Field Listing

Major rivers (by length in km)

This entry describes one of the two major surface hydrological features of a country: large flowing bodies of water termed rivers (the other feature is lakes). The entry includes a list of major rivers, defined as having a length of 1,000 km or greater. These rivers constitute major drainage basins or watersheds that capture the flow of the majority of surface water flow. Taken together with major lakes, these features constitute the primary sources of surface freshwater.
In instances where a river flows through more than one country, a note has been added to the field to indicate the country where the river starts and the country where a river ends. [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth.

  • Afghanistan

    Amu Darya (shared with Tajikistan [s], Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan [m]) - 2,620 km; Helmand river source (shared with Iran) - 1,130 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Angola

    Zambezi (shared with Zambia [s], Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique [m]) - 2,740 km; Okavango river source (shared with Namibia and Botswana [m]) - 1,600 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Argentina

    Rio de la Plata/Parana river mouth (shared with Brazil [s], Paraguay, and Uruguay) - 4,880 km; Paraguay (shared with Brazil [s], and Paraguay [m]) - 2,549 km; Uruguay (shared with Brazil [s] and Uruguay [m]) - 1,610 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Australia

    River Murray - 2,508 km; Darling River - 1,545 km; Murrumbidgee River - 1,485 km; Lachlan River - 1,339 km; Cooper Creek - 1,113 km; Flinders River - 1,004 km

  • Austria

    Danube (shared with Germany [s], Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Bangladesh

    Brahmaputra river mouth (shared with China [s] and India) - 3,969 km; Ganges river mouth (shared with India [s]) - 2,704 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Belarus

    Dnieper (shared with Russia [s] and Ukraine [m]) - 2,287 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Botswana

    Zambezi (shared with Zambia [s]), Angola, Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique [m]) - 2,740 km; Limpopo (shared with South Africa [s], Zimbabwe, and Mozambique [m]) - 1,800 km; Okavango river mouth (shared with Angola [s], and Namibia) - 1,600 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Brazil

    Amazon river mouth (shared with Peru [s]) - 6,400 km; Rio de la Plata/Parana river source (shared with Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay [m]) - 4,880 km; Tocantins - 3,650 km; Sao Francisco - 3,180 km; Paraguay river source (shared with Argentina and Paraguay [m]) - 2,549 km; Rio Negro river mouth (shared with Colombia [s] and Venezuela) - 2,250 km; Uruguay river source (shared with Argentina and Uruguay [m]) - 1,610 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Bulgaria

    Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Burkina Faso

    Volta river source (shared with Ghana [m]) - 1,600 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Burma

    Mekong (shared with China [s], Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam [m]) - 4,350 km; Salween river mouth (shared with China [s] and Thailand) - 3,060 km; Irrawaddy river mouth (shared with China [s]) - 2,809 km; Chindwin - 1,158 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Cambodia

    Mekong (shared with China [s], Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam [m]) - 4,350 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Canada

    Mackenzie - 4, 241 km; Yukon river source (shared with the US [m]) - 3,185 km; Saint Lawrence river mouth (shared with US) - 3,058 km; Nelson - 2,570 km; Columbia river source (shared with the US [m]) - 1,953 km; Churchill - 1,600 km; Fraser - 1,368 km; Ottawa - 1,271 km; Athabasca - 1,231 km; North Saskatchewan - 1,220 km; Liard - 1,115 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Central African Republic

    Ubangi river source (shared with Democratic Republic of Congo and Republic of Congo [m]) - 2,270 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • China

    Yangtze - 6,300 km; Huang He - 5,464 km; Amur river source (shared with Mongolia and Russia [m]) - 4,444 km; Mekong river source (shared with Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam [m]) - 4,350 km; Brahmaputra river source (shared with India and Bangladesh [m]) - 3,969 km; Indus river source (shared with India and Pakistan [m]) - 3,610 km; Salween river source (shared with Thailand and Burma [m]) - 3,060 km; Irrawaddy river source (shared with Burma [m]) - 2,809 km; Pearl (shared with Vietnam [s]) - 2,200 km; Red river source (shared with Vietnam [m]) - 1,149 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Colombia

    Rio Negro river source (shared with Venezuela and Brazil [m]) - 2,250 km; Orinoco (shared with Venezuela [s]) - 2,101 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the

    Congo river mouth (shared with Zambia [s], Angola, and Republic of Congo) - 4,700 km; Ubangi river mouth (shared with Central African Republic [s] and Republic of Congo) - 2,270 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Congo, Republic of the

    Ubangi (shared with Central African Republic [s] and Democratic Republic of Congo [m]) - 2,270 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Croatia

    Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Czechia

    Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km; Elbe river source (shared with Germany [m]) - 1,252 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Egypt

    Nile river mouth (shared with Rwanda [s], Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan, and Sudan) - 6,650 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Ethiopia

    Blue Nile river source (shared with Sudan [m]) - 1,600 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • France

    Rhine  (shared with Switzerland [s], Germany, and Netherlands [m]) - 1,233 km;  Loire - 1,012 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Gambia, The

