Field Listing

Food insecurity

Food crises are nearly always due to a combination of factors, but it is important to establish whether the nature of food crises is predominantly related to lack of food availability, limited access to food, or severe but localized problems. Countries in crisis requiring external assistance for food are expected to lack the resources to deal with reported critical problems of food insecurity. Three levels of crises are described in this field in descending severity: countries facing an exceptional shortfall in aggregate food production/supplies as a result of crop failure, natural disasters, interruption of imports, disruption of distribution, excessive post-harvest losses, or other supply bottlenecks; countries with widespread lack of access, where a majority of the population is considered to be unable to procure food from local markets, due to very low incomes, exceptionally high food prices, or the inability to circulate within the country; countries with severe localized food insecurity due to the influx of refugees, a concentration of internally displaced persons, or areas with combinations of crop failure and deep poverty.

  • Afghanistan

    severe localized food insecurity: due to civil conflict, population displacement, and economic slowdown - the food security situation worsened in recent months due to the impact of COVID‑19 as informal labor opportunities and remittances declined; between November 2020 and March 2021, about 13.15 million people were estimated to be in severe acute food insecurity and to require urgent humanitarian assistance, including 8.52 million people in "Crisis" and 4.3 million people in "Emergency"; the food security of the vulnerable populations, including IDPs and the urban poor, is likely to deteriorate as curfews and restrictions on movements to contain the COVID‑19 outbreak limit the employment opportunities for casual laborers (2021)

  • Bangladesh

    severe localized food insecurity: due to economic constraints - food insecurity poverty levels have increased due to income losses and a decline in remittances caused by the effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic (2021)

  • Burkina Faso

    severe localized food insecurity: due to civil insecurity in the north - according to the latest analysis, about 2.87 million people are estimated to need humanitarian assistance in the June−August 2021; in Centre-Nord and Sahel regions, insecurity continues to cause population displacements, further deteriorating the food security situation (2021)

  • Burma

    severe localized food insecurity: due to conflict, political instability, and economic constraints - the political crisis, following the military takeover on 1 February 2021, resulted in increased tensions and unrest throughout the country; the current uncertain political situation may further compromise the fragile situation of vulnerable households and the Rohingya IDPs residing in the country; persisting conflicts in Rakhine, Chin, Kachin, Kayin, and Shan states have triggered large-scale population displacements particularly since 2017; income losses and a decline in remittances, due to the impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic, have affected the food security situation of vulnerable households (2021)

  • Burundi

    widespread lack of access: due to floods, and lack of rain - about 1 million people are estimated to be severely food insecure in the June−September 2021 period, mainly due to livelihood losses caused by poor rains in northern areas and by floods in western areas bordering Lake Tanganyika; the socio‑economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has put further constraints on livelihoods of vulnerable households. (2021)

  • Cabo Verde

    severe localized food insecurity: due to lingering effects of drought - about 10,000 people (approximately 2% of the total population) were estimated to be in “Crisis” in the June‑August 2020 period; the main causes of the food insecurity are the drought and pest attacks on cereal and fodder production (2021)

  • Cameroon

    severe localized food insecurity: due to civil insecurity and population displacements - according to a March 2021 analysis, about 1.9 million people (7 percent of the total population) were projected to be severely food insecure in the June‑August 2021 period; this mainly results from the effects of Boko Haram incursions in the Far North Region, the socio‑political unrest in the Northwest and Southwest regions and COVID‑19 related economic shocks, which disrupted trade flows and agricultural practices, deteriorated livelihoods and displaced people (2021)

  • Central African Republic

    exceptional shortfall in aggregate food production/supplies: due to conflict and population displacements - ongoing conflicts and population displacements due to armed violence that followed the December 2020 elections, adding to the already high levels of civil insecurity, coupled with restrictive measures to control the COVID‑19 pandemic, are expected to continue affecting agricultural activities and limit farmers’ access to crop‑growing areas and inputs, with a negative impact on 2021 crop production (2021)

