON (LREM) 27.8%, Marine LE PEN (RN) 23.2%, Jean-Luc MELENCHON (LFI) 22%, Eric ZEMMOUR (Reconquete) 7.1%, Valerie PECRESSE (LR) 4.8%, Yannick JADOT (EELV) 4.6%, Jean LASSALLE (Resistons!) 3.1%, Fabien ROUSSEL (PCF) 2.3%, Nicolas DUPONT-AIGNAN (DLF) 2.1%, Anne HIDALGO 1.8%, other 1.2%; percent of vote in second round - MACRON 58.5%, LE PEN 41.5%

    2017: Emmanuel MACRON elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Emmanuel MACRON (EM) 24%, Marine LE PEN (FN) 21.3%, Francois FILLON (LR) 20%, Jean-Luc MELENCHON (FI) 19.6%, Benoit HAMON (PS) 6.4%, other 8.7%; percent of vote in second round - MACRON 66.1%, LE PEN 33.9%

  • French Polynesia

    chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017), represented by High Commissioner of the Republic Dominique SORAIN (since 10 July 2019)

    head of government: President of French Polynesia Edouard FRITCH (since 12 September 2014)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers approved by the Assembly from a list of its members submitted by the president

    elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; French Polynesia president indirectly elected by Assembly of French Polynesia for a 5-year term (no term limits)

  • French Southern and Antarctic Lands

    chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017), represented by Prefect Florence JEANBLANC-RISLER (since 5 October 2022)

  • Gabon

    chief of state: President Ali BONGO Ondimba (since 16 October 2009)

    head of government: Prime Minister Rose Christiane Ossouka RAPONDA (since 16 July 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 27 August 2016 (next to be held in August 2023); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: Ali BONGO Ondimba reelected president; percent of vote - Ali BONGO Ondimba (PDG) 49.8%, Jean PING (UFC) 48.2%, other 2.0% (2016)

  • Gambia, The

    chief of state: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2022); Vice President Isatou TOURAY (since 15 March 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Adama BARROW (since 19 January 2022); Vice President Isatou TOURAY (since 15 March 2019)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 4 December 2021 (next to be held in 2026); vice president appointed by the president

    election results: Adama BARROW reelected president; percent of vote - Adama BARROW (National People's Party) 53.2%, Ousainou DARBOE (United Democratic Party) 27.7%, Mamma KANDEH (GDC)12.3%, Halifa SALLAH (PDOIS) 3.8%, Essa M. FAAL (Independent) 2%, Abdoulie Ebrima JAMMEH (NUP) 1% (2021)

  • Georgia

    chief of state: President Salome ZOURABICHVILI (since 16 December 2018)

    head of government: Prime Minister Irakli GARIBASHVILI (since 22 February 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2018 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister nominated by Parliament, appointed by the president

    note - 2017 constitutional amendments made the 2018 election the last where the president was directly elected; future presidents will be elected by a 300-member College of Electors; in light of these changes, ZOURABICHVILI was allowed a six-year term

    election results: 2018 Salome ZOURABICHVILI elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Salome ZOURABICHVILI (independent, backed by Georgian Dream) 59.5%, Grigol VASHADZE (UNM) 40.5%; Irakli GARIBASHVILI approved as prime minister by Parliamentary vote 89-2

    2013 Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI is sworn in as president (Georgian Dream) 62.1%, David BAKRADZE (ENM) 21.7%, Nino BURJANADZE (DM-UG) 10.2%, other 6%

  • Germany

    chief of state: President Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (since 19 March 2017)

    head of government: Chancellor Olaf SCHOLZ (since 8 December 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) recommended by the chancellor, appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by a Federal Convention consisting of all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equivalent number of delegates indirectly elected by the state parliaments; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 February 2022 (next to be held in February 2027); following the most recent Federal Parliament election, the party or coalition with the most representatives usually elects the chancellor who is appointed by the president to serve a renewable 4-year term; Federal Parliament vote for chancellor last held on 8 December 2021 (next to be held after the Bundestag election in 2025)

    election results: 2017: Frank-Walter STEINMEIER reelected president; Federal Convention vote count - Frank-Walter STEINMEIER (SPD) 1,045, Max OTTE 140, Gerhard TRABERT (The Left) 96, Stefanie GEBAUER (Free Voters) 58, abstentions 86; Olaf SCHOLZ (SPD) elected chancellor; Federal Parliament vote - 395 to 303

    2012:  Joachim GAUCK elected president; Federal Convention vote count - Joachim GAUCK 911, Beate KLARSFELD 126, Olaf ROSE 3

  • Ghana

    chief of state: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (since 7 January 2017); the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (since 7 January 2017)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the president, approved by Parliament

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 December 2020 (next to be held in December 2024)

    election results: Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (NPP) 51.3%, John Dramani MAHAMA (NDC) 47.4%, other 1.3% (2020)

  • Gibraltar

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Sir David STEEL (since 11 June 2020)

    head of government: Chief Minister Fabian PICARDO (since 9 December 2011)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor

  • Greece

    chief of state: President Ekaterini SAKELLAROPOULOU (since 13 March 2020)

    head of government: Prime Minister Kyriakos MITSOTAKIS (since 8 July 2019)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president elected by Hellenic Parliament for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 January 2020 (next to be held by February 2025); president appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party or coalition in the Hellenic Parliament

    election results: 2020: Katerina SAKELLAROPOULOU (independent) elected president by Parliament - 261 of 300 votes; note - SAKELLAROPOULOU is Greece's first woman president

    2015: Prokopis PAVLOPOULOS (ND) elected president by Parliament - 233 of 300 votes

  • Greenland

    chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Mikaela ENGELL (since April 2011)

    head of government: Premier Mute B. EGEDE (since 23 April 2021)

    cabinet: Self-rule Government (Naalakkersuisut) elected by the Parliament (Inatsisartut)

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; premier indirectly elected by Parliament for a 4-year term

    election results: 2021: Mute B. EGEDE elected premier; Parliament vote - Mute B. EGEDE 20-0

    2014: Kim KIELSEN elected premier; Parliament vote - Kim KIELSEN (S) 27.2%, Sara OLSVIG (IA) 25.5%, Randi Vestergaard EVALDSEN (D) 19.5%, other 27.8%

  • Grenada

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Cecile LA GRENADE (since 7 May 2013)

    head of government: Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 20 February 2013)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

  • Guam

    chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

    head of government: Governor Lourdes LEON GUERRERO (since 7 January 2019); Lieutenant Governor Josh TENORIO (since 7 January 2019)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor with the consent of the Legislature

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state to serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Guam, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 8 November 2022 (next to be held in November 2026)

    election results: Lourdes LEON GUERRERO reelected governor; percent of vote -  Lourdes LEON GUERRERO (Democratic Party) 55%, Felix CAMACHO (Republican Party) 44%; Josh TENORIO (Democratic Party) elected lieutenant governor

  • Guatemala

    chief of state: President Alejandro GIAMMATTEI (since 14 January 2020); Vice President Cesar Guillermo CASTILLO Reyes (since 14 January 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Alejandro GIAMMATTEI (since 14 January 2020); Vice President Cesar Guillermo CASTILLO Reyes (since 14 January 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (not eligible for consecutive terms); election last held on 16 June 2019 with a runoff on 11 August 2019 (next to be held in June 2023)

    election results:
    2019:
    Alejandro GIAMMATTEI elected president; percent of vote in first round - Sandra TORRES (UNE) 25.5%, Alejandro GIAMMATTEI (VAMOS) 14%, Edmond MULET (PHG) 11.2%, Thelma CABRERA (MLP) 10.4%, Roberto ARZU (PAN-PODEMOS) 6.1%, other 32.8%; percent of vote in second round - Alejandro GIAMMATTEI (VAMOS) 58%, Sandra TORRES (UNE) 42%

    2015: Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera (FNC) 23.9%, Sandra TORRES (UNE) 19.8%, Manuel BALDIZON (LIDER) 19.6%, other 36.7%; percent of vote in second round - Jimmy Ernesto MORALES Cabrera 67.4%, Sandra TORRES 32.6%

  • Guernsey

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Lieutenant-Governor Vice Admiral Ian CORDER (since 14 March 2016)

    head of government: Chief Minister Peter FERBRACHE (since 16 October 2020); Bailiff Richard McMAHON (since 11 May 2020); note - the chief minister is the president of the Policy and Resources Committee and is the de facto head of government; the Policy and Resources Committee, elected by the States of Deliberation, functions as the executive; the 5 members all have equal voting rights

    cabinet: none

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch; chief minister, who is the president of the Policy and Resources Committee indirectly elected by the States of Deliberation for a 4-year term; last held on 6 May 2016 (next to be held in June 2020)

    election results: 2020: Peter FERBRACHE (independent) elected president of the Policy and Resources Committee and chief minister: percent of States of Guernsey vote - 57.5%

    2016:
     Gavin ST. PIER (independent) elected president of the Policy and Resources Committee and chief minister

  • Guinea

    chief of state: President Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA (since 1 October 2021); note - on 5 September 2021, Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA led a military coup in which President CONDE was arrested and detained, the constitution suspended, and the government and People's National Assembly dissolved; on 1 October 2021, DOUMBOUYA was sworn in as transitional president

    head of government: Prime Minister Bernard GOMOU (since 20 August 2022); note - GOMOU had been acting prime minister since 16 July 2022 replacing Mohamed BEAVOGUI who stepped down due to health reasons

    cabinet: formerly, the Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the 5 September 2021 military coup arrested and detained the president, suspended the constitution, and dissolved the government and legislature

    elections/appointments: formerly, the president was directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term) and the prime minister appointed by the president; election last held on 18 October 2020; note - a new election time table has not been announced by the transitional government

    election results: in the election of 18 October 2020, Alpha CONDE reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Alpha CONDE (RPG) 59.5%, Cellou Dalein DIALLO (UFDG) 33.5%, other 7%; note - following the military coup of 5 September 2021, coup leader Col. Mamady DOUMBOUYA was sworn in as transitional president on 1 October 2021

  • Guinea-Bissau

    chief of state: President Umaro Sissoko EMBALO (since 27 February 2020); note - President EMBALO was declared winner of the 29 December 2019 runoff presidential election by the electoral commission, in late February 2020, EMBALO inaugurated himself with only military leadership present, even though the Supreme Court of Justice had yet to rule on an electoral litigation appeal lodged by his political rival Domingos Simoes PEREIRA

    head of government: Prime Minister Nuno NABIAM (since 27 February 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for up to 2 consecutive 5-year terms; election last held on 24 November 2019 with a runoff on 29 December 2019 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the National People's Assembly; note - the president cannot apply for a third consecutive term

    election results: Umaro Sissoco EMBALO elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Domingos Simoes PEREIRA (PAIGC) 40.1%, Umaro Sissoco EMBALO (Madem G15) 27.7%, Nuno Gomez NABIAM (APU-PDGB) 13.2%, Jose Mario VAZ (independent) 12.4%, other 6.6%; percent of vote in second round - Umaro Sissoco EMBALO 53.6%, Domingos Simoes PEREIRA 46.5% (2019)

  • Guyana

    chief of state: President Mohammed Irfaan ALI (since 2 August 2020); First Vice President Mark PHILLIPS (since 2 August 2020); Vice President Bharrat JAGDEO (since 2 August 2020); Prime Minister Mark PHILLIPS (since 2 August 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Mohammed Irfaan ALI (since 2 August 2020); First Vice President Mark PHILLIPS (since 2 August 2020); Vice President Bharrat JAGDEO (since 2 August 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: the predesignated candidate of the winning party in the last National Assembly election becomes president for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 2 March 2020 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results:
    2020: Mohammed Irfaan ALI (PPP/C) designated president by the majority party in the National Assembly

    2015: David GRANGER (APNU-AFC) designated president by the majority party in the National Assembly

  • Haiti

    chief of state: President (vacant); note - Prime Minister Ariel HENRY assumed executive responsibilities, including naming Cabinet members, following the assassination of President MOISE on 7 July 2021; new elections have not yet been scheduled

    head of government: Prime Minister Ariel HENRY (since 20 July 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president; parliament must ratify the Cabinet and Prime Minister's governing policy

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a single non-consecutive term); last election had been originally scheduled for 9 October 2016 but was postponed until 20 November 2016 due to Hurricane Matthew

    election results:
    2016: Jovenel MOISE elected president in first round; percent of vote - Jovenel MOISE (PHTK) 55.6%, Jude CELESTIN (LAPEH) 19.6%, Jean-Charles MOISE (PPD) 11%, Maryse NARCISSE (FL) 9%; other 4.8%

    2011: Michel MARTELLY elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Michel MARTELLY (Peasant's Response) 68%, Mirlande MANIGAT (RDNP) 32%

  • Holy See (Vatican City)

    chief of state: Pope FRANCIS (since 13 March 2013)

    head of government: President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City and President of the Governorate of the Vatican City State is Fernando Vergez Alzaga (since 1 October 2021)

    cabinet: Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City appointed by the pope

    elections/appointments: pope elected by the College of Cardinals, usually for life or until voluntary resignation; election last held on 13 March 2013 (next to be held after the death or resignation of the current pope); Secretary of State appointed by the pope

    election results: 2013: Jorge Mario BERGOGLIO, former Archbishop of Buenos Aires, elected Pope FRANCIS

  • Honduras

    chief of state: President Iris Xiomara CASTRO de Zelaya (since 27 January 2022); Vice Presidents Salvador NASRALLA, Doris GUTIERREZ, and Renato FLORENTINO (since 27 January 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; CASTRO is Honduras' first female president

    head of government: President Iris Xiomara CASTRO de Zelaya (since 27 January 2022); Vice Presidents Salvador NASRALLA, Doris GUTIERREZ, and Renato FLORENTINO (since 27 January 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term; election last held on 28 November 2021 (next to be held in 30 November 2025); note - in 2015, the Constitutional Chamber of the Honduran Supreme Court struck down the constitutional provisions on presidential term limits

    election results:
    2021: Iris Xiomara CASTRO de Zelaya elected president; percent of vote - Iris Xiomara CASTRO de Zelaya (LIBRE) 51.1%, Nasry Juan ASFURA Zablah (PNH) 36.9%, Yani Benjamin ROSENTHAL Hidalgo (PL) 10%, other 2%

    2017:
    Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado reelected president; percent of vote - Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (PNH) 43%, Salvador NASRALLA (Alianza de Oposicion contra la Dictadura) 41.4%, Luis Orlando ZELAYA Medrano (PL) 14.7%, other 0.9%

  • Hong Kong

    chief of state: President of China XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013)

    head of government: Chief Executive John LEE Ka-chieu (since 1 July 2022)

    cabinet: Executive Council or ExCo appointed by the chief executive

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2023); chief executive indirectly elected by the Election Committee and appointed by the PRC Government for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 8 May 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

    election results: 2022: John LEE was the only candidate and won with over 99% of the vote by the Election Committee

    2017: Election Committee vote - Carrie LAM (non-partisan) 777, John TSANG (non-partisan) 365, WOO Kwok-hing (non-partisan) 21, 23 ballots rejected (1,186 votes cast)

    note: electoral changes that Beijing imposed in March 2021 expanded the Election Committee to 1,500 members

  • Hungary

    chief of state: President Katalin NOVAK (since 10 May 2022)

    head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)

    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in first round or simple majority vote in second round for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 March 2022 (next to be held spring 2027); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held on 3 April 2022 (next to be held April or May 2027)

    election results: 2022: Katalin NOVAK (Fidesz) elected president; National Assembly vote - 137 to 51

    2017:
    Janos ADER (Fidesz) reelected president; National Assembly vote - 131 to 39

    2010: Viktor ORBAN (Fidesz) reelected prime minister

  • Iceland

    chief of state: President Gudni Thorlacius JOHANNESSON (since 1 August 2016)

    head of government: Prime Minister Katrin JAKOBSDOTTIR (since 30 November 2017)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (no term limits); election last held on 27 June 2020 (next to be held in 2024); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition becomes prime minister

    election results: 2020: Gudni Thorlacius JOHANNESSON reelected president; percent of vote - Gudni Thorlacius JOHANNESSON (independent) 92.2%, Gudmundur Franklin JONSSON (independent) 7.8%

    2016: Gudni Thorlacius JOHANNESSON elected president; Gudni Thorlacius JOHANNESSON (independent) 39.1%, Halla TOMASDOTTIR (independent) 27.9%, Andri Snær  MAGNASON (Democracy Movement) 14.3%, Davíd ODDSSON (independent) 13.7%, other 5%

  • India

    chief of state: President Ram Nath KOVIND (since 25 July 2017); Vice President M. Venkaiah NAIDU (since 11 August 2017) 

    head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014) 

    cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 17 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 5 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by Lok Sabha members of the majority party

    election results: Ram Nath KOVIND elected president; percent of electoral college vote - Ram Nath KOVIND (BJP) 65.7% Meira KUMAR (INC) 34.3%; M. Venkaiah NAIDU elected vice president; electoral college vote - M. Venkaiah NAIDU (BJP) 516, Gopalkrishna GANDHI (independent) 244

  • Indonesia

    chief of state: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Joko "Jokowi" WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 April 2019 (next election 2024)

    election results: 2019: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 55.5%, PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo (GERINDRA) 44.5%

    2014: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 53.15%, PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo (GERINDRA) 46.85%

  • Iran

    chief of state: Supreme Leader Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)

    head of government: President Ebrahim RAISI (since 18 June 2021); First Vice President Mohammad MOKHBER (since 8 August 2021)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president with legislative approval; the supreme leader has some control over appointments to several ministries

    elections/appointments: supreme leader appointed for life by Assembly of Experts; president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term and an additional nonconsecutive term); election last held on 18 June 2021 (next to be held in June 2025)

    election results: 2021: Ebrahim RAISI elected president; percent of vote - Ebrahim RAISI (CCA) 72.4%, Mohsen REZAI (RFII) 13.8%, Abbdolnaser HEMATI (ECP) 9.8%, Amir-Hosein Qazizadeh-HASHEMI (Islamic Law Party) 4%

    2017: Hasan Fereidun RUHANI reelected president; percent of vote - Hasan Fereidun RUHANI (Moderation and Development Party) 58.8%, Ebrahim RAISI (Combat Clergy Association) 39.4% , Mostafa Mir-SALIM Islamic Coalition Party) 1.2%, Mostafa HASHEMI-TABA (Executives of Construction Party) 0.5%

    note: 3 oversight bodies are also considered part of the executive branch of government

  • Iraq

    chief of state: President Abdul Latif RASHID (since 13 October 2022; vice presidents (vacant)

    head of government: Prime Minister-Designate Mohammed Shia al-SUDANI (since 13 October 2022)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, approved by Council of Representatives

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Council of Representatives (COR) to serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); COR parliamentary election for president last held on 13 October 2022 (next to be held in 2026)

    election results: 2022: COR vote in first round - Abdul Latif RASHID (PUK) 157, Barham SALIH (PUK) 99; Abdul Latif RASHID elected president in second round - Abdul latif RASHID 167, Barham SALIH 99

    2018:
    COR vote in first round - Barham SALIH (PUK) 165, Fuad HUSAYN (KDP) 90; Barham SALIH elected president in second round - Barham SALIH 219, Fuad HUSAYN 22; note - the COR vote on 1 October 2018 failed due to a lack of quorum, and a new session was held on 2 October 2018

    2014: 
    Fuad MASUM elected president in first round; COR vote - Fuad MASUM (PUK) 211, Barham SALIH (PUK) 17; Haydar al-ABADI (Da'wa Party) approved as prime minister

  • Ireland

    chief of state: President Michael D. HIGGINS (since 11 November 2011)

    head of government: Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Micheál MARTIN (since 27 June 2020); note - MARTIN will serve through December 2022 and will then be succeeded by Leo VARADKAR

    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, approved by the Dali Eireann (lower house of Parliament)

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 October 2018 (next to be held no later than November 2025); taoiseach (prime minister) nominated by the House of Representatives (Dail Eireann), appointed by the president

    election results: 2018: Michael D. HIGGINS reelected president; percent of vote - Michael D. HIGGINS (independent) 55.8%, Peter CASEY (independent) 23.3%, Sean GALLAGHER (independent) 6.4%, Liadh NI RIADA (Sinn Fein) 6.4%, Joan FREEMAN (independent) 6%, Gavin DUFFY (independent) 2.2%

    2011: Michael D. HIGGINS elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Michael D. HIGGINS (Labor) 39.6%, Sean GALLAGHER (independent) 28.5%, Martin McGuinness (Sinn Féin) 13.7%, Gay Mitchell (Fine Gael) 6.4%, David Norris (independent) 6.2%, Mary DAVIS (independent) 2.7%; percent of vote in second round - Michael D. HIGGINS 56.8%, Sean GALLAGHER 35.5%

  • Isle of Man

    chief of state: Lord of Mann King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir John LORIMER (since 29 September 2021)

    head of government: Chief Minister Alfred CANNAN (since 12 October 2021)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the lieutenant governor

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister indirectly elected by the Tynwald for a 5-year term (eligible for second term); election last held on 23 September 2021 (next to be held in 2026)

    election results: 2021: Alfred CANNAN (independent) elected chief minister; Tynwald House of Keys vote - 21 of 24

    2016: Howard QUAYLE elected chief minister; Tynwald House of Keys vote - 21 of 33

  • Israel

    chief of state: President Isaac HERZOG (since 7 July 2021)

    head of government: on 13 November 2022, President HERZOG tasked Benjamin NETANYHU with forming a new government

    cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Knesset for a single 7-year term; election last held on 2 June 2021 (next to be held in June 2028); following legislative elections, the president, in consultation with party leaders, tasks a Knesset member (usually the member of the largest party) with forming a new government

    election results: 2021: Issac HERZOG elected president; Knesset vote - Issac HERZOG (independent) 87, Miriam PERETZ (independent) 26, invalid/blank 7

  • Italy

    chief of state: President Sergio MATTARELLA (since 3 February 2015)

    head of government: Prime Minister Giorgia MELONI (since 22 October 2022); the prime minister's official title is President of the Council of Ministers

    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, known officially as the President of the Council of Ministers and locally as the Premier; nominated by the president; the current deputy prime ministers, known officially as vice presidents of the Council of Ministers, are Matteo SALVINI (L) and Luigi Di MAIO (M5S) (since 1 June 2018)

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 24-29 January 2022 (eight rounds) (next to be held in 2029); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by parliament

    election results: 2022: Sergio MATTARELLA (independent) reelected president; electoral college vote count in eighth round - 759 out of 1,009 (505 vote threshold)

    2015: Sergio MATTARELLA (independent) elected president; electoral college vote count in fourth round - 665 out of 995 (505 vote threshold)

  • Jamaica

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Sir Patrick L. ALLEN (since 26 February 2009)

    head of government: Prime Minister Andrew HOLNESS (since 3 March 2016)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general

  • Japan

    chief of state: Emperor NARUHITO (since 1 May 2019); note - succeeds his father who abdicated on 30 April 2019

    head of government: Prime Minister Fumio KISHIDA (since 4 October 2021 )

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister

    election results: Fumio KISHIDA relected prime minister on 10 November 2021 by the lower house with 297 votes against 108 for Yukio EDANO and in the upper houese 141 for KISHIDA and 60 for EDANO 

  • Jersey

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir Stephen DALTON (since 13 March 2017)

    head of government: Chief Minister John LE FONDRE (since 8 June 2018); Bailiff Timothy Le COCQ (since 17 October 2019)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed individually by the states

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; Council of Ministers, including the chief minister, indirectly elected by the Assembly of States; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch

  • Jordan

    chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HUSSEIN (eldest son of the monarch, born on 28 June 1994)

    head of government: Prime Minister Bisher AL-KHASAWNEH (since 7 October 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch prime minister in consultation with the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

  • Kazakhstan

    chief of state: President Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV (since 20 March 2019); note - Nursultan NAZARBAYEV, who was president since 24 April 1990 (and in power since 22 June 1989 under the Soviet Union), resigned on 20 March 2019; NAZARBAYEV retained the title and powers of "First President"; TOKAYEV completed NAZARBAYEV's term, which was shortened due to the early election of 9 June 2019, and then continued as president following his election victory

    head of government: Prime Minister Alikhan SMAILOV (since 11 January 2022); note - Prime Minister Askar MAMIN resigned on 5 January 2022 in the wake of massive protests of his government that began 2 January 2022 following a sudden, steep rise in gasoline prices

    cabinet: the president appoints ministers after consultations with the Chair of the Security Council; the president has veto power over all appointments except for the ministers of defense, internal affairs, and foreign affairs; however, the president is required to discuss these three offices with the National Security Committee

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 9 June 2019 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Mazhilis

    election results: 2019: Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV elected president; percent of vote - Kasym-Zhomart TOKAYEV (Nur Otan) 71%, Amirzhan KOSANOV (Ult Tagdyry) 16.2%, Daniya YESPAYEVA (Ak Zhol) 5.1%, other 7.7%

    1991: Nursultan NAZARBAYEV elected the first president of Kazakhstan; percent of vote 98.8%, other 1.2%

     

  • Kenya

    chief of state: President William RUTO (since 13 September 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President William RUTO (since 13 September 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, subject to confirmation by the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: president and deputy president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving an absolute majority popular vote, the presidential candidate must also win at least 25% of the votes cast in at least 24 of the 47 counties to avoid a runoff; election last held on 9 August 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

    election results: 2017: Uhuru KENYATTA reelected president; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA (Jubilee Party) 98.3%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 1%, other 0.7%; note - Kenya held a previous presidential election on 8 August 2017, but Kenya's Supreme Court on 1 September 2017 nullified the results, citing irregularities; the political opposition boycotted the October vote

    2013:  Uhuru KENYATTA elected president in first round; percent of vote - Uhuru KENYATTA (TNA) 50.1%, Raila ODINGA (ODM) 43.7%, Musalia MUDAVADI (UDF) 4.0%, other 2.2%

  • Kiribati

    chief of state: President Taneti MAAMAU (since 11 March 2016); Vice President Teuea TOATU (since 19 June 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Taneti MAAMAU (since 11 March 2016); Vice President Teuea TOATU (since 19 June 2019)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among House of Assembly members

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote following nomination of candidates from among House of Assembly members; term is 4 years (eligible for 2 additional terms); election last held on 22 June 2020 (next to be held in 2024); vice president appointed by the president

    election results: Taneti MAAMAU reelected president; percent of vote - Taneti MAAMAU (TKB) 59.3%, Banuera BERINA (BKM) 40.7%.

  • Korea, North

    chief of state: State Affairs Commission President KIM Jong Un (since 17 December 2011); note - North Korea revised its constitution in 2019 to define "the Chairman of the State Affairs Commission" as "the supreme leader who represents the state"; functions as the commander-in-chief and chief executive; the specific titles associated with this office have changed multiple times under KIM's tenure, however, KIM Jong Un has been supreme leader since his father's death in 2011

    head of government: Supreme People's Assembly President CHOE Ryong Hae (since 11 April 2019); note - functions as the technical head of state and performs related duties, such as receiving ambassadors' credentials (2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet or Naegak members appointed by the Supreme People's Assembly except the Minister of People's Armed Forces

    elections/appointments: chief of state and premier indirectly elected by the Supreme People's Assembly; election last held on 10 March 2019 (next to be held in March 2024)

    election results: KIM Jong Un reelected unopposed

    note: the Korean Workers' Party continues to list deceased leaders KIM Il Sung and KIM Jong Il as Eternal President and Eternal General Secretary respectively

  • Korea, South

    chief of state: President YOON Suk Yeol (since 10 May 2022); the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister HAN Deok-Soo (since 21 May 2022) serves as the principal executive assistant to the president, similar to the role of a vice president

    head of government: President YOON Suk Yeol (since 10 May 2022)

    cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime minister's recommendation

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 5-year term; election last held on 9 March 2022 (next to be held March 2027); prime minister appointed by president with consent of National Assembly

    election results: 2022: YOON Suk-yeol (PPP) 48.56%, LEE Jae-myung (DP) 47.83% (note - voter turnout 77.1%)

    2017: MOON Jae-in (DP) 41.09%, HONG joon-pyo (Liberty Korea Party) 24.04%, AHN Cheol-soo (PP) 21.42%

  • Kosovo

    chief of state: President Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu (since 4 April 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Albin KURTI (since 22 March 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Assembly

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly for a 5-year term; if a candidate does not attain a two-thirds threshold in the first two ballots, the candidate winning a simple majority vote in the third ballot is elected (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3-4 April 2021 (next to be held in 2026); prime minister indirectly elected by the Assembly

    election results: 2021:  Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu elected president in the third ballot; Assembly vote - Vjosa OSMANI-Sadriu (Guxo!) 71 votes; Albin KURTI (LVV) elected prime minister; Assembly vote - 67-30

    2016: Hashim THACI elected president in third ballot; Assembly vote - Hashim THACI (PDK) 71 votes; Ramush HARADINAJ (AAK) elected prime minister; Assembly vote - 61 votes

  • Kuwait

    chief of state: Ahmad al-NAWAF al-Sabah (since 24 July 2022); Crown Prince Mishal al-AHMAD al-Sabah, born in 1940, is the brother of Amir Nawaf al-AHMAD al-Jabir al-Sabah

    head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh Muhammad al-Sabah al-SALIM al-Sabah (since 19 July 2022); First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior Sheikh Ahmed al-NAWAF al-Sabah (since 22 March 2022), Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense Sheikh Talal al-KHALID al-Sabah (since 1 August 2022), and Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Oil and Minister of State for Cabinet Affairs Dr. Mohammed al-FARIS (since 22 March 2022)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by the amir

    elections/appointments: amir chosen from within the ruling family, confirmed by the National Assembly; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the amir; crown prince appointed by the amir and approved by the National Assembly

  • Kyrgyzstan

    chief of state: President Sadyr JAPAROV (since 28 January 2021)

    head of government: President Sadyr JAPAROV (since 28 January 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 January 2021 (next to be held in 2027)

    election results: 2021: Sadyr JAPAROV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Sadyr JAPAROV (Mekenchil) 79.2%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (United Kyrgyzstan) 6.8%, other 14%

    2017: Sooronbay JEENBEKOV elected president; Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (Social Democratic Party of Kosovo) 54.7%, Omurbek BABANOV (independent) 33.8%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (United Kyrgyzstan) 6.6%, and other 4.9%

    note: the President is both Chief of State and Head of Government.

  • Laos

    chief of state: President THONGLOUN Sisoulit (since 22 March 2021); Vice Presidents PANI Yathotou and BOUNTHONG Chitmani (since 22 March 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister PHANKHAM Viphavan (since 22 March 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers CHANSAMON Chan-gnalat, SONXAI Siphandon, KIKEO Khaikhamphithoun (since 22 March 2021); VILAI Lakhamfong, SALEUMXAI Kommasit (since June 2022)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 22 March 2021 (next to be held in March 2026); prime minister nominated by the president, elected by the National Assembly for 5-year term

    election results:
    2021:
    THONGLOUN Sisoulit (LPRP) elected president; National Assembly vote: 161-1; PANI Yathotou and BOUNTHONG Chitmani (LPRP) elected vice presidents; National Assembly vote NA; PHANKHAM Viphavan (LPRP) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote: 158-3

    2016: BOUNNYANG Vorachit (LPRP) elected president; PHANKHAM Viphavan (LPRP) elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA; THONGLOUN Sisoulit (LPRP) elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - NA

  • Latvia

    chief of state: President Egils LEVITS (since 8 July 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Krisjanis KARINS (since 23 January 2019)

    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by Parliament

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Parliament for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 May 2019 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by Parliament

    election results: 2019: Egils LEVITS elected president; Parliament vote - Egils LEVITS 61 votes, Didzis SMITS 24 votes, Juris JANSONS 8 votes; Krisjanis KARINS confirmed prime minister 61-39

    2015: Raimonds VEJONIS elected president; Raimonds VEJOONIS 55 votes, Egils LEVITS 42 votes

  • Lebanon

    chief of state: President Michel AWN (since 31 October 2016)

    head of government: Prime Minister Najib MIQATI (since 20 September 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president and Parliament

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Parliament with two-thirds majority vote in the first round and if needed absolute majority vote in a second round for a 6-year term (eligible for non-consecutive terms); last held on 31 October 2016 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with Parliament; deputy prime minister determined during cabinet formation

    election results: 2022: on 10 November 2022, Parliament in its fifth session failed to elect a president; next session is called for November 17

    2016:
    Michel AWN elected president in second round; National Assembly vote - Michel AWN (FPM) 83 votes; note - in the initial election held on 23 April 2014, no candidate received the required two-thirds vote, and subsequent attempts failed because Parliament lacked the necessary quorum of 86 members to hold a vote; the president was finally elected in its 46th attempt on 31 October 2016

  • Lesotho

    chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996); note - King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from November 1990 to February 1995 while his father was in exile

    head of government: Prime Minister Ntsokoane Samuel MATEKANE (4 November 2022)

    cabinet: consists of the prime minister, appointed by the King on the advice of the Council of State, the deputy prime minister, and 26 other ministers

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary, but under the terms of the constitution that came into effect after the March 1993 election, the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" with no executive or legislative powers; under traditional law, the College of Chiefs has the power to depose the monarch, to determine next in line of succession, or to serve as regent in the event that a successor is not of mature age; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the Assembly automatically becomes prime minister

  • Liberia

    chief of state: President George WEAH (since 22 January 2018); Vice President Jewel HOWARD-TAYLOR (since 22 January 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President George WEAH (since 22 January 2018); Vice President Jewel HOWARD-TAYLOR (since 22 January 2018)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, confirmed by the Senate

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 October 2017 with a run-off on 26 December 2017 (next to be held on 10 October 2023); the runoff originally scheduled for 7 November 2017 was delayed due to allegations of fraud in the first round, which the Supreme Court dismissed (2017)

    election results: George WEAH elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - George WEAH (Coalition for Democratic Change) 38.4%, Joseph BOAKAI (UP) 28.8%, Charles BRUMSKINE (LP) 9.6%, Prince JOHNSON (MDR) 8.2%, Alexander B. CUMMINGS (ANC) 7.2%, other 7.8%; percentage of vote in second round - George WEAH 61.5%, Joseph BOAKAI 38.5%

  • Libya

    chief of state: Chairman, Presidential Council, Mohammed Al MENFI (since 5 February 2021)

    head of government: Interim Prime Minister Abdul Hamid DUBAYBAH (since 5 February 2021)

    elections/appointments:

    Libya’s first direct presidential election, scheduled for 24 December 2021, was not held

  • Liechtenstein

    chief of state: Prince HANS-ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers on 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent and Regent of Liechtenstein Prince ALOIS (son of the monarch, born 11 June 1968); note - 15 August 2004, HANS-ADAM II transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS-ADAM II retains status of chief of state

    head of government: Prime Minister Daniel RISCH; Deputy Prime Minister Sabine MONAUNI (both since 25 March 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Parliament usually appointed the head of government by the monarch, and the leader of the largest minority party in the Landtag usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch if there is a coalition government

  • Lithuania

    chief of state: President Gitanas NAUSEDA (since 12 July 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Ingrida SIMONYTE (since 24 November 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by Parliament

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 and 26 May 2019 (next to be held in May 2024); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by Parliament

    election results: 2019: Gitanas NAUSEDA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Gitanas NAUSEDA (independent) 66.7%, Ingrida SIMONYTE (independent) 33.3%; Saulius SKVERNELIS (LVZS) approved as prime minister by Parliament vote - 62 to 10

    2009: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE elected president; Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE 69.1%, Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS 11.8%, Valentinas MAZURONIS 6.2%, Valdemar TOMASEVSKI 4.7%, and other 8.2%




      

  • Luxembourg

    chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)

    head of government: Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Francois BAUSCH (since 11 October 2019); Deputy Prime Minister Daniel KERSCH (since 4 February 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the monarch

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

  • Macau

    chief of state: President of China XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013)

    head of government: Chief Executive HO lat Seng (since 20 December 2019)

    cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the chief executive

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2023); chief executive chosen by a 400-member Election Committee for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 August 2019 (next to be held in 2024)

    election results: 2019: HO Iat Seng (unopposed; received 392 out of 400 votes) 

    2014: Fernando CHUI Sai (unopposed; received 380 of 396 votes)

  • Madagascar

    chief of state: President Andry RAJOELINA (since 21 January 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Christian NTSAY (since 6 June 2018)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 November and 19 December 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly, appointed by the president

    election results: 2018: Andry RAJOELINA elected President in second round; percent of vote in first round - Andry RAJOELINA (TGV) 39.2%, Marc RAVALOMANANA (TIM) 35.4%, other 25.4%; percent of vote in second round - Andry RAJOELINA (TGV) 55.7%, Marc RAVALOMANANA (TIM) 44.3%

    2013
    : Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA (HVM) 15.9%, Jean Louis ROBINSON (AVANA) 21.1%, other 63%; percent of vote in second round - Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA (HVM) 53.5%, Jean Louis ROBINSON (AVANA) 46.5%

  • Malawi

    chief of state: President Lazarus CHAKWERA (since 28 June 2020); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 3 February 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Lazarus CHAKWERA (since 28 June 2020); Vice President Saulos CHILIMA (since 3 February 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet named by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 June 2020 (next to be held in 2025)

    election results: Lazarus CHAKWERA elected president; Lazarus CHAKWERA (MCP) 59.3%, Peter Mutharika (DPP) 39.9%, other 0.8% (2020)

  • Malaysia

    chief of state: King Sultan ABDULLAH Sultan Ahmad Shah (since 24 January 2019); note - King MUHAMMAD V (formerly known as TUANKU Muhammad FARIS Petra) (selected on 14 October 2016; installed on 13 December 2016) resigned on 6 January 2019; the position of the king is primarily ceremonial, but he is the final arbiter on the appointment of the prime minister

    head of government: Prime Minister ISMAIL SABRI Yaakob (since 21 August 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament with the consent of the king

    elections/appointments: king elected by and from the hereditary rulers of 9 states for a 5-year term; election is on a rotational basis among rulers of the 9 states; election last held on 24 January 2019 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister designated from among members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister

  • Maldives

    chief of state: President Ibrahim "Ibu" Mohamed SOLIH (since 17 November 2018); Vice President Faisal NASEEM (since 17 November 2018); the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Ibrahim "Ibu" Mohamed SOLIH (since 17 November 2018); Vice President Faisal NASEEM (since 17 November 2018)

    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by Parliament

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 September 2018 (next to be held in 2023)

    election results: 2018: Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH elected president (in the first round); Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH (MDP) 58.3%, Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom (PPM) 41.7%

  • Mali

    chief of state: Transition President Assimi GOITA (since 7 June 2021); note - an August 2020 coup d'etat deposed President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA; on 21 September 2020, a group of 17 electors chosen by the Malian military junta, known as the National Committee for the Salvation of the People (CNSP) and led by Colonel Assimi GOITA, selected Bah NDAW as transition president; GOITA served as vice president of the transitional government which was inaugurated on 25 September 2020; Vice President GOITA seized power on 25 May 2021; NDAW resigned on 26 May 2021; on 6 June 2022, GOITA's government announced a transition period of 24 months with a return to civilian rule effective March 2024

    head of government: Transition Prime Minister Choguel MAIGA (appointed by Transitional President Assimi GOITA on 7 June 2021)

    note: former transition Prime Minister Moctar OUANE was arrested and detained by the military on 24 May 2021 and resigned on 26 May 2021

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 July 2018 with runoff on 12 August 2018; prime minister appointed by the president; note - on 21 February 2022, the transition government adopted a charter allowing transition authorities to rule for up to 5 years; thereafter transition President GOITA is barred from being a candidate in presidential elections.

    election results: 2018: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 41.7%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 17.8%, other 40.5%; percent of vote in second round - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 67.2%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 32.8%

    2013: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 39.8%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 19.7%, other 40.5%; percent of vote in second round - Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (RPM) 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE (URD) 22.4%

  • Malta

    chief of state: President George VELLA (since 4 April 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Robert ABELA (13 January 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the House of Representatives for a single 5-year term; election last held on 2 April 2019 (next to be held by April 2024); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president for a 5-year term; deputy prime minister appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

    election results: 2019: George VELLA (PL) elected president; House of Representatives vote - unanimous; 2020: Robert ABELA (PL) appointed prime minister

    2014: Maria Louise Coleiro PRECO elected president; House of Representatives vote - unanimous

  • Marshall Islands

    chief of state: President David KABUA (since  13 January 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President David KABUA (since 13 January 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president from among members of the Nitijela, appointed by Nitijela speaker

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Nitijela from among its members for a 4-year term (no term limits); election last held on 6 January 2020 (next to be held in 2024)

    election results: David KABUA elected president; Parliament vote - David KABUA 20, Hilda C. HEINE 12

  • Mauritania

    chief of state: President Mohamed Ould Cheikh el GHAZOUANI (since 1 August 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed Ould BILAL (since 6 August 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers - nominees suggested by the prime minister, appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 June 2019 (next to be held on 22 June 2024); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: 2019: Mohamed Ould Cheikh El GHAZOUANI elected president in first round; percent of vote - Mahamed Ould Cheikh El GHAZOUANI (UPR) 52%, Biram Dah Ould ABEID (independent) 18.6%, Sidi Mohamed Ould BOUBACAR (independent) 17.9%, other 11.5%

    2014: Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ elected president in first round; percent of vote - Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ (UPR) 81.9%, Biram Dah ABEID (IRA) 8.7%, Boidiel Ould HOUMEIT (El Wiam) 4.5%, Ibrahima Moctar SARR (SJD/MR) 4.4%, other 0.5% 

  • Mauritius

    chief of state: President Pritivirajsing ROOPUN (since 2 December 2019); Vice President Marie Cyril EDDY Boissézon (since 2 December 2019); note - President Ameenah GURIB-FAKIM, the country's first female president, resigned on 23 March 2018 amid a credit card scandal; Acting Presidents served from March 2018 until ROOPUN's appointment in 2019

    head of government: Prime Minister Pravind JUGNAUTH (since 23 January 2017); note - Prime Minister Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH stepped down on 23 January 2017 in favor of his son, Pravind Kumar JUGNAUTH, who was then appointed prime minister; following 7 November 2019 parliamentary elections, Pravind JUGNAUTH remained prime minister and home affairs minister and also became defense minister

    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers (Council of Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for 5-year renewable terms; election last held on 7 November 2019 (next to be held in 2024); the president appoints the prime minister and deputy prime minister who have the majority support in the National Assembly

    election results: 2019: Pritivirajsing ROOPUN (MSM) elected president by the National Assembly - unanimous vote; note - GURIB-FAKIM resigned on 23 March 2018

    2015: Ameenah GURIB-FAKIM (independent) elected president by the National Assembly - unanimous vote; note - GURIB-FAKIM was Mauritius' first female president 

  • Mexico

    chief of state: President Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (since 1 December 2018)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 1 July 2018 (next to be held in July 2024)

    election results:
    2018: Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR elected president; percent of vote - Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (MORENA) 53.2%, Ricardo ANAYA (PAN) 22.3%, Jose Antonio MEADE Kuribrena (PRI) 16.4%, Jaime RODRIGUEZ Calderon 5.2% (independent), other 2.9%

    2012: Enrique PENA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PENA NIETO (PRI) 38.2%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.6%, Josefina Eugenia VAZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.4%, other 4.8%

  • Micronesia, Federated States of

    chief of state: President David W. PANUELO (since 11 May 2019); Vice President Yosiwo P. GEORGE (since 11 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President David W. PANUELO (since 11 May 2019); Vice President Yosiwo P. GEORGE (since 11 May 2015)

    cabinet: Cabinet includes the vice president and the heads of the 8 executive departments

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by Congress from among the 4 'at large' senators for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 May 2019 (next to be held in 2023)

    election results: David W. PANUELO elected president by Congress; Yosiwo P. GEORGE reelected vice president

  • Moldova

    chief of state: President Maia SANDU (since 24 December 2020)

    head of government: Prime Minister Natalia GAVRILITA (since 6 August 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister-designate, nominated by the president, approved through a vote of confidence in Parliament

    elections/appointments: president directly elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 November 2020 (next to be held in fall 2024); prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence for his/her proposed work program from the Parliament

    election results: 2020: Maia SANDU elected president; percent of vote (second round results) - Maia SANDU (PAS) 57.7%, Igor DODON (PSRM) 42.3%

    2016: Igor DODON elected president; percent of vote 52.1%, and Maia SANDU 47.9%

  • Monaco

    chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)

    head of government: Minister of State Pierre DARTOUT (since 1 September 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

  • Mongolia

    chief of state: President Ukhnaagiin KHURELSUKH (since 25 June 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Luvsannamsrai OYUN-ERDENE (since 27 January 2021); Deputy Prime Minister Ulziisaikhan ENKHTUVSHIN (since 18 October 2017)

    cabinet: directly appointed by the prime minister following a constitutional amendment ratified in November 2019; prior to the amendment, the cabinet was nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)

    elections/appointments: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in the State Great Hural and directly elected by simple majority popular vote for one 6-year term; election last held on 9 June 2021; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural

    election results: Ukhnaagiin KHURELSUKH elected president in first round; percent of vote - Ukhnaa KHURELSUKH (Mongolian People's Party) 67.7%, Dangaasuren ENKHBAT (HUN Coalition) 20.31%, Sodnomzundui ERDENE (Democratic Party) 5.99%

  • Montenegro

    chief of state: President Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 20 May 2018)

    head of government: Prime Minister Dritan ABAZOVIC (since 28 April 2022)

    cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 April 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly

    election results: 2018: Milo DJUKANOVIC elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Milo DJUKANOVIC (DPS) 53.9%, Mladen BOJANIC (independent) 33.4%, Draginja VUKSANOVIC (SDP) 8.2%, Marko MILACIC (PRAVA) 2.8%, other 1.7%

    2013: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; percent of vote Filip VUJANOVIC (DPS) 51.2%, Miodrag LEKIC (independent) 48.8%

  • Montserrat

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Andrew PEARCE (since 1 February 2018)

    head of government: Premier Easton TAYLOR-FARRELL (since 19 November 2019); note - effective with the Constitution Order 2010, October 2010, the office of premier replaced the office of chief minister

    cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the premier, 3 other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance secretary

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes premier

  • Morocco

    chief of state: King MOHAMMED VI (since 30 July 1999)

    head of government: Prime Minister Aziz AKHANNOUCH (since 7 October 2021)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the prime minister in consultation with Parliament and appointed by the monarch; the monarch chooses the ministers of Interior, Foreign Affairs, Islamic Affairs, and National Defense Administration

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from the majority party following legislative elections

  • Mozambique

    chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Adriano Afonso MALEIANE (since 3 March 2022); note - President NYUSI removed former Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO from office on 3 March 2022 as part of a cabinet reshuffle

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president elected directly by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2019 (next to be held on 15 October 2024); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: 2019: Filipe NYUSI elected president in first round; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 73.0%, Ossufo MOMADE (RENAMO) 21.9%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 5.1%

    2014:  Filipe NYUSI elected president in first round; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4% 

  • Namibia

    chief of state: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); Vice President Nangola MBUMBA (since 8 February 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); Vice President Nangola MBUMBA (since 8 February 2018); Prime Minister Saara KUUGONGELWA-AMADHILA (since 21 March 2015)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2019 (next to be held in 2024)

    election results: Hage GEINGOB elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Hage GEINGOB (SWAPO) 56.3%, Panduleni ITULA (Independent) 29.4%, McHenry VENAANI (PDM) 5.3%, Bernadus SWARTBOOI (LPM) 2.7%, Apius AUCHAB (UDF) 2.7%, Esther MUINJANGUE (NUDO) 1.5%, other 2% (2019)

  • Nauru

    chief of state: President Russ KUN (since 28 September 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Russ KUN (since 28 September 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of Parliament

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Parliament (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 September 2022 (next to be held in 2025)

    election results:

    Russ KUN elected president unopposed

  • Nepal

    chief of state: President Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (since 29 October 2015); Vice President Nanda Bahadar PUN (since 31 October 2015)

    head of government: Prime Minister Sher Bahadur DEUBA (since 13 July 2021); deputy prime ministers Ishwar POKHREL, Upendra YADAV (since 1 June 2018) (an)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet dominated by the Nepal Communist Party

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of the Federal Parliament and of the state assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 March 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament

    election results: Bidhya Devi BHANDARI reelected president; electoral vote - Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (CPN-UML) 39,275, Kumari Laxmi RAI (NC) 11,730

  • Netherlands

    chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER (since 30 April 2013); Heir Apparent Princess CATHARINA-AMALIA (daughter of King WILLEM-ALEXANDER, born 7 December 2003)

    head of government: Prime Minister Mark RUTTE (since 14 October 2010); Deputy Prime Ministers Sigrid KAAG and Wopke HOEKSTRA (since 10 January 2022) and Carola SCHOUTEN (since 26 October 2017); note - Mark RUTTE heads his fourth cabinet

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers are appointed by the monarch

  • New Caledonia

    chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by High Commissioner Patrice FAURE (since 6 June 2021)

    head of government: President of the Government Louis MAPOU (since 22 July 2021); Vice President Isabelle CHAMPMOREAU (since 22 July 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet elected from and by the Territorial Congress

    elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of New Caledonia elected by Territorial Congress for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 8 July 2021 (next to be held in 2026)

    election results: 2021: Louis MAPOU elected president by Territorial Congress with 6 votes out of 11

    2019: Thieryy SANTA elected president by Territorial Congress

  • New Zealand

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor-General Dame Cindy KIRO (since 21 October 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Jacinda ARDERN (since 26 October 2017); Deputy Prime Minister Grant ROBERTSON (since 2 November 2020)

    cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor-general on the recommendation of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor-general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor-general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor-general

  • Nicaragua

    chief of state: President Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 January 2007); Vice President Rosario MURILLO Zambrana (since 10 January 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 January 2007); Vice President Rosario MURILLO Zambrana (since 10 January 2017)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by qualified plurality vote for a 5-year term (no term limits as of 2014); election last held on 7 November 2021 (next to be held on 1 November 2026)

    election results:
    2021: Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra reelected president for a fourth consecutive term; percent of vote - Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 75.9%, Walter ESPINOZA (PLC) 14.3%, Guillermo OSORNO (CCN) 3.3%, Marcelo MONTIEL (ALN) 3.1%, other 3.4%

    2016:
    Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra reelected president for a third consecutive term; percent of vote - Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 72.4%, Maximino RODRIGUEZ (PLC) 15%, Jose del Carmen ALVARADO (PLI) 4.5%, Saturnino CERRATO Hodgson (ALN) 4.3%, other 3.7%

  • Niger

    chief of state: President Mohamed BAZOUM (since 2 April 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Ouhoumoudou MAHAMADOU (since 3 April 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 27 December 2020 with a runoff held on 21 February 2021 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly

    election results: 2020/2021: percent of vote in first round - Mohamed BAZOUM (PNDS-Tarrayya) 39.3%, Mahamane OUSMANE (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 9%, Albade ABOUDA (MPR-Jamhuriya) 7.1%, other 27.6%; percent of vote in second round - Mohamed BAZOUM (PNDS-Tarrayya) 55.7%, Mahamane OUSMANE (RDR Tchanji) 44.3%

    2016: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%

  • Nigeria

    chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state, head of government, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces

    head of government: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)

    cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president but constrained constitutionally to include at least one member from each of the 36 states

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by qualified majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 February 2019 (next to be held on 25 February 2023)

    election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (APC) 53%, Atiku ABUBAKAR (PDP) 39%, other 8% (2019)

  • Niue

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor-General of New Zealand Cindy KIRO (since 21 October 2021); the UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner Helen TUNNAH (since July 2020)

    head of government: Premier Dalton TAGELAGI (since 10 June 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the premier

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; premier indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly for a 3-year term; election last held on 10 June 2020 (next to be held in 2023)

    election results: Dalton TAGELAGI elected premier; Legislative Assembly vote - Dalton TAGELAGI (independent) 13, O'Love JACOBSEN (independent) 7; Toke TALAGI lost his seat in election

  • Norfolk Island

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General of the Commonwealth of Australia General David HURLEY (since 1 July 2019)

    head of government: Administrator Eric HUTCHINSON (since 1 April 2017)

    cabinet: Executive Council consists of 4 Legislative Assembly members

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia for a 2-year term and represents the monarch and Australia

  • North Macedonia

    chief of state: President Stevo PENDAROVSKI (since 12 May 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Dimitar KOVACEVSKI (since 16 January 2022)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Assembly by simple majority vote

    elections/appointments: president directly elected using a modified 2-round system; a candidate can only be elected in the first round with an absolute majority from all registered voters; in the second round, voter turnout must be at least 40% for the result to be deemed valid; president elected for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 April and 5 May 2019 (next to be held in 2024); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the Assembly; Dimitar KOVACEVSKI elected prime minister by the Assembly on 16 January 2022; Assembly vote - NA

    election results: 2019: Stevo PENDAROVSKI elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 44.8%, Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA (VMRO-DPMNE) 44.2%, Blenim REKA (independent) 11.1%; percent of vote in second round - Stevo PENDAROVSKI 53.6%, Gordana SILJANOVSKA-DAVKOVA 46.4%

    2014: Gjorge IVANOV reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Gjorge IVANOV (VMRO-DPMNE) 53.1%, Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 38.6%, Ilijaz HALIMI (DPA) 4.6%, Zoran POPOVSKI (GROM) 3.7%; percent of vote in second round - Gjorge IVANOV 57.3%, Stevo PENDAROVSKI (SDSM) 42.7%

  • Northern Mariana Islands

    chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

    head of government: Governor Ralph TORRES (since 29 December 2015); Lieutenant Governor Victor HOCOG (since 29 December 2015)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of the Northern Mariana Islands do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican party presidential primary elections; governor directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; election last held on 13 November 2018 (next to be held in 8 November 2022)

    election results: Ralph TORRES elected governor; percent of vote - Ralph TORRES (Republican) 62.2%, Juan BABAUTA (independent) 37.8%;  Arnold PALACIOS (independent) elected Lieutenant Governor

  • Norway

    chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (son of the monarch, born 20 July 1973)

    head of government: Prime Minister Jonas Gahr STORE (since 14 October 2021); note - Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG resigned on 12 October 2021

    cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament

  • Oman

    chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister HAYTHAM bin Tariq bin Taimur Al-Said (since 11 January 2020); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister HAYTHAM bin Tariq bin Taimur Al-Said (since 11 January 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

  • Pakistan

    chief of state: President Arif ALVI (since 9 September 2018)

    head of government: Prime Minister Shehbaz SHARIF (since 11 April 2022); former Prime Minister Imran KHAN on 10 April lost a no-confidence vote in the National Assembly

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a 5-year term (limited to 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 4 September 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on 17 August 2018

    election results: 2018: Arif ALVI elected president; Electoral College vote - Arif ALVI (PTI) 352, Fazl-ur-REHMAN (MMA) 184, Aitzaz AHSAN (PPP) 124; Imran KHAN elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - Imran KHAN (PTI) 176, Shehbaz SHARIF (PML-N) 96

  • Palau

    chief of state: President Surangel WHIPPS Jr. (since 21 January 2021); Vice President Jerrlyn Uduch Sengebau SENIOR (since 21 January 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Surangel WHIPPS Jr. (since 21 January 2021); Vice President Jerrlyn Uduch Sengebau SENIOR (since 21 January 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate; also includes the vice president; the Council of Chiefs consists of chiefs from each of the states who advise the president on issues concerning traditional laws, customs, and their relationship to the constitution and laws of Palau

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on separate ballots by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held in November 2024)

    election results: Surangel WHIPPS, Jr. elected president (in second round); percent of vote - Surangel WHIPPS, Jr. (independent) 56.7%, Raynold OILUCH (independent) 43.3%

  • Panama

    chief of state: President Laurentino "Nito" CORTIZO Cohen (since 1 July 2019); Vice President Jose Gabriel CARRIZO Jaen (since 1 July 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Laurentino "Nito" CORTIZO Cohen (since 1 July 2019); Vice President Jose Gabriel CARRIZO Jaen (since 1 July 2019)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term; president eligible for a single non-consecutive term); election last held on 5 May 2019 (next to be held in 2024)

    election results:
    2019: Laurentino "Nito" CORTIZO Cohen elected president; percent of vote - Laurentino CORTIZO Cohen (PRD) 33.3%, Romulo ROUX (CD) 31%, Ricardo LOMBANA (independent) 18.8%, Jose BLANDON (Panamenista Party) 10.8%, Ana Matilde GOMEZ Ruiloba (independent) 4.8%, other 1.3%

    2014: Juan Carlos VARELA elected president; percent of vote - Juan Carlos VARELA (PP) 39.1%, Jose Domingo ARIAS (CD) 31.4%, Juan Carlos NAVARRO (PRD) 28.2%, other 1.3%

  • Papua New Guinea

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Grand Chief Sir Bob DADAE (since 28 February 2017)

    head of government: Prime Minister James MARAPE (since 30 May 2019); Deputy Prime Minister Sam BASIL (since 20 December 2020)

    cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general nominated by the National Parliament and appointed by the chief of state; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general pending the outcome of a National Parliament vote

    election results: James MARAPE elected prime minister; National Parliament vote - 101 to 8

  • Paraguay

    chief of state: President Mario ABDO BENITEZ (since 15 August 2018); Vice President Hugo Adalberto VELAZQUEZ Moreno (since 15 August 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Mario ABDO BENITEZ (since 15 August 2018); Vice President Hugo Adalberto VELAZQUEZ Moreno (since 15 August 2018)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a single 5-year term; election last held on 22 April 2018 (next to be held in April 2023)

    election results:
    2018: Mario ABDO BENITEZ elected president; percent of vote - Mario ABDO BENITEZ (ANR) 49%, Efrain ALEGRE (PLRA) 45.1%, Juan Bautista YBANEZ 3.4%, other 2.5%

    2013: Horacio CARTES elected president; percent of vote - Horacio CARTES (ANR) 48.5%, Efrain ALEGRE (PLRA) 39%, Mario FERREIRO (AP) 6.2%, Anibal CARRILLO (FG) 3.5%, other 2.8%

  • Peru

    chief of state: President Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones (since 28 July 2021); First Vice President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra (since 28 July 2021); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones (since 28 July 2021); First Vice President Dina Ercilia BOLUARTE Zegarra (since 28 July 2021); Second Vice President (vacant)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 11 April 2021 with a runoff on 6 June 2021 (next to be held in April 2026)

    election results:
    2021: Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones (Free Peru) 18.9%, Keiko Sofia FUJIMORI Higuchi (Popular Force) 13.4%, Rafael LOPEZ ALIAGA Cazorla (Popular Renewal) 11.8%, Hernando DE SOTO Polar (Social Integration Party) 11.6%, Yonhy LESCANO Ancieta (Popular Action) 9.1%, Veronika MENDOZA Frisch (JP) 7.9%, Cesar ACUNA Peralta (APP) 6%, George FORSYTH Sommer (National Victory) 5.7%, Daniel Belizario URRESTI Elera (We Can Peru) 5.6%, other 10%; percent of vote second round - Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones (Free Peru) 50.1%, Keiko Sofia FUJIMORI Higuchi (Popular Force) 49.9%

    2016: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Popular Force) 39.9%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (PPK) 21.1%, Veronika MENDOZA (Broad Front) 18.7%, Alfredo BARNECHEA (Popular Action) 7%, Alan GARCIA (APRA) 5.8%, other 7.5%; percent of vote in second round - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 49.9%

    note 1: President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo assumed office after President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard resigned from office on 21 March 2018; after VIZCARRA was impeached on 9 November 2020, the constitutional line of succession led to the inauguration of the President of the Peruvian Congress, Manuel Arturo MERINO, as President of Peru on 10 November 2020; following his resignation only days later on 15 November 2020, Francisco Rafael SAGASTI Hochhausler - who had been elected by the legislature to be the new President of Congress on 16 November 2020 - was then sworn in as President of Peru on 17 November 2020 by line of succession and remained president until the inauguration of Jose Pedro CASTILLO Terrones, winner of the 2021 presidential election

    note 2:
    Prime Minister Anibal TORRES Vasquez (since 8 February 2022) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president

  • Philippines

    chief of state: President Ferdinand "BongBong" MARCOS, Jr. (since 30 June 2022); Vice President Sara DUTERTE-Carpio (since 30 June 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Ferdinand "BongBong" MARCOS, Jr. (since 30 June 2022); Vice President Sara DUTERTE-Carpio (since 30 June 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments, an independent body of 25 Congressional members including the Senate president (ex officio chairman), appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on separate ballots by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 9 May 2022 (next to be held on 9 May 2028)

    election results: Ferdinand MARCOS, Jr. elected president; percent of vote - Ferdinand MARCOS, Jr. (PFP) 58.7%, Leni ROBREDO (independent) 27.9%, Manny PACQUIAO (PROMDI) 6.8%; Sara DUTERTE-Carpio elected vice president; percent of vote Sara DUTERTE-Carpio (Lakas-CMD) 61.5%, Francis PANGILINAN (LP) 17.8%, Tito SOTTO 15.8%

  • Pitcairn Islands

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by UK High Commissioner to New Zealand and Governor (nonresident) of the Pitcairn Islands Iona THOMAS (since 9 August 2022)

    head of government: Mayor and Chairman of the Island Council Charlene WARREN-PEU (since 1 January 2020)

    cabinet: none

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor and commissioner appointed by the monarch; island mayor directly elected by majority popular vote for a 3-year term; election last held on 9 November 2022 (next to be held not later than December 2025)

    election results:

    Simon YOUNG elected mayor and chairman of the Island Council; Island Council vote - NA; takes office 1 January 2023

  • Poland

    chief of state: President Andrzej DUDA (since 6 August 2015)

    head of government: Prime Minister Mateusz MORAWIECKI (since 11 December 2017); Deputy Prime Ministers Piotr GLINSKI (since 16 November 2015), Jacek SASIN (since 15 November 2019), Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI (6 October 2020) and Henryk KOWALCZYK (26 October 2021)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by the Sejm

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 June 2020 with a second round on 12 July 2020 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister, deputy prime ministers, and Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm

    election results: 2020: Andrzej DUDA reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Andrzej DUDA (independent) 51%, Rafal TRZASKOWSKI (KO) 49%

    2015: Andrzej DUDA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Andrzej DUDA (independent) 51.5%, Bronislaw KOMOROWSKI (independent) 48.5%

  • Portugal

    chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)

    head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2021 (next to be held in January 2026); following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president

    election results: 2021: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 60.7%, Ana GOMES (ran as an independent but is a member of PS) 13%, Andre VENTURA (CH) 11.9%, João FERREIRA (PCP-PEV) 4.32%, Marisa MATIAS (BE) 3.95%, other 6.16%

    2016: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA elected president; percent of vote -  Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 52%, António SAMPAIO DA NOVOA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATIAS (BE) 10.1%, Maria DE BELEM ROSEIRA (PS) 4.2%

    note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

  • Puerto Rico

    chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

    head of government: Governor Pedro PIERLUISI (since 2 January 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by governor with the consent of the Legislative Assembly

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of Puerto Rico do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican party presidential primary elections; governor directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (no term limits); election last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held in November 2024)

    election results:
    2020: Pedro PIERLUISI elected governor; percent of vote - Pedro PIERLUISI (PNP) 32.9%, Carlos DELGADO (PPD) 31.6%, Alexandra LUGARO (independent) 14.2%, Juan DALMAU (PIP) 13.7%, other 7.6%

    2016: Ricardo ROSSELLO elected governor; percent of vote - Ricardo ROSSELLO (PNP) 41.8%, David BERNIER (PPD) 38.9%, Alexandra LUGARO (independent) 11.1%, Manuel CIDRE (independent) 5.7%

  • Qatar

    chief of state: Amir TAMIM bin Hamad Al Thani (since 25 June 2013)

    head of government: Prime Minister and Minister of Interior Sheikh KHALID bin Khalifa bin Abdul Aziz Al Thani (since 28 January 2020);  Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for Defense Affairs KHALID bin Mohamed AL Attiyah (since 14 November 2017); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs MOHAMED bin Abdulrahman Al Thani (since 14 November 2017)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the amir

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the amir

  • Romania

    chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)

    head of government: Prime Minister Nicolae CIUCA (since 25 November 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Sorin GRINDEANU (since 25 November 2021) and Kelemen HUNOR (since 23 December 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 November 2019 with a runoff on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in November 2024); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament

    election results: 2019: Klaus IOHANNIS reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 66.1%, Viorica DANCILA (PSD) 33.9%; Nicolae CIUCA approved as prime minister with 318 votes

    2014: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president in the second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%

  • Russia

    chief of state: President Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 7 May 2012)

    head of government: Premier Mikhail MISHUSTIN (since 16 January 2020); First Deputy Premier Andrey Removich BELOUSOV (since 21 January 2020); Deputy Premiers Yuriy TRUTNEV (since 31 August 2013), Yuriy Ivanovich BORISOV, Tatiana Alekseyevna GOLIKOVA (since 18 May 2018), Dmitriy Yuriyevich GRIGORENKO, Viktoriya Valeriyevna ABRAMCHENKO, Aleksey Logvinovich OVERCHUK, Marat Shakirzyanovich KHUSNULLIN, Dmitriy Nikolayevich CHERNYSHENKO (since 21 January 2020), Aleksandr NOVAK (since 10 November 2020)

    cabinet: the "Government" is composed of the premier, his deputies, and ministers, all appointed by the president; the premier is also confirmed by the Duma

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (2020 constitutional amendments allow a second consecutive term); election last held on 18 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2024); note - for the 2024 presidential election, previous presidential terms are discounted; there is no vice president; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma

    election results:
    2018:
    Vladimir PUTIN reelected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN (independent) 77.5%, Pavel GRUDININ (CPRF) 11.9%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY (LDPR) 5.7%, other 4.9%; Mikhail MISHUSTIN (independent) approved as premier by Duma; vote - 383 to 0

    2012: Vladimir PUTIN elected president; percent of vote - Vladimir PUTIN (United Russia) 63.6%, Gennadiy ZYUGANOV (CPRF) 17.2%, Mikhail PROKHOROV (CP) 8%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY (LDPR) 6.2%, Sergey MIRONOV (A Just Russia) 3.9%, other 1.1%; Dmitriy MEDVEDEV (United Russia) approved as premier by Duma; vote - 299 to 144

    note: there is also a Presidential Administration that provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president

  • Rwanda

    chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)

    head of government: Prime Minister Edouard NGIRENTE (since 30 August 2017)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); note - a constitutional amendment approved in December 2016 reduced the presidential term from 7 to 5 years but included an exception that allowed President KAGAME to serve another 7-year term in 2017, potentially followed by two additional 5-year terms; election last held on 4 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2024); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: Paul KAGAME reelected president; Paul KAGAME (RPF) 98.8%, Philippe MPAYIMANA (independent) 0.7%, Frank HABINEZA (DGPR)0.5%

  • Saint Barthelemy

    chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017), represented by Prefect Vincent BERTON (since 28 March 2022)

    head of government: President of Territorial Council Xavier LEDEE (since 3 April 2022)

    cabinet: Executive Council elected by the Territorial Council; note - there is also an advisory, economic, social, and cultural council

    elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior; president of Territorial Council indirectly elected by its members for a 5-year term; election last held on 27 March 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

    election results: 2022: Xavier LEDEE (Saint Barth United) elected president; Territorial Council vote - 13 votes for, 6 blank votes

    2017: Bruno MAGRAS (Saint Barth First) elected president; Territorial Council vote - 14 out of 19 votes

  • Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022)

    head of government: Governor Nigel PHILLIPS (since 13 August 2022)

    cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, 3 ex-officio officers, and 5 elected members of the Legislative Council

    elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch

    note: the constitution order provides for an administrator for Ascension and Tristan da Cunha appointed by the governor

  • Saint Kitts and Nevis

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Samuel W.T. SEATON (since 2 September 2015); note - SEATON was Acting Governor General from 20 May to 2 September 2015

    head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Terrance DREW (since 6 August 2022); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Geoffrey HANLEY (since 13 August 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by governor general in consultation with prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by governor general

  • Saint Lucia

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Acting Governor General Errol CHARLES (since 11 November 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Philip J. PIERRE (since 28 July 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by governor general

  • Saint Martin

    chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Prefect Vincent BERTON (since 28 March 2022)

    head of government: President of Territorial Council Louis MUSSINGTON (since 3 April 2022); First Vice President Alain RICHARDSON (since 3 April 2022)

    cabinet: Executive Council; note - there is also an advisory economic, social, and cultural council

    elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prefect appointed by French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior; president of Territorial Council elected by its members for a 5-year term; election last held on 3 April 2022 (next to be held in 2027)

    election results: 2022: Louis MUSSINGTON (RSM) elected president; Territorial Council vote - 23 out of 23 votes

    2017: Daniel Gibbs elected president:  Territorial Council vote - 18 out of 23 votes

  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon

    chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Prefect Christian POUGET (since 6 January 2021)

    head of government: President of Territorial Council Bernard BRIAND (since 13 October 2020)

    cabinet: Le Cabinet du Prefet

    elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 April and 24 April 2022 (next to be held in 2027); prefect appointed by French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior; Territorial Council president elected by Territorial Council councillors by absolute majority vote; term NA; election last held on 13 October 2020; next election NA

    election results: 2020: Bernard BRIAND elected President of Territorial Council; Territorial Council vote - 17 for, 2 abstentions

    2017: Stephane LENORMAND elected President of Territorial Council

  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Susan DOUGAN (since 1 August 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Ralph E. GONSALVES (since 29 March 2001)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

  • Samoa

    chief of state: TUIMALEALI'IFANO Va’aletoa Sualauvi II (since 21 July 2017)

    head of government: Prime Minister FIAME Naomi Mata’afa (since 24 May 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the chief of state on the prime minister's advice

    elections/appointments: chief of state indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a 5-year term (2-term limit); election last held on 23 August 2022 (next to be held in 2027); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the chief of state, approved by the Legislative Assembly

    election results: TUIMALEALI'IFANO Va’aletoa Sualauvi unanimously reelected by the Legislative Assembly on 23 August 2022

  • San Marino

    chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captain Regent Oscar MONA and Captain Regent Paolo RONDELLI (for the period 1 April 2022 - 1 October 2022)

    head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Luca BECCARI (since 8 January 2020)

    cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Grand and General Council

    elections/appointments: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 6-month term; election last held in September 2021 (next to be held in March 2022); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 5-year term; election last held on 28 December 2019 (next to be held by November 2024)

    election results: Oscar MINA (PDCS) and Paolo RONDELLI (RETE) elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA; Luca BECCARI (PDCS) elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA

    note: the captains regent preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 7 other members who are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 7 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has some prime ministerial roles

  • Sao Tome and Principe

    chief of state: President Carlos Manuel VILA NOVA (since 2 October 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Patrice TROVOADA (since 11 November 2022)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 18 July 2021 and runoff on 5 September 2021 (next to be held in 2026); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly and approved by the president

    election results:
    2021: Carlos Manuel VILA NOVA elected president in the second round; percent of vote in the first round - Carlos Manuel VILA NOVA (IDA) 39.5%; Guilherme POSSER DA COSTA (MLSTP-PSD) 20.8%; Delfim NEVES (PCD-GR) 16.9%; Abel BOM JESUS (independent) 3.6%; Maria DAS NEVES (independent) 3.3%; other 15.9%; percent of the vote in the second round - Carlos Manuel VILA NOVA (IDA) 57.5%, Guilherme POSSER DA COSTA (MLSTP-PSD) 42.5%; note - VILA NOVA is scheduled to take office 29 September 2021 

    2016: Evaristo CARVALHO elected president; percent of vote - Evaristo CARVALHO (ADI) 49.8%, Manuel Pinto DA COSTA (independent) 24.8%, Maria DAS NEVES (MLSTP-PSD) 24.1%; note - first round results for CARVALHO were revised downward from just over 50%, prompting the 7 August runoff; however, on 1 August 2016 DA COSTA withdrew from the runoff, citing voting irregularities, and CARVALHO was declared the winner

  • Saudi Arabia

    chief of state: King SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 23 January 2015); Crown Prince MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (born 31 August 1985)

    head of government: King and Prime Minister SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 23 January 2015); Crown Prince MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (born 31 August 1985)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch every 4 years and includes many royal family members

    elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary; an Allegiance Council created by royal decree in October 2006 established a committee of Saudi princes for a voice in selecting future Saudi kings

  • Senegal

    chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)

    head of government: Prime Minister Amadou BA (since 17 September 2022)


    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single renewable 5-year term; election last held on 24 February 2019 (next to be held in February 2024)

    election results: Macky SALL elected president in first round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 58.3%, Idrissa SECK (Rewmi) 20.5%, Ousmane SONKO (PASTEF) 15.7%, other 5.5% (2019)

  • Serbia

    chief of state: President Aleksandar VUCIC (since 31 May 2017)

    head of government: Prime Minister Ana BRNABIC (since 29 June 2017)

    cabinet: Cabinet elected by the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 April 2022 (next to be held in April 2027); prime minister elected by the National Assembly; note - in October 2020 President VUCIC called for early elections

    election results: 2022: Aleksandar VUCIC reelected in the first round; percent of vote - Aleksandar VUSIC (SNS) 60%, Zdravko PONOS (US) 18.9%, Milos JOVANOVIC (NADA) 6.1%, Bosko OBRADOVIC (Dveri-POKS) 4.5%, Milica DURDEVIC STAMENDOVSKI (SSZ) 4.3%, other 6.2%

    2017: Aleksandar VUCIC elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Aleksandar VUCIC (SNS) 55.1%, Sasa JANKOVIC (independent) 16.4%, Luka MAKSIMOVIC (independent) 9.4%, Vuk JEREMIC (independent) 5.7%, Vojislav SESELJ (SRS) 4.5%, Bosko OBRADOVIC (Dveri) 2.3%, other 5.0%, invalid/blank 1.6%; Prime Minister Ana BRNABIC reelected by the National Assembly on 5 October 2020

  • Seychelles

    chief of state: President Wavel RAMKALAWAN (since 26 October 2020); Vice President Ahmed AFIF (since 27 October 2020); the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Wavel RAMKALAWAN (since 26 October 2020); Vice President Ahmed AFIF (since 27 October 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 1 additional term); election last held on 22-24 October 2020 (originally scheduled for December 2020 but moved up to coincide with the 22-24 October National Assembly election in order to cut election costs)

    election results: 2020: Wavel RAMKALAWAN elected president; Wavel RAMKALAWAN (LDS) 54.9%, Danny FAURE (US) 43.5%, other 1.6%

    2015:  President James Alix MICHEL reelected president in second round; percent of vote first round - James Alix MICHEL (PL) 47.8%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (SNP) 35.3%, other 16.9%; percent of vote second round - James Alix MICHEL (PL) 50.2%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN (SNP) 49.8%

  • Sierra Leone

    chief of state: President Julius Maada BIO (since 4 April 2018); Vice President Mohamed Juldeh JALLOH (since 4 April 2018) ; note - the president is both chief of state, head of government, and minister of defense

    head of government: President Julius Maada BIO (since 4 April 2018); Vice President Mohamed Juldeh JALLOH (since 4 April 2018)

    cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president, approved by Parliament; the cabinet is responsible to the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 4 April 2018 (next to be in 2023) (2018)

    election results: Julius Maada BIO elected president in second round; percent of vote - Julius Maada BIO (SLPP) 51.8%, Samura KAMARA (APC) 48.2%

  • Singapore

    chief of state: President HALIMAH Yacob (since 14 September 2017)

    head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Cabinet responsible to Parliament

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a fixed term of 6 years (there are no term limits); election last held on 13 September 2017 (next to be held in 2023); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

    election results: 2017: HALIMAH Yacob was declared president on 13 September 2017, being the only eligible candidate

    2011: Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president; percent of vote - Tony TAN Keng Yam (independent) 35.2%, TAN Cheng Bock (independent) 34.9%, TAN Jee Say (independent) 25%, TAN Kin Lian (independent) 4.9%

  • Sint Maarten

    chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER of the Netherlands (since 30 April 2013); represented by Governor General Eugene HOLIDAY (since 10 October 2010)

    head of government: Prime Minister Silveria JACOBS (since 28 March 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the governor-general

    elections/appointments: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch for a 6-year term; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party usually elected prime minister by Parliament

    election results: last held 9 January 2020 (next to be held in 2024)

    note - on 16 January 2020, Governor Eugene HOLIDAY appoints Silveria JACOBS as formateur of a new government

  • Slovakia

    chief of state: President Zuzana CAPUTOVA (since 15 June 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Eduard HEGER (since 1 April 2021); Deputy Prime Ministers Stefan HOLY, Veronika REMISOVA, Richard SULIK (all since 21 March 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 March and 30 March 2019 (next to be held March 2024); following National Council elections (every 4 years), the president designates a prime minister candidate, usually the leader of the party or coalition that wins the most votes, who must win a vote of confidence in the National Council

    election results:
    2019:
    Zuzana CAPUTOVA reelected president in second round; percent of vote - Zuzana CAPUTOVA (PS) 58.4%, Maros SEFCOVIC (independent) 41.6%

    2014: Andrej KISKA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Andrej KISKA (independent) 59.4%, Robert FICO (Smer-SD) 40.6%

  • Slovenia

    chief of state: President Borut PAHOR (since 22 December 2012)

    head of government: Prime Minister Robert GOLOB (since 25 May 2022)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, elected by the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 23 October with a runoff on 13 November 2022 (next election to be held in 2027); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually nominated prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly

    election results: 2022: Natasa PIRC MUSAR elected in second round: percent of vote in first round - Natasa PIRC MUSAR (independent) 26.9%, Anze LOGAR (SDS) 34%, Milan BRGLEZ (SD) 15.5%, Vladimir PREBILIC (independent) 10.6%, Sabina SENCAR (Resni.ca) 5.9%, Janez CIGLER KRALJ (NSi) 4.4%, Miha KORDIS (The Left) 2.8%; percent of vote in second round - Natasa PIRC MUSAR 53.9%, Anze LOGAR 46.1%

    2017:
     Borut PAHOR is reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Borut PAHOR (independent) 47.1%, Marjan SAREC (Marjan Sarec List) 25%, Romana TOMC (SDS) 13.7%, Ljudmila NOVAK (NSi) 7.2%, other 7%; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR 52.9%, Marjan SAREC 47.1%; Robert GOLOB (GS) elected prime minister on 25 May 2022, National Assembly vote - 54-30

    2012: Borut PAHOR elected president; percent of vote in second round - Borut PAHOR (SD) 67.4%, Danilo TURK (independent) 32.6%; note - a snap election was held on 13 July 2014 following the resignation of Prime Minister Alenka BRATUSEK on 5 May 2014; Miro CERAR (SMC) elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 57 to 11

  • Solomon Islands

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General David VUNAGI (since 8 July 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Manasseh SOGAVARE (since 24 April 2019)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the National Parliament for up to 5 years (eligible for a second term); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by the National Parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among members of the National Parliament

    election results: Manasseh SOGAVARE elected prime minister on 24 April 2019

  • Somalia

    chief of state: President HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (since 23 May 2022)

    head of government: Prime Minister Hamza Abdi BARRE (since 25 June 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by the House of the People

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament by two-thirds majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 15 May 2022 (next to be held in 2026); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of the People; note - elections were originally scheduled for 10 October 2021 but did not take place; on 13 April 2022, the election of the House of the People representatives was completed and the presidential election date was set for 15 May 2022

    election results: 2022: HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud elected president in third round - Federal Parliament vote in the first round - Said ABDULLAHI DENI (Kaah) 20.2%, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (TPP) 18.3%, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 16.2%, Hassan Ali KHAYRE (Independent) 14.6%, other 30.7%; Federal Parliament vote in the second round - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 34.1%, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (TPP) 25.7%, Said ABDULLAHI DENI (Kaah) 21%, Hassan Ali KHAYRE (Independent) 19.2%; Federal Parliament vote in the third round - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 66%, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (TPP) 34%

    2017: Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" elected president in second round; Federal Parliament vote in the first round - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 88, Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (TPP) 72, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed (ARS) 49, other 37; Federal Parliament vote in the second round - Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (TPP) 184, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 97, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed (ARS) 45

  • South Africa

    chief of state: President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 15 February 2018); Deputy President David MABUZA (26 February 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; note- Jacob ZUMA resigned on 14 February 2018

    head of government: President Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (since 15 February 2018); deputy president David MABUZA (26 February 2018

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 May 2019 (next to be held in May 2024) (2019)

    election results: Matamela Cyril RAMAPHOSA (ANC) elected president by the National Assembly unopposed

  • South Sudan

    chief of state: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); Vice Presidents TABAN Deng Gai, Riek MACHAR Teny Dhurgon, James Wani IGGA, Rebecca Nyandeng Chol GARANG de Mabior, Hussein ABDELBAGI Ayii (since 22 February 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; TABAN served as First Vice President from 23 July 2016 to February 2020

    head of government: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); Vice Presidents TABAN Deng Gai, Riek MACHAR Teny Dhurgon, James Wani IGGA, Rebecca Nyandeng Chol GARANG de Mabior, Hussein ABDELBAGI Ayii (since 22 February 2020); note - TABAN served as First Vice President from 23 July 2016 to February 2020

    cabinet: National Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Transitional National Legislative Assembly

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11-15 April 2010 (next election scheduled for 2015 but postponed to 2018, then 2021, and again to 2023)

    election results: 2010: Salva KIIR Mayardit elected leader of then-Southern Sudan in 2010; percent of vote - Salva KIIR Mayardit (SPLM) 93%, Lam AKOL (SPLM-DC) 7%

  • Spain

    chief of state: King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess LEONOR, Princess of Asturias (daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005)

    head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister-equivalent) Pedro SANCHEZ PEREZ-CASTEJON (since 2 June 2018); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Maria del Carmen CALVO POYATO (since 7 June 2018)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the monarch usually proposes as president the leader of the party or coalition with the largest number of seats, who is then indirectly elected by the Congress of Deputies; election last held on 10 November 2019 (next to be held November 2023); vice president and Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    election results: percent of National Assembly vote - NA

    note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding

  • Sri Lanka

    chief of state: President Ranil WICKREMESINGHE (since 20 July 2022); the president is both chief of state and head of government; prime minister (vacant)

    head of government: President Ranil WICKREMESINGHE (since 20 July 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by preferential majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 November 2019 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of Parliament for a 5-year term)

    election results: Ranil WICKREMESINGHE elected president by Parliament on 20 July 2022; WICKREMESINGH 134 votes, Dullas ALAHAPPERUNA 82 votes

    Note: amid public protests which began in March 2022, President Gotabaya RAJAPAKSE fled the country on 13 July and Ranil WICKREMESINGHE became acting president; RAJAPAKSE announced his resignation on the 14th, which was accepted by the speaker of Parliament the following day; Parliament on 20 July elected WICKREMESINGHE as president; vote - Ranil WICKREMESINGHE - 134,  Dullas ALAHAPPERUMA - 82