    Gambia river mouth (shared with Senegal and Guinea [s]) - 1,094 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Germany

    Danube river source (shared with Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km; Elbe river mouth (shared with Czechia [s]) - 1,252 km; Rhine  (shared with Switzerland [s], France, and Netherlands [m]) - 1,233 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Ghana

    Volta river mouth (shared with Burkina Faso [s]) - 1,600 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Guinea

    Niger river source (shared with Mali, and Nigeria [m]) - 4,200 km; Gambia river source (shared with Senegal and The Gambia [m]) - 1,094 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Hungary

    Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • India

    Brahmaputra (shared with China [s] and Bangladesh [m]) - 3,969 km; Indus (shared with China [s] and Pakistan [m]) - 3,610 km; Ganges river source (shared with Bangladesh [m]) - 2,704 km; Godavari - 1,465 km; Sutlej (shared with China [s] and Pakistan [m]) - 1,372 km; Yamuna - 1,370 km; Narmada - 1,289 km; Chenab river source (shared with Pakistan [m]) - 1,086 km; Ghaghara river mouth (shared with China [s] and Nepal) - 1,080 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Indonesia

    Sepik (shared with Papua New Guinea [s]) - 1,126 km; Fly (shared with Papua New Guinea [s]) - 1,050 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Iran

    Euphrates (shared with Turkey [s], Syria, and Iraq [m]) - 3,596 km; Tigris (shared with Turkey, Syria, and Iraq [m]) - 1,950 km; Helmand (shared with Afghanistan [s]) - 1,130 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Iraq

    Euphrates river mouth (shared with Turkey[s], Syria, and Iran) - 3,596 km; Tigris river mouth (shared with Turkey[s], Syria, and Iran) - 1,950 km; the Tigris and Euphrates join to form the Shatt al Arab
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Kazakhstan

    Syr Darya river mouth (shared with Kyrgyzstan [s], Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan) - 3,078 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Kyrgyzstan

    Syr Darya river source (shared with Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan [m] ) - 3,078 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Laos

    Mekong (shared with China [s], Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam [m]) - 4,350 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Lesotho

    Orange river source (shared with South Africa and Namibia [m]) - 2,092 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Malawi

    Zambezi (shared with Zambia [s], Angola, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Tanzania, and Mozambique [m]) - 2,740 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Mali

    Niger (shared with Guinea [s], Niger, and Nigeria [m]) - 4,200 km; Senegal (shared with Guinea [s], Senegal, and Mauritania [m]) - 1,641 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Mauritania

    Senegal river mouth (shared with Guinea [s], Senegal and Mali) - 1,641 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Mexico

    Rio Grande river mouth (shared with US [s]) - 3,057 km; Colorado river mouth (shared with US [s]) - 2,333 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Moldova

    Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km; Dniester (shared with Ukraine [s/m]) - 1,411 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Mongolia

    Amur (shared with China [s] and Russia [m]) - 4,444 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Morocco

    Draa - 1,100 km

  • Mozambique

    Zambezi river mouth (shared with Zambia [s]), Angola, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe) - 2,740 km; Limpopo river mouth (shared with South Africa [s], Botswana, and Zimbabwe) - 1,800 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Namibia

    Zambezi (shared with Zambia [s]), Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique [m]) - 2,740 km; Orange river mouth (shared with Lesotho [s], and South Africa) - 2,092 km; Okavango (shared with Angola [s], and Botswana [m]) - 1,600 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Netherlands

    Rhine river mouth (shared with Switzerland [s], Germany, and France) - 1,233 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Niger

    Niger (shared with Guinea [s], Mali, Benin, and Nigeria [m]) - 4,200 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Nigeria

    Niger river mouth (shared with Guinea [s], Mali, Benin, and Niger) - 4,200 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Pakistan

    Indus river mouth (shared with China [s] and India) - 3,610 km; Sutlej river mouth (shared with China [s] and India) - 1,372 km; Chenab river mouth (shared with India [s]) - 1,086 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Papua New Guinea

    Sepik river source and mouth (shared with Indonesia) - 1,126 km; Fly river source and mouth (shared with Indonesia) - 1,050 km

  • Paraguay

    Rio de la Plata/Parana (shared with Brazil [s], Argentina, and Uruguay [m]) - 4,880 km; Paraguay river mouth (shared with Brazil [s] and Argentina) - 2,549 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Peru

    Amazon river source (shared with Brazil [m]) - 6,400 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Poland

    Vistula river source and mouth (shared with Belarus and Ukraine) - 1,213 km
    note - longest river in Poland

  • Romania

    Danube river mouth (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Moldova, and Ukraine) - 2,888 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Russia

    Yenisey-Angara - 5,539 km; Ob-Irtysh - 5,410 km;  Amur river mouth (shared with China [s] and Mongolia) - 4,444 km; Lena - 4,400 km; Volga - 3,645 km; Kolyma - 2,513 km; Ural river source (shared with Kazakhstan [m]) - 2,428 km; Dnieper river source (shared with Belarus and Ukraine [m]) - 2,287 km; Don - 1,870 km; Pechora - 1,809 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Rwanda