  • Chad

    widespread lack of access: due to civil insecurity - about 1.78 million people were projected to be in “Crisis” and above in the June‑August 2021 period due to persistent insecurity in the Lac and Tibesti regions, which continues to disrupt livelihood activities and to cause population displacements; about 336,124 people were displaced due to insecurity in Lake Chad Region; COVID‑19 pandemic containment measures continue to slow down the national economy, reducing employment opportunities; this downturn has contributed to a weakening of the purchasing power of poor vulnerable households, limiting their access to food (2021)

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the

    widespread lack of access: due to persistent civil insecurity and COVID-19 restrictions - 27.3 million people are estimated to be severely food insecure in the February−July 2021 period, the highest level on record; this is due to the severe impact of movement restrictions related to the COVID‑19 pandemic which continue to limit cross‑border trade and access to markets, and the ongoing conflict in eastern provinces, which triggered population displacements and locally disrupt crop production, resulting in shortages of food supplies in some markets; the eruption, on 22 May 2021, of the Nyiragongo volcano, in North Kivu Province, caused the further displacement of about 415,000 people (2021)

  • Congo, Republic of the

    severe localized food insecurity: due to restrictive measures related to the COVID‑19 pandemic - the negative impact of the restrictive measures related to the COVID‑19 pandemic on informal labor and on food supply chains, resulted, on one side, in the loss of income and, on the other, in high food prices due to a decline in food supply; these factors limited the access to food for the most vulnerable population (2021)

  • Djibouti

    widespread lack of access: due to floods - about 194,000 people were estimated to be severely food insecure in the January‑August 2021 period, mainly due to livelihood losses caused by floods and landslides, and as a result of the socio‑economic impact of the pandemic on the livelihoods of vulnerable households; Cyclone Sagar struck the country on 19 and 20 May 2021, bringing torrential rains; the precipitation received, about 110 mm, was the equivalent of the average rainfall for an entire year and triggered heavy flooding, especially in the capital, Djibouti City and surrounding areas (2021)

  • Eswatini

    severe localized food insecurity: due to the reduction in income-generating activities - the economy is only expected to recover moderately in 2021, following the pandemic-driven contraction in 2020, and households will continue to face food access constraints; an estimated 209,000 people are projected to be food insecure in the April−September 2021 period, down from 347,000 in the January−March 2021 period (2021)

  • Ethiopia

    widespread lack of access: due to civil conflict - more than 16 million people were estimated to be severely food insecure in the May−June 2021 period; particular concerns exist for the Tigray Region and neighboring zones of Amhara and Afar regions, where 5.5 million people (about 60 percent of the population) are estimated to face severe food insecurity due to the conflict which started in November 2020 (2021)

  • Guinea

    severe localized food insecurity: due to localized shortfalls of cereal production - despite overall favorable food security conditions, the most vulnerable households still need external food assistance; the aggregate number of severely food insecure people was estimated at 267,000 during the lean season between June and August 2020;  it is very likely that the number of food insecure population increased with the impact of COVID‑19 (2021)

  • Haiti

    severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced agricultural production and socio political turmoil - about 4.4 million people are forecast to be facing severe acute food insecurity or to be in need of urgent food assistance in the March-June 2021 time period; the high levels of food insecurity reflect the worsening household access to food, which was constrained by the negative effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic, primarily through income and job losses; the low availability of locally produced staple crops and high prices of food items exacerbated the situation; the ongoing socio‑political unrest has disrupted market activities, especially in urban areas, and reduced mobility due to road blockage has further affected the access to food (2021)

  • Iraq

    severe localized food insecurity: due to civil conflict, low oil prices, and economic slowdown - the 2021 Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) for Iraq identified 4.1 million people in need, of which 2.4 million have acute humanitarian needs; while the number of people in need remained similar to the previous year, the severity of those needs increased, largely due to the impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic on top of an existing humanitarian crisis, leading to a 35% increase in the number of people in acute need; more than half of these are concentrated in the governorates of Nineveh and Anbar; the number of severely food insecure people is estimated at about 435,000, while 731,000 are vulnerable to food insecurity (2021)

