Field Listing

Food insecurity

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Food crises are nearly always due to a combination of factors, but it is important to establish whether the nature of food crises is predominantly related to lack of food availability, limited access to food, or severe but localized problems. Countries in crisis requiring external assistance for food are expected to lack the resources to deal with reported critical problems of food insecurity. Three levels of crises are described in this field in descending severity: countries facing an exceptional shortfall in aggregate food production/supplies as a result of crop failure, natural disasters, interruption of imports, disruption of distribution, excessive post-harvest losses, or other supply bottlenecks; countries with widespread lack of access, where a majority of the population is considered to be unable to procure food from local markets, due to very low incomes, exceptionally high food prices, or the inability to circulate within the country; countries with severe localized food insecurity due to the influx of refugees, a concentration of internally displaced persons, or areas with combinations of crop failure and deep poverty.

  • Afghanistan

    severe localized food insecurity: due to civil conflict, population displacement, and economic slowdown - between November 2021 and March 2022, during the winter lean season, the food insecurity situation was expected to deteriorate and the number of people in "Crisis" or above was likely to increase to 22.8 million, about 35% more than during the same season in 2020/21; following the developments of August 2021 in the country, the international aid flows, an important element of public spending, were halted; the food security situation and agricultural livelihoods in the country is likely to significantly deteriorate in the coming months due to cumulative and cascading impact of multiple shocks, including weather, conflict, economic crisis and the lingering effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic (2022)

  • Bangladesh

    severe localized food insecurity: due to economic constraints -  losses in income and remittances caused by the COVID‑19 pandemic and its containment measures led to an increase in poverty; in 2022, food insecurity is expected to increase and remain at high levels due to the impact of recent shocks, including floods that occurred in mid‑May 2022 in the northeastern parts of the country and the elevated international prices of energy, fuel and food, which have been transmitted to the domestic markets (2022)

  • Burkina Faso

    severe localized food insecurity: due to civil insecurity in the north - according to the latest analysis, 3.45 million people are projected to be food insecure and in need of humanitarian assistance between June and August 2022; in Centre-Nord and Sahel regions, insecurity continues to cause population displacements and, as of March 2022, about 1.85 million people had been displaced and required assistance; domestic cereal production in 2021 was estimated at a below-average level due to effects of adverse weather and civil conflict, further aggravating conditions; abnormally high prices of food are also a contributory factor that have constrained access to food; the coup d’état that occurred in January 2022 is an additional factor that could increase civil insecurity and further stress food insecurity conditions (2022)

  • Burma

    severe localized food insecurity: due to conflict, political instability, and economic constraints - the political crisis, following the military takeover on 1 February 2021, resulted in increased tensions and unrest throughout the country; the current uncertain political situation may further compromise the fragile situation of vulnerable households and the Rohingya IDPs residing in the country; armed conflict between the military and non‑state armed groups led to population displacements, disrupted agricultural activities and limited access for humanitarian support especially in Rakhine, Chin, Kachin, Kayin, Kayah and Shan states; income losses and a decline in remittances, due to the impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic, have affected the food security situation of vulnerable households; domestic prices of Emata rice, the most consumed variety in the country, were at high levels in May 2022, constraining access to a key staple food (2022)

  • Burundi

    widespread lack of access: due to the effects of weather - about 646,000 people are estimated to be severely food insecure between June and September 2022; the main drivers are poor rains in May in some central and southern eastern areas that affected pulses production, the socio-economic impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic, and high food prices due to elevated fuel prices inflating transport costs (2022)

  • Cameroon

    severe localized food insecurity: due to civil insecurity and population displacements - according to a March 2022 analysis, about 2.4 million people are projected to be severely food insecure between June and August 2022; this is mainly the result of conflict, sociopolitical unrest and high food prices (2022)

  • Central African Republic

    exceptional shortfall in aggregate food production/supplies: due to internal conflict - persisting conflicts and displacements are expected to continue affecting agricultural activities and limit farmers’ access to crop growing areas and inputs, with a negative impact on 2022 crop production; according to an analysis issued in April 2022, the number of severely food insecure people in "Crisis" and above were estimated at 2.2 million between April and August 2022, mainly due to high levels of civil insecurity, population displacements and high food prices (2022)

  • Chad

    widespread lack of access: due to civil insecurity and shortfall in cereal production - according to the latest analysis, about 2.1 million people are projected to be in "Crisis" and above, between June and August 2022 due to persisting insecurity in Lac and Tibesti regions that disrupted livelihood activities and caused population displacements, as well as a below-average cereal production in 2021 (2022)

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the

    widespread lack of access: due to internal conflict in eastern regions and economic downturn - given the recent escalation of conflicts in the eastern provinces and the consequent population displacement, the magnitude and severity of acute food insecurity may exceed the projected levels; additionally, elevated staple food prices, both domestically and globally, pose a further risk to food insecurity (2022)

  • Congo, Republic of the

    severe localized food insecurity: due to refugee influx - as of 30 April 2022, about 29,100 refugees from the Central African Republic and 22,100 from the Democratic Republic of the Congo were residing in the country, mostly in Likouala and Plateaux departments; host communities face food shortages and limited livelihood opportunities, and refugees’ food security is essentially dependent on continued humanitarian assistance (2022)

  • Djibouti

    widespread lack of access: due to unfavorable weather and high food prices - about 132,000 people were estimated to be severely food insecure between March and June 2022 mainly due to insufficient rains in 2021 and 2022, which affected rangelands and pastoral livelihoods, and high food prices (2022)

  • Eswatini

    severe localized food insecurity: due to higher staple food prices - the price of maize meal, the key food staple, increased in the first five months of 2022 and, as of May 2022, were 3 percent higher on a yearly basis; wheat flour prices were also at record highs in May 2022; this mainly reflects the elevated global prices and the country’s high dependence on imported wheat to satisfy national consumption needs (2022)

  • Ethiopia

    widespread lack of access: due to conflict in Tigray Region, drought conditions in southeastern areas, high food prices - The difficult and worsening food security situation is the result of multiple shocks affecting food availability and access including: the conflict in northern Tigray Region and in adjacent areas of Amhara and Afar regions, which began in November 2020; in Tigray region alone, 5.3 million people are estimated to be severely food insecure; the failure of the March‑May 2022 “Gu‑Genna” rains in southern pastoral areas of southern Oromiya Region and southern Somali Region, exacerbated drought conditions prevailing since late 2020, causing severe crop and livestock losses; severe macroeconomic challenges including insufficient foreign currency reserves and the continuous depreciation of the national currency, as a result, inflation is at very high levels, with the year‑on‑year food inflation rate estimated at 35.5 percent in July, one the highest of the last decade; these difficulties are exacerbated by the ripple effects of the Ukraine war, which triggered hikes in international prices of wheat, fuel and fertilizers (2022)

  • Guinea

    severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced incomes - about 1.22 million people are projected to be in need of food assistance between June and August 2022, primarily due to food access constraints on account of the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic (2022)

  • Haiti

    severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced agricultural production, sociopolitical turmoil, natural disasters - about 4.56 million people are estimated to be facing severe acute food insecurity and in need of urgent food assistance between March and June 2022; the high levels of food insecurity are the result of consecutive reduced cereal harvests between 2018 and 2021, and elevated food prices, exacerbated by socio-political turmoil and worsening insecurity; the lack of income-earning opportunities, amid worsening insecurity and difficult macroeconomic conditions, is likely to heighten food insecurity in 2022 (2022)

  • Iraq

    severe localized food insecurity: due to civil conflict and economic slowdown - the 2022 Humanitarian Needs Overview identified 2.5 million people in need of humanitarian assistance, of which 960,000 have acute humanitarian needs; while the number of people in need remained similar to the previous year, the severity of those needs increased, largely due to the impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic on top of an existing humanitarian crisis, leading to a 35% increase in the number of people in acute need; more than half of these are concentrated in the governorates of Nineveh and Anbar; the number of severely food insecure people is estimated at about 435,000, while 731,000 are vulnerable to food insecurity (2022)

  • Kenya

    exceptional shortfall in aggregate food production/supplies: due to drought conditions - in the March to June 2022 period, about 4.1 million people were estimated to be severely food insecure; this figure is about 40% higher than the same time last year; severe rainfall deficits during the March-May 2022 rainy season have impaired pasture regeneration in several central, northern and eastern pastoral and agro-pastoral areas; as of late July 2022, between 25% and more than 85% of the grassland was affected by severe drought reflecting consecutive poor rainy seasons since late 2020 affecting both crop and livestock production; prices of maize are at high levels across the country due to reduced availability and high fuel prices inflating production and transportation costs; as the June–September 2022 dry season has started and forecasts point to a poor October–December 2022 “short‑rains” season, food insecurity conditions are expected to further deteriorate (2022)

  • Korea, North

    widespread lack of access: due to low food consumption levels, poor dietary diversity, and economic downturn - a large portion of the population suffers from low levels of food consumption and very poor dietary diversity; the economic constraints, particularly resulting from the global impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic, have increased the population’s vulnerability to food insecurity; the food gap is estimated at about 860,000 mt, equivalent to approximately 2-3 months of food use, if this gap is not adequately covered through commercial imports and/or food aid, households could experience a harsh lean period (2022)

  • Lebanon

    widespread lack of access: due to the ongoing financial and economic crisis - in September 2021, the United Nations estimated that, taking into account multiple factors other than income, such as access to health, education and public utilities, 82% of the population lives in multidimensional poverty in 2021, up from 42% in 2019 (2022)

  • Lesotho

    severe localized food insecurity: due to poor harvests and increased food prices - according to the latest national food security assessment, 22% of the rural population are expected to face acute food insecurity between October 2022 and March 2023, compared to 15% between July and September 2022; the forecasted proportion translates into 320,000 people in rural areas, while an additional 201,000 people in urban areas are foreseen to also need assistance; the foreseen increase of acute food insecurity levels is primarily due to the reduced harvest, high food prices in basic food and non‑food commodities and a slow recovery of households’ income reflecting a downturn in economic growth; harvesting of the 2022 main-season summer cereal crops, mostly maize and sorghum, is complete; production of maize, the main cereal staple, is about one‑third of the average, while the sorghum output is almost negligible; the poor harvest was primarily due to torrential rainfalls during January and February 2022, which caused localized flooding and resulted in crop losses (2022)

  • Liberia

    severe localized food insecurity: due to high food prices and economic downturn - according to the latest analysis, about 940,000 people were estimated to be in “Crisis” and above between June and August 2021 due to high food inflation rates and the negative effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic on the economy; production of rice, a main food staple, was estimated at a below-average level in 2021, a factor that is expected to further aggravate food insecurity in 2022; prices of staple food have been on the rise in most domestic markets since early 2021; the main drivers of the food insecurity are the effects on crop production of floods and high infestations of pests, including Fall Armyworm in some localized areas (2022)

  • Libya

    severe localized food insecurity: due to civil insecurity, economic and political instability, and high food prices - an estimated 800,000 people, 10% of the population, need humanitarian assistance, of which 500,000 require food assistance; the country relies heavily on imports (up to 90%) to cover its cereal consumption requirements (mostly wheat for human consumption and barley for feed); between 2016 and 2020, the country sourced over 30% of its wheat imports from Ukraine, and 20% from the Russian Federation; almost 65% of total maize imports of 650,000 mt, and 50% of total barley imports of 1 million mt originated from Ukraine, making the Libya vulnerable to disruptions in shipments from the Black Sea region (2022)

  • Madagascar

    severe localized food insecurity: due to the effects of extreme weather events and slow economic recovery - according to the latest May 2022 analysis, the prevalence of food insecurity in the southern regions is projected to peak at 2.1 million people by December 2022 until at least March 2023; overall, the number of people requiring humanitarian assistance by the end of 2022 is expected to be about 30 percent higher compared to the peak number in 2021; the poor food security situation is mainly the consequence of six consecutive poor agricultural seasons that culminated in very tight food supplies for rural households and curbed incomes from crop sales; high rates of poverty and increased prices of essential food commodities, combined with a high reliance on market supplies due to low harvests for own consumption, are also contributing to the high rates of food insecurity across the southern regions (2022)

  • Malawi

    severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced incomes and shortfalls in cereal production - an estimated 1.65 million people are facing “Crisis” levels of food insecurity between January and March 2022, underpinned by localized shortfalls in cereal production and the lingering impact of an economic downturn due to the COVID-19 pandemic; a moderate decline in cereal production in 2022, particularly in southern districts, and increasing food prices are expected to lead to an increased prevalence of food insecurity in the last quarter of 2022; the prevalence of food insecurity is likely to increase in the second half of 2022 and early 2023 mainly due to the high food prices and low cereal production in southern districts; in addition to the adverse impacts of the low cereal harvest in the south and high food prices across the country, a third factor that is foreseen to contribute to a worsening of food insecurity conditions is the forecasted slow economic growth in 2022, underpinned by the lingering effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the country’s elevated debt levels (2022)

  • Mali

    severe localized food insecurity:

    due to civil insecurity and high food prices - the food security situation deteriorated in 2021, particularly in conflict-affected central and northern areas; according to the latest analysis, about 1.84 million people are estimated to be in “Crisis” and above between June and August 2022, as a result of worsening conflicts, weather shocks, reduced cereal production in 2021 and high food prices

    (2022)

  • Mauritania

    severe localized food insecurity: due to shortfall in agricultural production and economic downturn - according to the latest analysis, about 878,000 people are assessed to be in need of humanitarian assistance between June and August 2022 as a result of shortfalls in cereal and livestock production in 2021 and reduced incomes owing to the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy (2022)

  • Mozambique

    severe localized food insecurity:

    due to shortfall in agricultural production and economic downturn - the number of people in need of food assistance is expected to rise above the 1.86 million estimated in 2021-2022 because of three key factors; firstly, higher year‑on‑year prices of food and fuel are reducing households’ purchasing power, worsening their economic access to food, particularly for low-income households; secondly, the impact of extreme weather events on agricultural production in central and southern provinces in 2022 is likely to mean that farming households in the affected areas have both low food supplies from their own production and curtailed income-earning opportunities from crop sales, impinging on their food availability and economic access to food; thirdly, there has been an increase in attacks by non‑state armed groups in the northern province of Cabo Delgado in 2022

    (2022)

  • Namibia

    severe localized food insecurity: due to localized shortfalls in cereal production and rising food prices - cereal production increased in 2022 and this is expected to have a positive impact on food security, however, rising prices of basic foods is likely to limit a more substantial improvement (2022)

  • Niger

    exceptional shortfall in aggregate food production/supplies: due to internal conflict and shortfall in cereal production - according to the latest analysis, about 4.4 million people are estimated to need humanitarian food assistance between June and August 2022, reflecting worsening conflicts and security conditions, and unfavorable weather that resulted in a sharp fall in cereal production in 2021; additionally, higher year-on-year prices of food continue to constrain access to food, aggravating conditions (2022)

  • Nigeria

    widespread lack of access: due to persistent civil conflict in the northern areas, localized shortfalls in cereal production, and high food prices - according to the latest analysis, about 19.45 million people are projected to be in need of humanitarian food assistance between June and August 2022, owing to the deterioration of security conditions and conflicts in northern states, localized shortfalls in staple food production, high food prices and reduced incomes (2022)

  • Pakistan

    severe localized food insecurity: due to population displacements, economic constraints, and high prices of the main food staple - according to the latest analysis, about 4.7 million people, 25% of the population, are estimated to be facing high levels of acute food insecurity, between April and June 2022 in 25 districts analyzed in Balochistan, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces; prices of wheat flour, the country’s main staple, were at high levels in most markets in May 2022, constraining access to the staple food (2022)

  • Senegal

    severe localized food insecurity: due to localized shortfalls in cereal production and reduced incomes - according to the latest analysis, about 881,000 people are estimated to be in need of humanitarian assistance between June and August 2022, mostly on account of localized shortfalls in cereal production in 2021 and reduced incomes owing to the impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic (2022)

  • Sierra Leone

    severe localized food insecurity: due to high food prices and reduced incomes - about 1.6 million people are estimated to be severely food insecure between June and August 2022 on account of high food prices and low purchasing power, resulting in acute constraints on households’ economic access to food (2022)

  • Somalia

    exceptional shortfall in aggregate food production/supplies: due to drought conditions and internal conflict - about 5.2 million people were estimated to face severe food insecurity in May 2022, as a result of consecutive poor rainy seasons since late 2020, which severely affected crop and livestock production, and due to worsening civil conflict since early 2021; if humanitarian assistance is not adequately scaled up, the number of food insecure is projected to increase to 7.11 million (45% of the total population) between June and September 2022 (2022)

  • South Sudan

    widespread lack of access: due to economic downturn, civil insecurity, lingering impact of floods and prolonged conflict - despite sustained humanitarian assistance, food insecurity still affects large segments of the population, driven by macroeconomic challenges that have resulted in rampant food and non-food inflation, insufficient food supplies due to a stagnant agricultural production, livelihood losses owing to consecutive years with widespread floods and the escalation of organized violence at the sub-national level since 2020; about 7.74 million people, approximately 63% of the total population, are estimated to be severely food insecure during the lean season between April and July 2022 (2022)

  • Sri Lanka

    widespread lack of access: due to serious macroeconomic challenges, significant reduction in 2022 cereal output, and high food prices - severe macroeconomic challenges, mostly reflecting dwindling foreign currency reserves after revenues from merchandise exports, remittances, and from the tourist sector declined dramatically over the last year, have had a negative impact on the country’s capacity to import cereals; the 2022 cereal production sharply declined due to a government ordered reduction in the application of chemical fertilizers; unprecedentedly high food prices are constraining economic access to food for a majority of households

  • Sudan

    severe localized food insecurity: due to conflict, civil insecurity, and soaring food prices - according to the results of the latest analysis, about 11.7 million people (24% of the analyzed population) are estimated to be severely food insecure during June to September 2022; the main drivers are macroeconomic challenges resulting in rampant food and non‑food inflation, tight supplies due to a poor 2021 harvest and the escalation of intercommunal violence (2022)

  • Syria

    exceptional shortfall in aggregate food production/supplies: due to civil conflict and economic crisis - the latest available nationwide food security assessment estimated that about 12 million people, 60% of the overall population, were food insecure in 2021, a slight decline from 12.4 million in 2020, but 5 million more than at the end of 2019, mostly due to constrained livelihood opportunities and a rapidly worsening economy (2022)

  • Tanzania

    severe localized food insecurity: due to localized shortfalls in staple food production - about 592,000 people are estimated to be in need of humanitarian assistance between May and September 2022, mainly located in northeastern regions, reflecting crop losses during the October–December “Vuli” 2021 and March–May “Masika” 2022 seasons due to poor rains; high food prices are also constraining households’ economic access to food (2022)

  • Uganda

    severe localized food insecurity: due to weather extremes, civil insecurity, and high food prices- in Karamoja Region, about 518,000 people, 41% of the population, are estimated to be severely food insecure between March and July 2022, as a result of consecutive poor rainy seasons that adversely affected crop and livestock production, frequent episodes of cattle rustling leading to the loss of productive assets, and high food prices (2022)

  • Ukraine

    widespread lack of access: due to conflict - production prospects of 2022 winter crops hampered by low availability of inputs, delivery challenges, difficult physical access to fields due to the war, and eventual labor shortages; forecast for cereal exports in 2022 reduced, amid port closures, damage to infrastructure and implementation of government policies to secure sufficient domestic supplies; as of early March 2022, about 12 million people estimated to be in need of life saving assistance (2022)

  • Venezuela

    widespread lack of access: due to severe economic crisis - the national economy, highly dependent on oil production and exports, was forecast to contract in 2021 for the eighth consecutive year; with the persistent negative effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic that have compounded the already severe macro‑economic crisis, the access to food of the most vulnerable households is expected to deteriorate throughout 2021 and into 2022 due to widespread losses of income‑generating activities and soaring food prices (2022)

  • Yemen

    widespread lack of access: due to conflict, poverty, floods, high food and fuel prices - the number of food insecure people was projected to increase by over 1 million to 17.4 million between January and May 2022, increasing to 19 million starting from June until the end of the year; economic conditions in the country remain dire; the conflict is further hampering the already constrained livelihood activities and humanitarian access; income earning opportunities have declined due to COVID‑19‑related business disruptions (2022)

  • Zambia

    severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced incomes and localized shortfalls in cereal production - cereal production declined to a below‑average level in 2022 and along with the impact of rising food prices, the number of food insecure is foreseen to increase at the end of 2022 to levels above the 1.6 million people estimated in the first quarter of 2022 (2022)

  • Zimbabwe

    widespread lack of access: due to high food prices and cereal production downturn - based on the current situation, the prevalence of food insecurity is foreseen to increase from the latest assessment that estimated 2.5 to 3 million people in need of humanitarian assistance during the peak of the lean season between February and May 2022; this most likely scenario predominantly reflects the impact of the downturn in domestic food production and rising costs of food; the forecasted slowdown in economic growth in 2022 and the lingering impacts of the COVID‑19 pandemic present further downside risks to food security in 2022-2023; the decline in economic growth is seen to continue to adversely affect employment and livelihood opportunities, with negative implications for households’ income and their ability to purchase foods (2022)