  • Sudan

    chief of state: Sovereign Council Chair and Commander-in-Chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces General Abd-al-Fatah al-BURHAN Abd-al-Rahman; note – the 2019 Constitutional Declaration established a collective chief of state of the "Sovereign Council," which was chaired by al-BURHAN; on 25 October 2021, al-BURHAN dissolved the Sovereign Council but reinstated it on 11 November 2021, replacing its civilian members (previously selected by the umbrella civilian coalition the Forces for Freedom and Change) with civilians of the military’s choosing; the Sovereign Council currently consists of 5 military-appointed civilians, 5 generals, and 3 representatives selected by former armed opposition groups

    head of government: Sovereign Council Chair and Commander-in-Chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces General Abd-al-Fatah al-BURHAN Abd-al-Rahman; Acting Prime Minister Osman HUSSEIN (since 19 January 2022); note - former Prime Minister Abdallah HAMDOUK resigned on 2 January 2022; HAMDOUK served as prime minister from August 2019 to October 2019 before he was kidnapped; he was later freed and reinstated as prime minister on 21 November 2021

    cabinet: most members of the Council of Ministers were forced from office in October 2021 by the military and subsequently resigned in November 2021; the military allowed a handful of ministers appointed by former armed opposition groups to retain their posts; at present, most of the members of the Council are senior civil servants serving in an acting minister capacity appointed either by Prime Minister HAMDOUK prior to his resignation or by the military

    elections/appointments: the 2019 Constitutional Declaration originally called for elections to be held in late 2022 at the end of the transitional period; that date was pushed back to late 2023 by the Juba Peace Agreement; the methodology for future elections has not yet been defined; according to the 2019 Constitutional Declaration, civilian members of the Sovereign Council and the prime minister were to have been nominated by an umbrella coalition of civilian actors known as the Forces for Freedom and Change; this methodology was followed in selecting HAMDOUK as prime minister in August 2019; the military purports to have suspended this provision of the 2019 Constitutional Declaration in October 2021; Prime Minister HAMDOUK’s restoration to office in November 2021 was the result of an agreement signed between him and Sovereign Council Chair BURHAN; military members of the Sovereign Council are selected by the leadership of the security forces; representatives of former armed groups to the Sovereign Council are selected by the signatories of the Juba Peace Agreement

    election results: NA

  • Suriname

    chief of state: President Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI (since 16 July 2020); Vice President Ronnie BRUNSWIJK (since 16 July 2020); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI (since 16 July 2020); Vice President Ronnie BRUNSWIJK (since 16 July 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly; president and vice president serve a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 13 July 2020 (next to be held in May 2025)

    election results: Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI elected president unopposed; National Assembly vote - NA

  • Svalbard

    chief of state: King HARALD V of Norway (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince Haakon MAGNUS (son of the king, born 20 July 1973)

    head of government: Governor Lars FAUSE (since 24 June 2021); Vice Governor Solvi ELVEDAHL (since 1 May 2020)

    elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor and assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice

  • Sweden

    chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 15 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree (daughter of the monarch, born 14 July 1977)

    head of government: Prime Minister Ulf KRISTERSSON (since 18 October 2022); Deputy Prime Minister Ebba BUSCH (since 18 October 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister

  • Switzerland

    chief of state: President of the Swiss Confederation Ignazio CASSIS (since 1 January 2022); Vice President Alain BERSET (since 1 January 2022); note - the Federal Council, comprised of 7 federal councillors, constitutes the federal government of Switzerland; council members rotate the 1-year term of federal president

    head of government: President of the Swiss Confederation Ignazio CASSIS (since 1 January 2022); Vice President Alain BERSET (since 1 January 2022)

    cabinet: Federal Council or Bundesrat (in German), Conseil Federal (in French), Consiglio Federale (in Italian) indirectly elected by the Federal Assembly for a 4-year term

    elections/appointments: president and vice president elected by the Federal Assembly from among members of the Federal Council for a 1-year, non-consecutive term; election last held on 8 December 2021 (next to be held in December 2022)

    election results: 2021: Ignazio CASSIS elected president for 2022; Federal Assembly vote - Ignazio CASSIS (FDP.The Liberals) 156 of 197 votes; Alain BERSET (SP) elected vice president; Federal Assembly vote - 158 of 204

    2020: Guy PARMELIN elected president for 2021; Federal Assembly vote - Guy PARMELIN (SVP) 188 of 202 votes; Ignazio CASSIS (FDP.The Liberals) elected vice president; Federal Assembly vote - 162 of 191

  • Syria

    chief of state: President Bashar al-ASAD (since 17 July 2000); Vice President Najah al-ATTAR (since 23 March 2006)

    head of government: Prime Minister Hussein ARNOUS (since 30 August 2020); Deputy Prime Minister Ali Abdullah AYOUB (Lt. Gen.) (since 30 August 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 May 2021 (next to be held in 2028); the president appoints the vice presidents, prime minister, and deputy prime ministers

    election results: 2021: Bashar al-ASAD elected president; percent of vote - Bashar al-ASAD (Ba'th Party) 95.2%, Mahmoud Ahmad MAREI (Democratic Arab Socialist Union) 3.3%, Abdullah Sallum ABDULLAH (Socialist Unionist Party) 1.5%

  • Taiwan

    chief of state: President TSAI Ing-wen (since 20 May 2016); Vice President LAI Ching-te (since 20 May 2020)

    head of government: Premier SU Tseng-chang (President of the Executive Yuan) (since 11 January 2019); Vice Premier SHEN Jong-chin (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) (since 19 June 2020)

    cabinet: Executive Yuan - ministers appointed by president on recommendation of premier

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 January 2020 (next to be held on 11 January 2024); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier

    election results: 2020: TSAI Ing-wen elected president; percent of vote - TSAI Ing-wen (DPP) 57.1%, HAN Kuo-yu (KMT) 38.6%, James SOONG (PFP) 4.2%; note - TSAI is the first woman elected president of Taiwan

    2016: TSAI Ing-wen elected president; percent of vote - TSAI Ing-wen (DPP) 56.1%, Eric CHU (KMT) 31%, James SOONG (PFP) 12.8%

  • Tajikistan

    chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly Chairman since 19 November 1992)

    head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term for a maximum of two terms; however, as the "Leader of the Nation" President RAHMON can run an unlimited number of times; election last held on 11 October 2020 (next to be held in 2027); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: 2020: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 92.1%, Rustam LATIFZODA 3.1%, and other 4.8%

    2013: Emomali RAHMOND reelected president; percent of vote 84%, Ismoil TALBAKOV 5%, other 11%

  • Tanzania

    chief of state: President Samia Suluhu HASSAN (since 19 March 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; note - President John MAGUFULI died on 17 March 2021; Vice President Philip MPANGO

    head of government: President Samia Suluhu HASSAN (since 19 March 2021); Vice President Philip MPANGO; Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa MAJALIWA (since 20 November 2015) has authority over the day-to-day functions of the government, is the leader of government business in the National Assembly, and head of the Cabinet

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 October 2020 (next to be held in October 2025); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: 2020: John MAGUFULI reelected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 84.4%, Tundu LISSU (CHADEMA) 13%, other 2.6%

    2015: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%

    note: Zanzibar elects a president as head of government for internal matters; elections were held on 28 October 2020; Hussein MWINYI (CCM) 76.3%, Maalim Seif SHARIF (ACT-Wazalendo) 19.9%, other 3.8%

  • Thailand

    chief of state: King WACHIRALONGKON, also spelled Vajiralongkorn (since 1 December 2016)

    head of government: Prime Minister PRAYUT Chan-ocha (since July 2019)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the king; a Privy Council advises the king

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; the House of Representatives and Senate approves a person for prime minister who must then be appointed by the King (as stated in the transitory provision of the 2017 constitution); the office of prime minister can be held for up to a total of 8 years

    note:  PRAYUT Chan-ocha was appointed interim prime minister in August 2014, three months after he staged the coup that removed the previously elected government of Prime Minister YINGLAK Chinnawat; on 5 June 2019 PRAYUT (independent) was approved as prime minister by the parliament 

  • Timor-Leste

    chief of state: President José RAMOS-HORTA (since May 2022); note - the president is commander in chief of the military and is able to veto legislation, dissolve parliament, and call national elections

    head of government: Prime Minister Taur Matan RUAK (since 22 June 2018)

    cabinet: the governing coalition in the Parliament proposes cabinet member candidates to the prime minister, who presents these recommendations to the President of the Republic for swearing in

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last election held in April 2022; following parliamentary elections, the president appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition as the prime minister

    election results: 2022: José RAMOS-HORTA elected president in a run-off election -  RAMOS-HORTA (CNRT) 62.1%, Francisco GUTERRES (FRETILIN) 37.9%

    2017: Francisco GUTERRES (FRETILIN) 57.1%, António da CONCEICAO (PD) 32.46%

  • Togo

    chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005)

    head of government: Prime Minister Victoire Tomegah DOGBE (since 28 September 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 22 February 2020 (next to be held  February 2025); prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 70.8%, Agbeyome KODJO (MPDD) 19.5%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 4.7%, other 5% (2020)

  • Tokelau

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General of New Zealand Governor General Dame Cindy KIRO (since 21 September 2021); New Zealand is represented by Administrator Ross ARDERN (since May 2018)

    head of government: (Ulu o Tokelau) Kelihiano KALOLO (since 8 March 2021); note - position rotates annually among the three Faipule (village leaders) of the atolls

    cabinet: Council for the Ongoing Government of Tokelau (or Tokelau Council) functions as a cabinet; consists of 3 Faipule (village leaders) and 3 Pulenuku (village mayors)

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; administrator appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade in New Zealand; head of government chosen from the Council of Faipule to serve a 1-year term

    note: the meeting place of the Tokelau Council rotates annually among the three atolls; this tradition has given rise to the somewhat misleading description that the capital rotates yearly between the three atolls; in actuality, it is the seat of the government councilors that rotates since Tokelau has no capital

  • Tonga

    chief of state: King TUPOU VI (since 18 March 2012); Heir Apparent Crown Prince Siaosi Manumataogo 'Alaivahamama'o 'Ahoeitu Konstantin Tuku'aho, son of the king (born 17 September 1985); note - on 18 March 2012, King George TUPOU V died and his brother, Crown Prince TUPOUTO'A Lavaka, assumed the throne as TUPOU VI

    head of government: Prime Minister Siaosi SOVALENI (since 27 December 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly and appointed by the monarch; election last held on 18 November 2021 (next to be held in November 2025)

    election results: Siaosi SOVALENI elected prime minister by the Legislative Assembly; Siaosi SOVALENI 16 votes, Aisake EKE 10

    note: a Privy Council advises the monarch

  • Trinidad and Tobago

    chief of state: President Paula-Mae WEEKES (since 19 March 2018)

    head of government: Prime Minister Keith ROWLEY (since 9 September 2015)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among members of Parliament

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of selected Senate and House of Representatives members for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 19 January 2018 (next to be held by February 2023); the president usually appoints the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives as prime minister

    election results: Paula-Mae WEEKES (independent) elected president; ran unopposed and was elected without a vote; she is Trinidad and Tobago's first female head of state

  • Tunisia

    chief of state: President Kais SAIED (elected 13 October, sworn in 23 October 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Najla BOUDEN Romdhane (since 11 October 2021)

    cabinet: selected by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly of the Representatives of the People; note - on 11 October 2021, SAIED and BOUDEN appointed a new cabinet without approval by the suspended parliament

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 15 September 2019 with a runoff on 13 October 2019 (next to be held in 2024); following legislative elections, the prime minister is selected by the majority party or majority coalition and appointed by the president

    election results:

    2019: percent vote in first round - Kais SAIED (independent) 18.4%, Nabil KAROUI (Heart of Tunisia) 15.6%, Abdelfattah MOUROU (Nahda Movement) 12.9%, Abdelkrim ZBIDI(independent) 10.7%,Youssef CHAHED (Long Live Tunisia) 7.4%, Safi SAID (independent) 7.1%, Lotfi MRAIHI (Republican People's Union) 6.6%, other 21.3%; percent of vote in second round - Kais SAIED elected president; Kais SAIED 72.7%, Nabil KAROUI 27.3%

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • Turkey (Turkiye)

    chief of state: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (chief of state since 28 August 2014; head of government since 9 July 2019); Vice President Fuat OKTAY (since 9 July 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (head of government since 9 July 2019; chief of state since 28 August 2014); note - a 2017 constitutional referendum eliminated the post of prime minister after the 2018 general election

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 June 2018 (next scheduled for June 2023)

    election results: 2018: Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN reelected president in the first round; Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 52.6%, Muharrem INCE (CHP) 30.6%, Selahattin DEMIRTAS (HDP) 8.4%, Meral AKSENER (IYI) 7.3%, other 1.1%

    2013: Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN elected president in the first round; Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (AKP) 51.8%, Ekmeleddin IHSANOGLU (independent) 38.4%, Selahattin DEMIRTAS (HDP) 9.8%

  • Turkmenistan

    chief of state: President Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 19 March 2022); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 19 March 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 12 March 2022 (next to be held in 2029); note - on 11 February 2022, President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW announced his intent to retire setting up the early presidential election

    election results: 2022: Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOW elected president; percent of vote - Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOW 73.0%,  Khydyr NUNNAYEV 11.1%, Agadzhan BEKMYRADOV 7.2%, other 8.7%; note - Serdar BERDIMUHAMEDOW is the son of previous president Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW

    2017: Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (DPT) 97.7%, other 2.3%

  • Turks and Caicos Islands

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Nigel DAKIN (since 15 July 2019)

    head of government: Premier Washington MISICK (since 19 February 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor from among members of the House of Assembly

    elections/appointments: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is appointed premier by the governor

  • Tuvalu

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor General Tofiga Vaevalu FALANI (since 29 August 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Kausea NATANO (since 19 September 2019)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on recommendation of the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from members of House of Assembly following parliamentary elections

    election results: Kausea NATANO elected prime minister by House of Assembly; House of Assembly vote count on 19 September 2019 - 10 to 6

  • Uganda

    chief of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 26 January 1986); Vice President Jessica Rose Epel ALUPO (since 21 June 2021); Prime Minister Robinah NABBANJA (since 21 June 2021); First Deputy Prime Minister Rebecca KADAGA (since 24 June 2021); Second Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 21 June 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 26 January 1986); Vice President Jessica Rose Epel ALUPO (since 21 June 2021); Prime Minister Robinah NABBANJA (since 21 June 2021); First Deputy Prime Minister Rebecca KADAGA (since 24 June 2021); Second Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 21 June 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly or persons who qualify to be elected as members of the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 14 January 2021 (next to be held in 2026)

    election results: 2021: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 58.6%, Bobi WINE (NUP) 34.8%, Patrick Oboi AMURIAT (FDC) 3.2%, other 3.4%

    2016: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president in the first round; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 60.6%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 35.6%, other 3.8%

  • Ukraine

    chief of state: President Volodymyr ZELENSKYY (since 20 May 2019)

    head of government: Prime Minister Denys SHMYHAL (since 4 March 2020)

    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, approved by the Verkhovna Rada

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 31 March and 21 April 2019 (next to be held in March 2024); prime minister selected by the Verkhovna Rada

    election results: 2019: Volodymyr ZELENSKYY elected president; percent of vote in the first round Volodymyr ZELENSKYY (Servant of the People) 30.2%, Petro POROSHENKO (BPP-Solidarity) 15.6%, Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (Fatherland) 13.4%, Yuriy BOYKO (Opposition Platform-For Life) 11.7%, 35 other candidates 29.1%; percent of vote in the second round Volodymyr ZELENSKYY (Servant of the People) 73.2%, Petro POROSHENKO (BPP-Solidarity) 24.5%, other 2.3%; Denys SHMYHAL (independent) elected prime minister; Verkhovna Rada vote - 291-59

    2014: Petro POROSHENKO elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Petro POROSHENKO (independent) 54.5%, Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (Fatherland) 12.9%, Oleh LYASHKO (Radical Party) 8.4%, other 24.2%; Volodymyr HROYSMAN (BPP) elected prime minister; Verkhovna Rada vote - 257-50

    note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a presidential administration helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president

  • United Arab Emirates

    chief of state: President MUHAMMAD bin Zayid Al-Nuhayan (since 14 May 2022); Vice President MUHAMMAD bin Rashid Al-Maktoum (since 5 January 2006); note - MUHAMMAD bin Zayid Al-Nuhayan elected president by the Federal Supreme Council following the death of President KHALIFA bin Zayid Al-Nuhayan on 13 May 2022

    head of government: Prime Minister and Vice President MUHAMMAD bin Rashid Al-Maktoum (since 5 January 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers SAIF bin Zayid Al-Nuhayan, MANSUR bin Zayid Al-Nuhayan (both since 11 May 2009), and MAKTOUM bin Mohammed Al-Maktoum (since 25 September 2021)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers announced by the prime minister and approved by the president

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the Federal Supreme Council - composed of the rulers of the 7 emirates - for a 5-year term (no term limits); unscheduled election held on 14 May 2022, following the death of President KHALIFA bin Zayid Al-Nuhayan (next election NA); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: MUHAMMAD bin Zayid Al-Nuhayan elected president; Federal Supreme Council vote NA

    note: there is also a Federal Supreme Council (FSC) composed of the 7 emirate rulers; the FSC is the highest constitutional authority in the UAE; establishes general policies and sanctions federal legislation; meets 4 times a year; Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) and Dubayy (Dubai) rulers have effective veto power

  • United Kingdom

    chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); Heir Apparent Prince WILLIAM (son of the king, born 21 June 1982); note - CHARLES succeeded his mother, Queen ELIZABETH II, after serving as Prince of Wales (heir apparent) for over 64 years - the longest such tenure in British history

    head of government: Prime Minister Rishi SUNAK (Conservative) (since 25 October 2022)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister

    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister; election last held on 12 December 2019 (next to be held by 2 May 2024)

    note: in addition to serving as the UK head of state, the British sovereign is the constitutional monarch for 14 additional Commonwealth countries (these 15 states are each referred to as a Commonwealth realm)


  • United States

    chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president, approved by the Senate

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by the Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 November 2020 (next to be held on 5 November 2024)

    election results:
    2020:
    Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. elected president; electoral vote - Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. (Democratic Party) 306, Donald J. TRUMP (Republican Party) 232; percent of direct popular vote - Joseph R. BIDEN Jr. 51.3%, Donald J. TRUMP 46.9%, other 1.8%

    2016: Donald J. TRUMP elected president; electoral vote - Donald J. TRUMP (Republican Party) 304, Hillary D. CLINTON (Democratic Party) 227, other 7; percent of direct popular vote - Hillary D. CLINTON 48.2%, Donald J. TRUMP 46.1%, other 5.7%

  • Uruguay

    chief of state: President Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (since 1 March 2020); Vice President Beatriz ARGIMON Cedeira (since 1 March 2020); the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (since 1 March 2020); Vice President Beatriz ARGIMON Cedeira (since 1 March 2020)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the General Assembly

    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 27 October 2019 with a runoff election on 24 November 2019 (next to be held in October 2024, and a runoff if needed in November 2024)

    election results:
    2019: Luis Alberto LACALLE POU elected president - results of the first round of presidential elections: percent of vote - Daniel MARTINEZ (FA) 40.7%, Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (Blanco) 29.7%, Ernesto TALVI (Colorado Party) 12.8%, and Guido MANINI RIOS (Open Cabildo) 11.3%, other 5.5%; results of the second round: percent of vote - Luis Alberto LACALLE POU (Blanco) 50.6%, Daniel MARTINEZ (FA) 49.4%

    2014: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president in second round; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ (Socialist Party) 56.5%, Luis Alberto LACALLE Pou (Blanco) 43.4%

  • Uzbekistan

    chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016

    head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016)

    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 24 October 2021 (next to be held in 2026); prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president

    election results: 2021: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 80.3%, Maqsuda VORISOVA (PDP) 6.7%, Alisher QODIROV (National Revival Democratic Party) 5.5%, Narzullo OBLOMURODOV (Ecological Party) 4.1%, Bahrom ABDUHALIMOV (Adolat) 3.4%

    2016: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Hotamjon KETMONOV (PDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURODOV (National Revival Democratic Party) 2.4%, other 1.8%

  • Vanuatu

    chief of state: President Nikenike VUROBARAVU (since 23 July 2022)

    head of government: Prime Minister Ishmael KALSAKAU (since 4 November 2022)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, responsible to Parliament

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of Parliament and presidents of the 6 provinces; Vanuatu president serves a 5-year term; election last held on 23 July 2022 (next to be held in 2027); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually elected prime minister by Parliament from among its members; election for prime minister last held on 20 April 2020 (next to be held following general elections in 2024)

    election results: Nikenike VUROBARAVU elected president in the eighth round on 23 July 2022 with 48 votes;
    Ishmael KALSAKAU (UMP) elected prime minister on 4 November 2022 with 50 votes

  • Venezuela

    chief of state: Notification Statement: the United States recognizes Juan GUAIDO as the Interim President of Venezuela

    President Nicolas MADURO Moros (since 19 April 2013); Executive Vice President Delcy RODRIGUEZ Gomez (since 14 June 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Nicolas MADURO Moros (since 19 April 2013); Executive Vice President Delcy RODRIGUEZ Gomez (since 14 June 2018)

    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 6-year term (no term limits); election last held on 20 May 2018 (next election in 2024)

    election results:
    2018: Nicolas MADURO Moros reelected president; percent of vote - Nicolas MADURO Moros (PSUV) 68%, Henri FALCON (AP) 21%, Javier BERTUCCI 11%; note - the election was marred by serious shortcomings and electoral fraud; voter turnout was approximately 46% due largely to an opposition boycott of the election

    2013: Nicolas MADURO Moros elected president; percent of vote - Nicolas MADURO Moros (PSUV) 50.6%, Henrique CAPRILES Radonski (PJ) 49.1%, other 0.3%

  • Vietnam

    chief of state: President Nguyen Xuan PHUC (since 26 July 2021)

    head of government: Prime Minister Pham Minh CHINH (since 26 July 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet proposed by prime minister confirmed by the National Assembly and appointed by the president

    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by National Assembly from among its members for a single 5-year term; prime minister recommended by the president and confirmed by National Assembly; deputy prime ministers confirmed by the National Assembly and appointed by the president

    election results: 2021: Nguyen Xuan PHUC (CPV) elected president; Pham Minh CHINH (CPV) confirmed as prime minister

    2018: NGUYEN Phu TRONG (CPV) elected as president

    2016: NGUYEN Xuan PHUC (CPV) confirmed as prime minister

  • Virgin Islands

    chief of state: President Joseph R. BIDEN, Jr. (since 20 January 2021); Vice President Kamala D. HARRIS (since 20 January 2021)

    head of government: Governor Albert BRYAN, Jr. (since 7 January 2019), Lieutenant Governor Tregenza ROACH (since 7 January 2019)

    cabinet: Territorial Cabinet appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Senate

    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of the Virgin Islands do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in the Democratic and Republican presidential primary elections; governor and lieutenant governor directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 8 November 2022 (next to be held in November 2026)

    election results:

    Albert BRYAN, Jr. reelected governor; percent of vote - Albert BRYAN, Jr. (Democratic Party) 56%, Kurt VIALET (independent) 38%

  • Wallis and Futuna

    chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Administrator Superior Herve JONATHAN (since 11 January 2021)

    head of government: President of the Territorial Assembly Munipoese MULI'AKA'AKA (since 20 March 2022)

    cabinet: Council of the Territory appointed by the administrator superior on the advice of the Territorial Assembly

    elections/appointments: French president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); administrator superior appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the Territorial Government and the Territorial Assembly elected by assembly members

    note: there are 3 traditional kings with limited powers

  • World

    chief of state: there are 27 countries with royal families in the world, most are in Asia (13) and Europe (10), three are in Africa, and one in Oceania; monarchies by continent are as follows: Asia (Bahrain, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, United Arab Emirates); Europe (Belgium, Denmark, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom); Africa (Eswatini, Lesotho, Morocco); Oceania (Tonga)

    note 1: Andorra and the Holy See (Vatican) are also monarchies of a sort, but they are not ruled by royal houses; Andorra has two co-princes (the president of France and the bishop of Urgell) and the Holy See is ruled by an elected pope

    note 2: the sovereign of Great Britain is also the monarch for 14 of the countries (including Australia, Canada, Jamaica, New Zealand) that make up the Commonwealth; that brings to 43 the total number of countries with some type of monarchies

  • Yemen

    chief of state: Chairperson, Presidential Council Rashad Muhammad al-ALIMI, Dr. (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council Sultan al-ARADA (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council Faraj Salmin al- BAHSANI, Brig. Gen. (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council Abdullah Al-Alimi BA WAZIR (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council Uthman Hussain Faid al-MUJALI (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council TARIQ Muhammad Abdallah Salih, Brig. Gen. (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council 'Abd-al-Rahman ABU ZARA'A al-Muharrami al-Yafai, Brig. Gen. (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council Aydarus Qasim al-ZUBAYDI, Maj. Gen. (since 19 April 2022)

    head of government: Chairperson, Presidential Council Rashad Muhammad al-ALIMI, Dr. (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council Sultan al-ARADA (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council Faraj Salmin al- BAHSANI, Brig. Gen. (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council Abdullah Al-Alimi BA WAZIR (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council Uthman Hussain Faid al-MUJALI (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council TARIQ Muhammad Abdallah Salih, Brig. Gen. (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council 'Abd-al-Rahman ABU ZARA'A al-Muharrami al-Yafai, Brig. Gen. (since 19 April 2022); Vice Chairperson, Presidential Council Aydarus Qasim al-ZUBAYDI, Maj. Gen. (since 19 April 2022)

    cabinet: NA

    elections/appointments: formerly, the president was directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2012 (next election NA); note - a special election was held on 21 February 2012 to remove Ali Abdallah SALIH under the terms of a Gulf Cooperation Council-mediated deal during the political crisis of 2011; vice president appointed by the president; prime minister appointed by the president

    election results: 2012: in a special election held on 21 February 2012, Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI (GPC) was elected as a consensus president

    note: on 7 April 2022, President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI announced the dismissal of Vice President ALI MUHSIN al-Ahmar and the formation of a Presidential Council, an eight-member body chaired by former minister Rashad AL-ALIMI; on 19 April 2022, the Council was sworn in before Parliament and began assuming the responsibilities of the president and vice president and carrying out the political, security, and military duties of the government

  • Zambia

    chief of state: President Hakainde HICHILEMA (since 24 August 2021); Vice President Mutale NALUMANGO (since 24 August 2021); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

    head of government: President Hakainde HICHILEMA (since 24 August 2021); Vice President Mutale NALUMANGO (since 24 August 2021)

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly

    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 12 August 2021 (next to be held in 2026)

    election results:
    2021
    : Hakainde HICHILEMA elected president; percent of the vote -   Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 57.9%, Edgar LUNGU (PF) 37.3%, other 4.8%

    2016: Edgar LUNGU re-elected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2%

  • Zimbabwe

    chief of state: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 24 November 2017); First Vice President Constantino CHIWENGA (since 28 December 2017); note - Robert Gabriel MUGABE resigned on 21 November 2017, after ruling for 37 years

    head of government: President Emmerson Dambudzo MNANGAGWA (since 24 November 2017); Vice President Constantino CHIWENGA (since 28 December 2017); 

    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president, responsible to National Assembly

    elections/appointments: each presidential candidate nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least 1 candidate from each province) and directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 3 July 2018 (next to be held in 2023); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership

    election results: Emmerson MNANGAGWA reelected president in 1st round of voting; percent of vote - Emmerson MNANGAGWA (ZANU-PF) 50.8%, Nelson CHAMISA (MDC-T) 44.3%, Thokozani KHUPE (MDC-N) 0.9%, other 3%