  • Kenya

    exceptional shortfall in aggregate food production/supplies: due to poor seasonal rains, and desert locusts - about 2 million people were estimated to be severely food insecure in the March−May 2021 period, reflecting the poor performance of both the October−December 2020 “short-rains” and the March−May 2021 “long-rains” that affected crop and livestock production in northern and eastern pastoral, agro-pastoral and marginal agriculture areas; other limiting factors include the measures implemented to curb the spread of the COVID‑19 pandemic which affected off‑farm income earning opportunities, including petty trade, charcoal and firewood sales, and to localized but significant locust‑induced pasture losses (2021)

  • Korea, North

    widespread lack of access: due to low food consumption levels, poor dietary diversity, and economic downturn - a large portion of the population suffers from low levels of food consumption and very poor dietary diversity; the economic constraints, particularly resulting from the global impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic, have increased the population’s vulnerability to food insecurity; the food gap is estimated at about 860,000 mt in the 2020/21 marketing year (November/October); if this gap is not adequately covered through commercial imports and/or food aid, households could experience a harsh lean period, particularly from August until October, when the 2021 main season grain crops are expected to be available for consumption (2021)

  • Lebanon

    exceptional shortfall in aggregate food production/supplies:

    due to the ongoing financial and economic crisis - in August 2020, the UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia estimated that more than 55% of the population lived in poverty, up from 28% in 2019; current figures are likely to be higher due to a fall in households' purchasing power; the already worrisome economic conditions, with increasing unemployment, poverty, and skyrocketing inflation rates, have further worsened due to the COVID‑19 pandemic and the measures introduced to contain the spread of the disease

    (2021)

  • Lesotho

    severe localized food insecurity:

    due to localized shortfalls in production and loss of income-generating activities -  a slow economic recovery in 2021 will continue to impose constraints on households’ incomes, impinging on their economic capacity to access food; overall, the number of food insecure people is expected to decline from the estimated 582,000 that faced acute food insecurity in the October 2020−March 2021 period; the possibility of a third wave of COVID‑19 cases in the country and neighboring South Africa, increases the risk for the enforcement of new containment measures, which could prolong the high levels of unemployment and cause further income losses among the most vulnerable households

    (2021)

  • Liberia

    Severe localized food insecurity: due to high food prices: about 550,000 people were estimated to be in “Crisis” in the June‑August 2021 period due high food prices, including rice, which is mostly imported, and a significant increase in overall inflation (2021)

  • Libya

    severe localized food insecurity: due to civil insecurity, economic and political instability, and high food prices - an estimated 1.3 million people (23% of the population) are in need of humanitarian assistance of which 700,000 require food assistance; half of the people in need of humanitarian assistance are internally displaced or migrants that are residing in, or transiting through, the country (2021)

  • Madagascar

    severe localized food insecurity: due to drought in southern areas and limited income-earning opportunities - an estimated 1.14 million people are food insecure in southern and southeastern regions and require urgent humanitarian assistance; the effects of a severe drought on agricultural production in 2021 and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly the loss of incomes due to the economic slowdown, are the key drivers of food insecurity (2021)

  • Malawi

    severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced incomes - nationally, cereal production is estimated at a bumper high in 2021, which is expected to result in average to above‑average household cereal supplies and thus improvements in food security; despite the good food supply situation, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to curb access to food due to reduced incomes (2021)

  • Mali

    severe localized food insecurity:

    due to civil insecurity - according to the latest analysis, about 1.37 million people are estimated to be in a food “Crisis”  in the June−August 2021 period as a result of the escalation of the conflict that continues to cause population displacements, combined with the impacts of the pandemic and weather shocks

    (2021)

  • Mauritania

    severe localized food insecurity: due to poor performance of pastoral cropping season - according to the latest analysis, about 484,000 people are assessed to need humanitarian assistance in the June−August 2021 period as a result of fodder production deficits in Trarza, Brakna, Gorgol, Guidimaka and Assaba districts (2021)

  • Morocco

    note:  data does not include former Western Sahara

  • Mozambique

    severe localized food insecurity:

    due to economic downturn, localized shortfalls in staple food production, and insecurity in northern areas - an estimated 1.65 million people require humanitarian assistance at least up until September 2021; populations in Cabo Delgado are experiencing the severest levels of acute food insecurity, where an estimated 227,000 people are facing "Emergency" levels of food insecurity, reflecting the effects of the conflict on livelihoods and rainfall deficits that caused a drop in cereal production in 2021

    (2021)

  • Namibia

    severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced incomes - an above-average harvest in 2021 is expected to lead to an improvement in food security compared to the previous year, however, the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, primarily income and job losses, are expected to continue to constrain households’ access to food (2021)

  • Niger

    widespread lack of access: due to civil conflict - according to the latest analysis, about 2.3 million people are assessed to need humanitarian assistance in the June−August 2021 period due to the increase in security incidents which have resulted in widespread disruption of agricultural and marketing activities, diminishing livelihood opportunities for households (2021)

  • Nigeria

    widespread lack of access: due to persistent civil conflict in the northern areas - according to the latest analysis, about 12.8 million people are assessed to be in need of humanitarian assistance in the June−August 2021 period as a result of worsening conflict that is driving new population displacements; over 2.8 million people are estimated to be internally displaced in northeastern states of Adamawa, Borno and Yobe, due to communal clashes in northwestern/northcentral zones and natural disasters; the areas inaccessible to humanitarian interventions are facing the worst food insecurity conditions (2021)

  • Pakistan

    severe localized food insecurity: due to population displacements, economic constraints, and high prices of the main food staple - the main causes of food insecurity in the country are limited livelihood opportunities, high food prices, and recurrent natural disasters, amplified by the COVID‑19 pandemic; severe floods in August 2020 in Sindh Province affected the livelihoods of about 2 million people and caused severe damage to housing and infrastructure; in addition, prices of wheat flour, the country’s main staple, were at high levels in most markets in May 2021, constraining access to food of the most vulnerable households; Pakistan hosts large numbers of registered and unregistered Afghan refugees; most of these people are in need of humanitarian assistance and are straining the already limited resources of the host communities; poverty levels have increased due to losses of income-generating opportunities (2021)

  • Senegal

    severe localized food insecurity: due to localized shortfalls in cereal production - according to the latest analysis, about 490,000 people are estimated to need humanitarian assistance in the June−August 2021 period due to the effects of adverse weather events (droughts and floods) on cereal and fodder production (2021)

  • Sierra Leone

    severe localized food insecurity: due to high food prices - about 1.76 million people are estimated to be severely food insecure during the June−August 2021 period on account of high food prices and low purchasing power, resulting in acute constraints on households’ access to food; the main drivers of the food insecurity are the effects of adverse weather events (flooding), Fall Armyworm attacks on maize in some localized areas, high inflation rate, weakening local currency and the effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic restrictions (2021)

  • Somalia

    exceptional shortfall in aggregate food production/supplies: due to poor seasonal rains - about 2.8 million people are estimated to be severely food insecure in the April−September 2021 period, mainly as a result of the cumulative impact of poor October−December 2020 “Deyr” rains and April−June “Gu” rains, which severely affected crop and livestock production; below‑average cereal output gathered in 2020; production of 2021 main season cereals forecast at 20‑40 percent below average due to unfavorable seasonal rains; severe pasture and water shortages in pastoral areas are affecting livestock conditions (2021)

  • South Sudan

    widespread lack of access: due to economic downturn, civil insecurity, lingering impact of floods and prolonged conflict - despite sustained humanitarian assistance, food insecurity still affects large segments of the population, driven by insufficient food supplies, an economic downturn, high food prices and the lingering impact of widespread floods in 2020; about 7.2 million people (about 60% of the total population) are estimated to be severely food insecure in the April−July 2021 period; particular concern exists for households in Jonglei, Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Warrap states and in neighboring Pibor Administrative Area, where 60-85% of the  population is estimated to be severely food insecure, with a total of 108,000 people facing “Catastrophe” levels of food insecurity (2021)

  • Sudan

    severe localized food insecurity: due to conflict, civil insecurity, and soaring food prices - the number of severely food insecure people was estimated at 9.8 million in the June−September 2021 period, due to flood-induced livelihood losses sustained in 2020, soaring food prices and inter‑communal conflict; the main drivers are macro‑economic challenges resulting in rampant food and non‑food inflation, the lingering impact of 2020 widespread floods on livelihoods and the escalation of inter‑communal violence in western Greater Darfur Region and in eastern South Kordofan, North Kordofan and Blue Nile states (2021)

  • Syria

    exceptional shortfall in aggregate food production/supplies: due to civil conflict and a stagnant economy - a nationwide food security assessment estimates that about 12.4 million people (60% of the overall population) are now food insecure in 2021, 5.4 million more than at the end of 2019, mostly due to constrained livelihood opportunities and a rapidly worsening economy; although some international food assistance is being provided, Syrian refugees are also pressuring host communities' resources in neighboring countries (2021)

  • Tanzania

    severe localized food insecurity: due to localized shortfalls in staple food production - number of severely food insecure people estimated at 490,000 for period May‑September 2021, markedly lower than in period November 2019‑April 2020 (2021)

  • Uganda

    widespread lack of access: due to reduced incomes, and floods - in traditionally food secure urban areas, including the capital, Kampala, more than 600,000 people were food insecure due to the restrictive measures introduced to curb the spread of the COVID-19 virus; the food security situation in urban areas was the most affected by the COVID‑19‑related restrictive measures, as poor households mainly rely on the daily wages obtained through casual labor, petty trading, food vending, construction activities and domestic work; despite the phasing out of some restrictive measures, the food security situation of the urban poor has not significantly improved, as the restrictions still in place on business operations are resulting in a slow recovery of the economic activities; in rural areas, torrential rains in April and May 2020 resulted in localized crop and livelihood losses (2021)

  • Venezuela

    widespread lack of access: due to severe economic crisis - the total number of refugees and migrants from the country is estimated at 5.4 million, with the largest populations located in Colombia, Peru, and Chile; humanitarian needs for refugees and migrants are significant; the national economy, highly dependent on oil production and exports, is forecast to contract in 2021 for the eighth consecutive year; with the persistent negative effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic that have compounded the already severe macro‑economic crisis, the access to food of the most vulnerable households is expected to deteriorate throughout 2021 due to widespread losses of income‑generating activities and soaring food prices (2021)

  • Yemen

    widespread lack of access: due to conflict, poverty, floods, high food and fuel prices - between January and June 2021, the number of food insecure was projected to increase by nearly 3 million to 16.2 million people; out of these, an estimated 11 million people will likely be in "Crisis," 5 million in "Emergency," and the number of those in "Catastrophe" will likely increase to 47,000; economic conditions in the country remain dire; the conflict is further hampering the already constrained livelihood activities and humanitarian access; income earning opportunities have declined due to COVID‑19‑related business disruptions (2021)

  • Zambia

    severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced incomes - the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions have aggravated food insecurity across the country, particularly due to income reductions that have constrained households’ economic access to food; cereal production is estimated at a bumper high in 2021 and, as a result, overall food security is expected to improve compared to the previous year (2021)

  • Zimbabwe

    widespread lack of access: due to High food prices and economic downturn - a well above-average cereal production in 2021 has resulted in an improvement in food security; an estimated 1.8 million people are still assessed to be food insecure in the July−September period, about half the level in the previous year, largely on account of poor food access due to prevailing high prices and reduced incomes owing to the effects of the economic downturn; the negative effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic aggravated conditions, particularly with regard to income levels due to market instability from COVID‑19 lockdown measures