    Nile river source (shared with Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt [m]) - 6,650 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Senegal

    Senegal (shared with Guinea [s], Mali, and Mauritania [m] ) - 1,641 km; Gambia (shared with Guinea [s] and The Gambia [m]) - 1,094 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Serbia

    Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Slovakia

    Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • South Africa

    Orange (shared with Lesotho [s], and Namibia [m]) - 2,092 km; Limpopo river source (shared with Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique [m]) - 1,800 km; Vaal [s] - 1,210 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • South Sudan

    Nile (shared with Rwanda [s], Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan, and Egypt [m]) - 6,650 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Spain

    Tagus river source (shared with Portugal [m]) - 1,006
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Sudan

    Nile (shared with Rwanda [s], Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan, and Egypt [m]) - 6,650 km; Blue Nile river mouth (shared with Ethiopia [s]) - 1,600 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Switzerland

    Rhine  river source (shared with Germany, France, and Netherlands [m]) - 1,233 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Syria

    Euphrates (shared with Turkey [s], Iran, and Iraq [m]) - 3,596 km; Tigris (shared with Turkey, Iran, and Iraq [m]) - 1,950 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Tajikistan

    Syr Darya (shared with Kyrgyzstan [s], Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan [m]) - 3,078 km; Amu Darya river source (shared with Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan [m]) - 2,620 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Tanzania

    Nile (shared with Rwanda [s], Uganda, South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt [m]) - 6,650 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Thailand

    Mekong (shared with China [s], Burma, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam [m]) - 4,350 km; Salween (shared with China [s] and Burma [m]) - 3,060 km; Mun - 1,162 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Turkey

    Euphrates river source (shared with Syria, Iran, and Iraq [m]) - 3,596 km; Tigris river source (shared with Syria, Iran, and Iraq [m]) - 1,950 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Turkmenistan

    Amu Darya (shared with Tajikistan [s], Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan [m]) - 2,620 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Uganda

    Nile (shared with Rwanda [s], Tanzania, South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt [m]) - 6,650 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Ukraine

    Danube (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Czechia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km; Dnieper river mouth (shared with Russia [s] and Belarus) - 2,287 km; Dniester river source and mouth (shared with Moldova) - 1,411 km; Vistula (shared with Poland [s/m] and Belarus) - 1,213 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • United States

    Missouri - 3,768 km; Mississippi - 3,544 km; Yukon river mouth (shared with Canada [s]) - 3,190 km; Saint Lawrence (shared with Canada) - 3,058 km; Rio Grande river source ( mouth shared with Mexico) - 3,057 km; Colorado river source (shared with Mexico [m]) - 2,333 km; Arkansas - 2,348 km; Columbia river mouth (shared with Canada [s]) - 2,250 km; Red - 2,188 km; Ohio - 2,102 km; Snake - 1,670 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Uruguay

    Rio de la Plata/Parana river mouth (shared with Brazil [s], Argentina, Paraguay) - 4,880 km; Uruguay river mouth (shared with Brazil [s] and Argentina) - 1,610 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Uzbekistan

    Syr Darya (shared with Kyrgyzstan [s], Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan [m]) - 3,078 km; Amu Darya river mouth (shared with Tajikistan [s], Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan) - 2,620 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Venezuela

    Rio Negro (shared with Colombia [s] and Brazil [m]) - 2,250 km; Orinoco river source and mouth (shared with Colombia) - 2,101 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Vietnam

    Mekong river mouth (shared with China [s], Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia) - 4,350 km; Pearl river source (shared with China [m]) - 2,200 km; Red river mouth (shared with China [s]) - 1,149 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • World

    top ten longest rivers: Nile (Africa) 6,650 km; Amazon (South America) 6,436 km; Yangtze (Asia) 6,300 km; Mississippi-Missouri (North America) 6,275 km; Yenisey-Angara (Asia) 5,539 km; Huang He/Yellow (Asia) 5,464 km; Ob-Irtysh (Asia) 5,410 km; Congo (Africa) 4,700 km; Amur (Asia) 4,444 km; Lena (Asia) 4,400 km

    note: there are 20 countries without rivers: 3 in Africa (Comoros, Djibouti, Libya), 1 in the Americas (Bahamas), 8 in Asia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Maldives, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen), 3 in Europe (Malta, Monaco, Holy See), 5 in Oceania (Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Tonga, Tuvalu); these countries also do not have natural lakes

  • Zambia

    Congo river source (shared with Angola, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of Congo [m]) - 4,700 km; Zambezi river source (shared with Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique [m]) - 2,740 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

  • Zimbabwe

    Zambezi (shared with Zambia [s]), Angola, Namibia, Botswana, and Mozambique [m]) - 2,740 km; Limpopo (shared with South Africa [s], Botswana, and Mozambique [m]) - 1,800 km
    note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth