Field Listing

Military – note

This entry includes miscellaneous military information of significance not included elsewhere.

  • Afghanistan

    the Afghan military focuses on internal security threats from several armed groups, particularly the Taliban and militants from the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS), al-Qa’ida, and Haqqani Network terrorist groups (see the Terrorist Organizations Appendix); the primary threat to the Afghan Government and its security forces is the Taliban, which has conducted an insurgency since the early 2000s and conducted thousands of attacks against government forces, including widespread assassinations of government employees, security officials, and society leaders; the Taliban calls itself the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan; its political and military decisions are made by a leadership council (Rahbari Shura) currently led by HAIBATULLAH Akhundzada; as of mid-2020, the group had an estimated 60-80,000 full-time fighters; in addition to their strongholds in the provinces of Helmond and Kandahar, the Taliban has conducted attacks in nearly every Afghanistan province; the Taliban has close ties to al-Qaida and the Haqqani Network


  • Akrotiri

    defense is the responsibility of the UK; Akrotiri (aka the Western Sovereign Base Area) has a full RAF base, headquarters for British Forces Cyprus, and the Episkopi Cantonment

  • Albania

    Albania officially became a member of NATO in 2009

  • American Samoa

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Andorra

    defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

  • Anguilla

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Antarctica

    the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

  • Antigua and Barbuda

    member of the Regional Security System (RSS), an international agreement for the defense and security of the eastern Caribbean region

  • Argentina

    the Argentine military focuses primarily on border security and counter-narcotics operations; in 2018, the government approved a decree allowing greater latitude for the military in internal security missions, with a focus on logistics support in border areas

  • Armenia

    since November 2020, Russia has deployed about 2,000 peacekeeping troops to the area in and around Nagorno-Karabakh as part of a cease-fire agreement between Armenia and Azerbaijan; fighting erupted between the two countries over the Nagorno-Karabakh region in September of 2020; Nagorno-Karabakh lies within Azerbaijan but has been under control of ethnic Armenian forces (the "Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army") backed by Armenia since a separatist war there ended in 1994; six weeks of fighting resulted in about 6,000 deaths and ended after Armenia ceded swathes of Nagorno-Karabakh territory

  • Aruba

    defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the Aruba security services focus on organized crime and terrorism; the Dutch Government controls foreign and defense policy; the Dutch Caribbean Coast Guard (DCCG) provides maritime security

  • Ashmore and Cartier Islands

    defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

  • Azerbaijan

    since November 2020, Russia has deployed about 2,000 peacekeeping troops to the area in and around Nagorno-Karabakh as part of a cease-fire agreement between Armenia and Azerbaijan; fighting erupted between the two countries over the Nagorno-Karabakh region in September of 2020; Nagorno-Karabakh lies within Azerbaijan but has been under control of ethnic Armenian forces (the "Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army") backed by Armenia since a separatist war there ended in 1994; six weeks of fighting resulted in about 6,000 deaths and ended after Armenia ceded swathes of Nagorno-Karabakh territory

  • Belgium

    Belgium is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

    in 2018, the Defense Ministers of Belgium, Denmark and the Netherlands signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for the creation of a Composite Special Operations Component Command (C-SOCC); the C-SOCC was declared operational in December 2020

  • Benin

    Benin participates in the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) against Boko Haram along with Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; the Benin military contingent is in charge of MNJTF garrison duties (2020)

  • Bermuda

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Bouvet Island

    defense is the responsibility of Norway

  • Brazil

    the military's primary role is enforcing border security, particularly in the Amazon states; it also assists with internal security operations with a focus on organized crime

    Brazilian police forces are divided into Federal Police (around 15,000 personnel), Military Police (approximately 400,000 personnel), and Civil Police (approximately 125,000 personnel); the Federal Police serve under the Ministry of Justice, while the Military and Civil police are subordinate to the state governments; the National Public Security Force (Forca Nacional de Seguranca Publica or SENASP) is a national police force made up of Military Police from various states; article 144 of the Brazilian constitution states that all state Military Police are classified as reserve troops and ancillary forces of the Brazilian Army

  • British Indian Ocean Territory

    defense is the responsibility of the UK; in November 2016, the UK extended the US lease on Diego Garcia for 20 years; the lease now expires in December 2036

  • British Virgin Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Brunei

    Brunei has a long-standing defense relationship with the United Kingdom and hosts a British Army garrison, which includes the Gurkha Battalion and a jungle warfare school; Brunei also hosts a Singaporean military training base
    (2020)

  • Bulgaria

    Bulgaria officially became a member of NATO in 2004

  • Burkina Faso

    since at least 2016, the Armed Forces of Burkina Faso have been actively engaged in combat operations with terrorist groups linked to al-Qa'ida and ISIS; military operations have occurred in the Centre‐Est, Centre‐Nord, Est, Nord, and Sahel administrative regions

    Burkina Faso is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger; it has committed 550 troops and 100 gendarmes to the force; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries (2021)

  • Burma

    since the country's founding, the armed forces have been heavily involved in domestic politics and ran the country for five decades following a military coup in 1962; the military controls three key security ministries (Defense, Border, and Home Affairs), one of two vice presidential appointments, 25% of the parliamentary seats, and has a proxy political party, the Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP)

    the military owns and operates two business conglomerates that have over 100 subsidiaries and have close ties to other companies; the business activities of these conglomerates include banking and insurance, hotels, tourism, jade and ruby mining, timber, construction, real estate, and the production of palm oil, sugar, soap, cement, beverages, drinking water, coal, and gas; some of the companies supply goods and services to the military, such as food, clothing, insurance, and cellphone service; the military also runs manages a film industry, publishing houses, and television stations

    the military's primary operational focus is internal security, particularly counterinsurgency operations against ethnic-based insurgent groups; these operations have resulted in numerous civilian casualties, human rights abuses, and internal displacement

    there are approximately 20 ethnic-based armed groups operating in Burma with strengths of a few hundred up to more than 20,000 estimated fighters; they are estimated to control about one-third of the country’s territory, primarily in the border regions; key groups include the United Wa State Army, the Karen National Union, the Kachin Independence Army, the Arakan Army, the Ta’ang National Liberation Army, and the Myanmar Nationalities Democratic Alliance Army; in 2015, the Burmese Government signed a Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) with eight mostly small armed groups, including the All Burma Students’ Democratic Front, Arakan Liberation Party, Chin National Front, Democratic Karen Benevolent Army, Karen National Liberation Army-Peace Council, Karen National Union, Pa-O National Liberation Organization, and Shan State Army-South; seven other groups did not sign the NCA, but have signed bi-lateral ceasefires with the Burmese Government, including the National Democratic Alliance Army, Shan State Army, New Mon State Army, Karenni Army, National Socialist Council of Nagaland–Khaplang, and the United Wa State Army, which is assessed to be the largest and most capable group, with more than 20,000 fighters; others, such as the Arakan Army (Chin, Kachin, Rakhine, Shan states; the Arakan Army entered into ceasefire negotiations with the Burmese Government in November 2020), Kachin Independence Army (Kachin state), Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army (Shan state), Shanni Nationalities Army (Kachin state), and Taang National Liberation Army (Shan state) continue to engage in active insurgent operations against the Burmese Government; since March 2021, the Karen National Union has resumed fighting with the Burmese military

    in addition, Burma has a large number (estimates run into the thousands) of armed militias which take many different forms and vary in allegiances and size; most are pro-government and associated with the Tatmadaw; some are integrated within the Tatmadaw’s command structure as Border Guard Forces (BGF); BGF are organized as 325-man battalions that include a mix of militia forces, ethnic armed groups, and government soldiers; they are armed, supplied, and paid by the Tatmadaw; other pro-government militias are not integrated within the Tatmadaw command structure, but receive direction from the military and are recognized as government militias; the amount of support they receive from the Tatmadaw varies depending on local security conditions; a third type of pro-government militias are small community-based militias that are armed, coordinated, and trained by local Tatmadaw units and activated as needed; anti-government militias are typically associated with ethnic-based armed organizations

  • Burundi

    in addition to its foreign deployments, the FDN is focused on internal security missions, particularly against rebel groups opposed to the regime such as National Forces of Liberation (FNL), the Resistance for the Rule of Law-Tabara (aka RED Tabara), and Popular Forces of Burundi (FPB or FOREBU); the groups are based in the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo and have carried out sporadic attacks in Burundi (2020)

  • Cameroon

    the FAC is largely focused on the threat from the terror group Boko Haram along its frontiers with Nigeria and Chad (Far North region) and an insurgency from armed Anglophone separatist groups in the North-West and South-West regions (as of Feb 2021, this internal conflict has left an estimated 3,000 civilians dead and over 700,000 people displaced since fighting started in 2016); in addition, the FAC often deploys units to the border region with the Central African Republic to counter intrusions from armed militias and bandits

  • Canada

    Canada is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

  • Cayman Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Central African Republic

    the FACA is currently assessed as unable to provide adequate internal security for the country; the military was dissolved following the 2013 rebel seizure of the government and has struggled to rebuild in the years of instability since; France, Russia, the UN, and the European Union are providing various levels of security assistance

    the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) has operated in the country since 2014; its peacekeeping mission includes providing security, protecting civilians, facilitating humanitarian assistance, disarming and demobilizing armed groups, and supporting the country’s fragile transitional government; in November 2019, the UN Security Council extended the mandate of the MINUSCA peacekeeping mission another year; as of January 2021, MINUSCA had nearly 15,000 total personnel, including about 11,000 troops and 2,000 police

    the European Union Training Mission in the Central African Republic (EUTM-RCA) has operated in the country since 2016; the EUTM-RCA contributes to the restructuring of the country's military and defense sector through advice, training, and educational programs

  • Chad

    the ANT is chiefly focused on counterinsurgency/counter-terrorist operations against Boko Haram (BH) and the Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA) in the Lake Chad Basin area (primarily the Lac Province) and countering the terrorist threat in the Sahel; in 2020, it conducted a large military operation against BH in the Lake Chad region; that same year, Chad sent troops to the tri-border area with Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger to combat ISWA militants (it also contributes a large force to the UN MINUSCA mission in Mali); the ANT  has frequently conducted counter-insurgency operations (COIN) against internal anti-government militias and armed dissident groups

  • Christmas Island

    defense is the responsibility of Australia

  • Clipperton Island

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    defense is the responsibility of Australia

  • Colombia

    the Colombian Armed Forces are primarily focused on internal security, particularly counter-narcotics, counter-terrorism, and counterinsurgency operations against drug traffickers, militants from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and National Liberation Army (ELN) terrorist/guerrilla organizations, and other illegal armed groups; the Colombian Government signed a peace agreement with the FARC in 2016, but some former members (known as dissidents) have returned to fighting; the Colombian military resumed operations against FARC dissidents and their successor paramilitary groups in late 2019; in 2017, the Colombian Government initiated formal peace talks with the ELN, but in January 2019, the government ended the peace talks shortly after the ELN exploded a car bomb at the National Police Academy in Bogotá and resumed counter-terrorism/counterinsurgency operations against the group; operations against both the FARC and ELN continued into 2021; the military is also focused on the security challenges posed by its neighbor, Venezuela

  • Comoros

    the AND is limited in capabilities to performing search and rescue operations and maintaining internal security; a defense treaty with France provides naval resources for protection of territorial waters, training of Comoran military personnel, and air surveillance; France maintains a small maritime base and a Foreign Legion contingent on neighboring Mayotte

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the

    the modern FARDC was created out of the armed factions of the two Congo wars of 1996-1997 and 1998-2003; as part of the peace accords that ended the last war, the largest rebel groups were incorporated into the FARDC; many armed groups (at least 70 and by some recent estimates more than 100), however, continue to fight; as of late 2020, the FARDC was actively engaged in combat operations against numerous armed groups inside the country, particularly in the eastern provinces of Ituri, North Kivu, and South Kivu, although violence also continues in Maniema, Kasai, Kasai Central, and Tanganyika provinces; the military is widely assessed as being unable to provide adequate security throughout the country due to insufficient training, poor morale and leadership, ill-discipline and corruption, low equipment readiness, a fractious ethnic makeup, and the sheer size of the country and diversity of armed rebel groups

    MONUSCO, the United Nations peacekeeping and stabilization force in the Democratic Republic of Congo, has operated in the central and eastern parts of the country since 1999; as of January 2021, MONUSCO comprised around 17,500 personnel, including about 12,500 military troops and 1,400 police; MONUSCO includes a Force Intervention Brigade (FIB; 3 infantry battalions), the first ever UN peacekeeping force specifically tasked to carry out targeted offensive operations to neutralize and disarm groups considered a threat to state authority and civilian security

  • Cook Islands

    defense is the responsibility of New Zealand in consultation with the Cook Islands and at its request

  • Coral Sea Islands

    defense is the responsibility of Australia

  • Cote d'Ivoire

    the military has mutinied several times since the late 1990s, most recently in 2017, and has had a large role in the country’s political turmoil; currently, the FACI is focused on internal security and the growing threat posed by Islamic militants associated with the al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) terrorist group operating across the border in Burkina Faso; AQIM militants conducted significant attacks in the country in 2016 and 2020; Côte d’Ivoire since 2016 has stepped up border security and completed building a joint counter-terrorism training center with France near Abidjan in 2020

    the UN maintained a 9,000-strong peacekeeping force in Cote d’Ivoire (UNOCI) from 2004 until 2017

  • Croatia

    Croatia officially became a member of NATO in 2009

  • Cuba

    the FAR has a large role in the Cuban economy through several military owned and operated conglomerates, including such sectors as banking, hotels, industry, retail, and tourism

  • Curacao

    defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the Dutch Government controls foreign and defense policy; the Dutch Caribbean Coast Guard (DCCG) provides maritime security

  • Cyprus

    the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNICYP) was set up in 1964 to prevent further fighting between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities on the island and bring about a return to normal conditions; as of March 2020, the UNICYP mission consisted of about 830 personnel (2020)

  • Czechia

    Czechia joined NATO in 1999; Czechia, Hungary, and Poland were invited to begin accession talks at NATO's Madrid Summit in 1997, and in March 1999 they became the first former members of the Warsaw Pact to join the Alliance

  • Denmark

    Denmark is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

    in 2018, the Defense Ministers of Belgium, Denmark and the Netherlands signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for the creation of a Composite Special Operations Component Command (C-SOCC); the C-SOCC was declared operational in December 2020

  • Dhekelia

    defense of Dhekelia (aka Eastern Sovereign Base Area) is the responsibility of the UK; includes Dhekelia Garrison and Ayios Nikolaos Station connected by a roadway

  • Dominica

    Dominica participates in the Regional Security System (RSS) an international agreement for the defense and security of the eastern Caribbean region

  • Dominican Republic

    the military's primary focuses are countering illegal immigration and refugees along its 350km-long border with Haiti and interdicting air and maritime narcotics trafficking

  • Egypt

    since 2011, the Egyptian Armed Forces, police, and other security forces have been actively engaged in counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations in the North Sinai governorate against several militant groups, particularly the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham – Sinai Province; as of early 2020, Egypt reportedly had over 40,000 troops plus thousands of police and other security personnel deployed to the Sinai for internal security duties

    the military has a large stake in the civilian economy, including running banks, businesses, and shipping lines, producing consumer and industrial goods, importing commodities, and building and managing infrastructure projects, such as bridges, roads, hospitals, and housing

    the Multinational Force & Observers (MFO) has operated in the Sinai since 1982 as a peacekeeping and monitoring force to supervise the implementation of the security provisions of the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli Treaty of Peace; the MFO is an independent international organization, created by agreement between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the State of Israel; it is composed of about 1,150 troops from 13 countries (2020)

  • El Salvador

    in recent years, about half of the Army was reportedly deployed on internal security duties in support of the National Civil Police to combat gang violence, organized crime, and narcotics trafficking, as well as assisting with border security (2021)

  • Estonia

    Estonia officially became a member of NATO in 2004

  • Ethiopia

    each of the nine states has a regional and/or a "special" paramilitary security force that report to regional civilian authorities; local militias operate across the country in loose and varying coordination with these regional security and police forces, the Ethiopian Federal Police (EFP), and the Ethiopian military; the EFP reports to the Ministry of Peace, which was created in October of 2018

    Ethiopia faces considerable ethnic violence in some regions, including Oromo, where the Oromo Liberation Army (OLA) has conducted numerous attacks targeting the Amhara ethnic group; the OLA, assessed to number in the low thousands, broke off from the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), an opposition party that spent years in exile but was allowed to return to Ethiopia after ABIY took office in 2018

    in November 2020, the Ethiopian Government launched military operations against the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) – an ethnically-based political entity that runs the Tigray regional government and had its own paramilitary security forces; the TPLF had increasingly challenged the authority of the Federal Government; the TPLF’s security forces date back to the 1980s when it led the guerrilla movement that brought the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front coalition to power; during the fighting, the Ethiopian Government allowed ethnic Amhara and Afar militias to attack the TLPF (now merged into the Tigray Defense Forces, TDF); in addition, it invited Eritrean military forces to join in the fighting; Ethiopian and Eritrean military forces, as well as ethnic militias, have all been accused of committing atrocities against Tigrayan civilians during the fighting, which continued into 2021

  • European Union

    the EU partners with NATO

    Eurocorps, which supports both the EU and NATO, was formally established in 1992 and activated the following year, began in 1987 as a French-German Brigade; Belgium (1993), Spain (1994), and Luxembourg (1996) joined over the next few years; five additional countries participate in Eurocorps as associated nations: Greece, Poland, and Turkey (since 2002), Italy and Romania (since 2009 and 2016 respectively); Eurocorps is headquartered in Strasbourg, France (2021)

  • Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Faroe Islands

    the Danish military’s Joint Arctic Command in Nuuk is responsible for the defense of the Faroe Islands

  • France

    France was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty), which created NATO in 1949; in 1966, President Charles DE GAULLE decided to withdraw France from NATO’s integrated military structure, reflecting his desire for greater military independence, particularly vis-à-vis the US, and the refusal to integrate France’s nuclear deterrent or accept any form of control over its armed forces; it did, however, sign agreements with NATO setting out procedures in the event of Soviet aggression; beginning with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, France distanced itself from the 1966 decision and has regularly contributed troops to NATO’s military operations, being one of the largest troop-contributing states; in 2009 it officially announced its decision to fully participate in NATO structures

  • French Polynesia

    defense is the responsibility of France; France maintains forces in French Polynesia

  • French Southern and Antarctic Lands

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Gabon

    members of the Gabonese Defense Forces attempted a failed coup in January 2019

  • Georgia

    Georgia does not have any military stationed in the separatist territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, but large numbers of Russian servicemen have been stationed in these regions since the 2008 Russia-Georgia War (2019)

  • Germany

    the Federal Republic of Germany joined NATO in May 1955; with the reunification of Germany in October 1990, the states of the former German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic of Germany in its membership of NATO

  • Gibraltar

    defense is the responsibility of the UK (2021)

  • Greece

    Greece joined NATO in 1952

  • Greenland

    the Danish military’s Joint Arctic Command in Nuuk is responsible for the defense of Greenland

  • Grenada

    Grenada is a member of the Regional Security System (RSS), an international agreement for the defense and security of the eastern Caribbean region

  • Guam

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Guernsey

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands

    defense is the responsibility of Australia; Australia conducts fisheries patrols

  • Holy See (Vatican City)

    defense is the responsibility of Italy

  • Hong Kong

    defense is the responsibility of China

  • Hungary

    Hungary joined NATO in 1999; Czechia, Hungary, and Poland were invited to begin accession talks at NATO's Madrid Summit in 1997 and in March 1999 they became the first former members of the Warsaw Pact to join the Alliance

  • Iceland

    Iceland was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949; Iceland is the only NATO member that has no standing military force; defense of Iceland remains a NATO commitment and NATO maintains an air policing presence in Icelandic airspace; Iceland participates in international peacekeeping missions with the civilian-manned Icelandic Crisis Response Unit (ICRU)

  • Indonesia

    Indonesian military and police forces are engaged in counter-insurgency operations in Papua against the West Papua Liberation Army, the military wing of the Free Papua Organization, which has been fighting a low-level insurgency since the 1960s when Indonesia annexed the former Dutch colony; since 2019, there has been an increase in militant activity in Papua and a larger Indonesian military presence; Papua was formally incorporated into Indonesia in 1969

    in addition, the Indonesian military has been assisting police in countering the Mujahideen Indonesia Timur (MIT; aka East Indonesia Mujahideen), a local Islamic State (ISIS)-affiliated terrorist group

    Indonesia is not a formal claimant in the South China Sea, although some of its waters lie within China's  “nine-dash line” maritime claims, resulting in some stand offs in recent years; since 2016, the Indonesian military has bolstered its presence on Great Natuna Island (aka Pulau Natuna Besar), the main island of the Middle Natuna Archipelago, which is part of the Riau Islands province, and held military exercises in surrounding waters

  • Iraq

    as of early 2021, Iraqi military and security forces continued to conduct counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations against the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) terrorist group, particularly in northern and western Iraq

    Shia militia and paramilitary units from the Popular Mobilization Committee and Affiliated Forces (PMF) have fought alongside the Iraqi military against ISIS since 2014, but the majority of these forces continue to largely ignore the 2016 Law of the Popular Mobilization Authority, which mandated that armed militias must be regulated in a fashion similar to Iraq’s other security forces and act under the Iraqi government’s direct control; the Iraqi prime minister legally commands the PMF, but most of the militia brigades take orders from associated political parties and/or other government officials, including some with ties to the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps

    the Kurdish Peshmerga are formally recognized as a legitimate Iraqi military force under the country’s constitution and have operated jointly with the Iraqi military against ISIS militants, but they also operate outside of Iraqi military command structure; the Peshmerga report to the Kurdistan Regional Government or Kurdistan Democratic Party and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan parties instead of the Iraqi Ministry of Defense

    at the request of the Iraqi government, NATO agreed to establish an advisory, training and capacity-building mission in Iraq in October 2018 to help Iraqi forces in their fight against ISIS; NATO Mission Iraq (NMI) currently has about 500 troops, but in February 2021 NATO announced it would increase the presence to about 4,000, although no timeframe was given

  • Isle of Man

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Israel

    the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) has operated in the Golan between Israel and Syria since 1974 to monitor the ceasefire following the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and supervise the areas of separation between the two countries; as of December 2020, UNDOF consisted of about 1,100 military personnel

  • Italy

    Italy is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

  • Jan Mayen

    defense is the responsibility of Norway

  • Jersey

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Kenya

    the Kenya Coast Guard Service (established 2018) is under the Ministry of Interior, but led by a military officer and comprised of personnel from the military, as well as the National Police Service, intelligence services, and other government agencies (2020)

  • Kiribati

    defense assistance is provided by Australia and NZ

  • Latvia

    Latvia officially became a member of NATO in 2004

  • Lebanon

    the United Nations Interim Force In Lebanon (UNIFIL) has operated in the country since 1978, originally under UNSCRs 425 and 426 to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and security and assist the Lebanese Government in restoring its effective authority in the area; following the July-August 2006 war, the UN Security Council adopted resolution 1701 enhancing UNIFIL and deciding that in addition to the original mandate, it would, among other things, monitor the cessation of hostilities; accompany and support the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) as they deploy throughout the south of Lebanon; and extend its assistance to help ensure humanitarian access to civilian populations and the voluntary and safe return of displaced persons; UNIFIL had about 10,000 military personnel deployed in the country as of December 2020

  • Lesotho

    Lesotho's declared policy for its military is the maintenance of the country's sovereignty and the preservation of internal security; in practice, external security is guaranteed by South Africa

  • Libya

    as of the Fall of 2020, there were at least 10,000 foreign mercenaries and proxy forces estimated to be deployed in Libya to bolster both GNA- and LNA-aligned forces (2020)

  • Lithuania

    Lithuania officially became a member of NATO in 2004

  • Luxembourg

    Luxembourg is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

  • Macau

    defense is the responsibility of China; the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) maintains a garrison in Macau

  • Mali

    prior to the coups in August 2020 and May 2021, the Malian military had intervened in the political arena at least five times since the country gained independence in 1960; two attempts failed (1976 and 1978), while three succeeded in overturning civilian rule (1968, 1991, and 2012); the military collapsed in 2012 during the fighting against Tuareg rebels and Islamic militants; it has been since rebuilt, but continues to have limited capabilities and is heavily reliant on external assistance

    since 2017, the FAMa, along with other government security and paramilitary forces, has conducted multiple major operations against militants in the eastern, central, and northern parts of the country; up to 4,000 troops reportedly have been deployed; the stated objectives for the most recent operation (Operation Maliko in early 2020) was to end terrorist activity and restore government authority in seven of the country’s 10 regions, including Mopti, Ségou, Gao, Kidal, Ménaka, Taoudénit, and Timbuktu

    Mali is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Chad, Mauritania, and Niger; it has committed 1,100 troops and 200 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane 

    the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) has operated in the country since 2013; the Mission's responsibilities include providing security, rebuilding Malian security forces, supporting national political dialogue, and assisting in the reestablishment of Malian government authority; as of June 2021, MINUSMA had around 15,000 military and police personnel deployed; in June 2021, MINUSMA's mission was extended until the end of June 2022

    the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM-M) also has operated in the country since 2013; the EUTM-M provides advice and training to the Malian Armed Forces and military assistance to the G5 Sahel Joint Force; as of March 2021, the mission included almost 700 personnel from 25 European countries

  • Marshall Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Mauritania

    since a spate of terrorist attacks in the 2000s, including a 2008 attack on a military base in the country’s north that resulted in the deaths of 12 soldiers, the Mauritanian Government has increased the defense budget and military equipment acquisitions, enhanced military training, heightened security cooperation with its neighbors and the international community, and built up the military’s special operations and civil-military affairs forces

    Mauritania is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, and Niger; it has committed 550 troops and 100 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane (2020)

  • Mexico

    the Mexican military under President LOPEZ OBRADOR has expanded its role in public security duties and other tasks; as of early 2021, Mexican military operations were focused primarily on internal security duties, particularly in countering drug cartels and organized crime groups, as well as border control and immigration enforcement; in addition, the military has been placed in charge of some infrastructure projects, such as building a new airport for Mexico City and sections of a train line in the country’s southeast; in mid-2020, the armed forces were directed to administer the country’s land and sea ports and customs services in order to fight crime and corruption; the military also runs some 2,700 branches of a state-owned bank

  • Micronesia, Federated States of

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Monaco

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Montenegro

    Montenegro officially became a member of NATO in 2017

  • Montserrat

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Mozambique

    the Government of Mozambique is facing a growing insurgency driven by militants with ties to the Islamic State terrorist group (ISIS-Mozambique, which was declared a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the US State Department in March 2021) in the northern province of Cabo Delgado, an area known for rich liquid natural gas deposits; insurgent attacks in the province began in 2017 and as of early 2021, the fighting had left an estimated 2,500 dead and nearly 700,000 displaced; the FADM is widely assessed as lacking the training, equipment, and overall capabilities to address the insurgency (2020)

  • Nauru

    Nauru maintains no defense forces; under an informal agreement, defense is the responsibility of Australia

  • Navassa Island

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Netherlands

    the Netherlands is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

    in 2018, the Defense Ministers of Belgium, Denmark and the Netherlands signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for the creation of a Composite Special Operations Component Command (C-SOCC); the C-SOCC was declared operational in December 2020

  • New Caledonia

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Niger

    as of late 2020, the FAN was conducting counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations against Islamic militants on two fronts; in the Diffa region, the Nigeria-based Boko Haram terrorist group has conducted dozens of attacks on security forces, army bases, and civilians; on Niger’s western border with Mali, the Islamic State-West Africa (ISWA) has conducted numerous attacks on security personnel; a series of ISWA attacks on FAN forces near the Malian border in December of 2019 and January of 2020 resulted in the deaths of more than 170 soldiers; terrorist attacks continued throughout 2020 and into 2021

    Niger is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, and Chad; it has committed 1,100 troops and 200 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane

    Niger also has about 1,000 troops committed to the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) against Boko Haram; national MNJTF troop contingents are deployed within their own country territories, although cross‐border operations are conducted periodically

  • Nigeria

    the Nigerian Armed Forces are used primarily for internal security operations; in the northeast, the military is conducting counterinsurgency/counter-terrorist operations against the Boko Haram (BH) and Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA) terrorist groups, where it has deployed as many as 70,000 troops at times and jihadist-related violence has killed an estimated 35,000 people, mostly civilians, since 2009 (as of Dec 2020); in the northwest, it faces threats from criminal gangs, bandits, and militants associated with ongoing farmer-herder violence, as well as BH and ISWA terrorists; the military also focuses on the Niger Delta region to protect the oil industry against militants and criminal activity, although the levels of violence there have decreased in recent years; in May 2021, a contingent of military troops and police were deployed to eastern Nigeria to quell renewed agitation for a state of Biafra (Biafra seceded from Nigeria in the late 1960s, sparking a civil war that caused more than 1 million deaths)

  • Niue

    defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

  • Norfolk Island

    defense is the responsibility of Australia

  • North Macedonia

    North Macedonia officially became the 30th member of NATO in 2020

  • Northern Mariana Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Norway

    Norway is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

  • Pakistan

    the military has carried out three coups since Pakistan's independence in 1947 and remains politically active

  • Palau

    under a 1994 Compact of Free Association between Palau and the US, the US until 2044 is responsible for the defense of Palaus and the US military is granted access to the islands, but it has not stationed any military forces there

  • Paracel Islands

    occupied by China, which is assessed to maintain 20 outposts in the Paracels (Antelope, Bombay, and North reefs; Drummond, Duncan, Lincoln, Middle, Money, North, Pattle, Quanfu, Robert, South, Tree, Triton, Woody, and Yagong islands; South Sand and West Sand; Observation Bank); the outposts range in size from one or two buildings to bases with significant military infrastructure; Woody Island is the main base in the Paracels and includes an airstrip with fighter aircraft hangers, naval facilities, surveillance radars, and defenses such as surface-to-air missiles and anti-ship cruise missiles; fighter aircraft have deployed to the island (2021)

  • Paraguay

    as of late 2020, the armed forces were principally focused on the Paraguayan People's Army (Ejército del Pueblo Paraguayo, EPP), a Marxist-nationalist insurgent group operating in the rural northern part of the country

  • Philippines

    as of late 2020, the AFP's primary operational focus was on internal security duties, particularly in the south, where several insurgent and terrorist groups operated and up to 60% of the armed forces were deployed; the Philippines National Police (PNP) also has an active role in counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations alongside the AFP, particularly the Special Action Force, a PNP commando unit that specializes in counter-terrorism operations.

  • Pitcairn Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Poland

    Poland joined NATO in 1999; Czechia, Hungary, and Poland were invited to begin accession talks at NATO's Madrid Summit in 1997, and in March 1999 they became the first former members of the Warsaw Pact to join the Alliance

  • Portugal

    Portugal is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

  • Puerto Rico

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Romania

    Romania officially became a member of NATO in 2004

  • Saint Barthelemy

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Saint Lucia

    St. Lucia is a member of the Regional Security System (RSS), an international agreement for the defense and security of the eastern Caribbean region

  • Saint Martin

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

    a member of the Regional Security System (RSS), an international agreement for the defense and security of the eastern Caribbean region

  • Samoa

    Samoa has no formal defense structure or regular armed forces; informal defense ties exist with NZ, which is required to consider any Samoan request for assistance under the 1962 Treaty of Friendship

  • San Marino

    defense is the responsibility of Italy

  • Sint Maarten

    defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

  • Slovakia

    Slovakia officially became a member of NATO in 2004

  • Slovenia

    Slovenia officially became a member of NATO in 2004

  • Somalia

    the SNA is heavily engaged in operations against the al-Shabaab terrorist organization, including joint operations with the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM); the majority of SNA's offensive/counter-terrorism operations against al-Shabaab are reportedly conducted by the US-trained Danab Brigade

    AMISOM has operated in the country with the approval of the United Nations (UN) since 2007; AMISOM's peacekeeping mission includes assisting Somali forces in providing security for a stable political process, enabling the gradual handing over of security responsibilities from AMISOM to the Somali security forces, and reducing the threat posed by Al-Shabaab and other armed opposition groups; as of late 2020, AMISOM had about 20,000 military troops from six African countries deployed in Somalia; in February 2021, the UN Security Council AMISOM renewed AMISOM's mandate until December 2021 (note - in 2017, the Somali Government drafted a Somalia Transition Plan that called for the gradual transfer of security responsibilities from AMISOM to the Somali security forces by 2021)

    UN Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) is mandated by the Security Council to work with the Federal Government of Somalia to support national reconciliation, provide advice on peace-building and state-building, monitor the human rights situation, and help coordinate the efforts of the international community

    the UN Support Office in Somalia (UNSOS) is responsible for providing logistical field support to AMISOM, UNSOM, the Somali National Army, and the Somali Police Force on joint operations with AMISOM

    the European Union Training Mission in Somalia (EUTM-S) has operated in the country since 2010; the EUTM provides advice and training to the Somali military; the US and Turkey maintain separate unilateral military training missions in Somalia

  • South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • South Sudan

    the South Sudan People’s Defense Force (SSPDF), formerly the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), was founded as a guerrilla movement against the Sudanese Government in 1983 and participated in the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005); the Juba Declaration that followed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005 unified the SPLA and the South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF), the second-largest rebel militia remaining from the civil war, under the SPLA name; in 2017, the SPLA was renamed the South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF) and in September 2018 was renamed again as the SSPDF

    under the September 2018 peace agreement, all armed groups in South Sudan were to assemble at designated sites where fighters could be either disarmed and demobilized, or integrated into unified military and police forces; the unified forces were then to be retrained and deployed prior to the formation of a national unity government; all fighters were ordered to these sites in July 2019; some progress toward merging the various armed forces into a national army has been made; for example, in May 2020, South Sudan announced that it was graduating some unified forces at various training centers across the country, and in June the SSPDF incorporated some senior officers from the main opposition force, the Sudan People's Liberation Movement Army - in Opposition (SPLM/A-IO) into its rank structure; nevertheless, progress has been slow, and as of December 2020 armed clashes continued to occur between government forces and armed militant groups in Eastern Equatorial, Western Equatorial, Central Equatorial, Lakes, Jonglei, and Warrap states

    the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) has operated in the country since 2011 with the objectives of consolidating peace and security and helping establish conditions for the successful economic and political development of South Sudan; UNMISS had more than 19,000 personnel, including about 14,000 troops, deployed in the country as of December 2020

    United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) has operated in the disputed Abyei region along the border between Sudan and South Sudan since 2011; UNISFA's mission includes ensuring security, protecting civilians, strengthening the capacity of the Abyei Police Service, de-mining, monitoring/verifying the redeployment of armed forces from the area, and facilitating the flow of humanitarian aid; as of January 2021, UNISFA had some 3,700 personnel deployed, including about 3,200 military troops; UNISFA's mandate has been extended to May 2021

  • Spain

    Spain joined NATO in 1982, but refrained from participating in the integrated military structure until 1996

  • Spratly Islands

    Spratly Islands consist of more than 100 small islands or reefs of which about 45 are claimed and occupied by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    China: assessed to have 7 outposts (Fiery Cross, Mischief, Subi, Cuarteron, Gavin, Hughes, and Johnson reefs); the outposts on Fiery Cross, Mischief, and Subi include air bases with helipads and aircraft hangers, naval port facilities, surveillance radars, air defense and anti-ship missile sites, and other military infrastructure such as communications, barracks, maintenance facilities, and ammunition and fuel bunkers

    Malaysia:  assessed to have 5 outposts in the southern portion of the archipelago, closest to the Malaysian state of Sabah (Ardasier Reef, Eric Reef, Mariveles Reef, Shallow Reef, and Investigator Shoal); all the outposts have helicopter landing pads, while Shallow Reef also has an airstrip

    Philippines: assessed to occupy 9 features (Commodore Reef, Second Thomas Shoal, Flat Island, Loaita Cay, Loaita Island, Nanshan Island, Northeast Cay, Thitu Island, and West York Island); Thitu Island has the only Philippine airstrip in the Spratlys

    Taiwan: maintains an outpost with an airstrip on Itu Aba Island

    Vietnam: assessed to occupy about 50 outposts spread across 27 features, including facilities on 21 rocks and reefs in the Spratlys, plus 14 platforms known as “economic, scientific, and technological service stations,” or Dịch vụ-Khoa (DK1), on six underwater banks to the southeast that Vietnam does not consider part of the disputed island chain, although China and Taiwan disagree; Spratly Islands outposts are on Alison Reef, Amboyna Cay, Barque Canada Reef, Central Reef, Collins Reef, Cornwallis South Reef, Discovery Great Reef, East Reef, Grierson Reef, Ladd Reef, Landsdowne Reef, Namyit Island, Pearson Reef, Petley Reef, Sand Cay, Sin Cowe Island, South Reef, Southwest Cay, Spratly Island, Tennent Reef, West Reef; Spratly Island includes an airstrip with aircraft hangers; the six underwater banks with outposts include Vanguard, Rifleman, Prince of Wales, Prince Consort, Grainger, and Alexandra; over the past few years, Vietnam has continued to make modest improvements to its outposts, including defensive positions and infrastructure

    (2021)

  • Sudan

    in October 2020, after almost a year of negotiations, Sudan’s transitional government and a broad alliance of armed rebel groups known as the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) signed a peace agreement; the SRF rebels had operated in Darfur, South Kordofan, and the Blue Nile provinces; under the agreement, SRF fighters are to be slowly incorporated into joint units with government security forces over a period of 39 months; however, two rebel groups – the Darfur-based Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N), which controls territory in the South Kordofan and Blue Nile provinces, are not part of the agreement; in March 2021, the Sudanese Government and the SPLM-N agreed to re-start peace talks

    the Sudanese military and security forces reportedly control over 200 commercial companies, including businesses involved in gold mining, rubber production, agriculture, and meat exports

    United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) has operated in the disputed Abyei region along the border between Sudan and South Sudan since 2011; UNISFA's mission includes ensuring security, protecting civilians, strengthening the capacity of the Abyei Police Service, de-mining, monitoring/verifying the redeployment of armed forces from the area, and facilitating the flow of humanitarian aid; UNISFA had about 3,700 personnel, including some 3,200 troops, deployed as of January 2021; UNISFA's mandate has been extended to May 2021

    in addition, the United Nations African Union Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) has operated in the war-torn Darfur region since 2007; UNAMID is a joint African Union-UN peacekeeping force with the mission of bringing stability to Darfur, including protecting civilians, facilitating humanitarian assistance, and promoting mediation efforts, while peace talks on a final settlement continue; in 2020, UNAMID had about 8,000 total personnel (civilians, military, and police) deployed, down from an earlier peak of 16,000; UNAMID ended its mandate on 31 Dec 2020; all UNAMID personnel are scheduled to be withdrawn by June 2021; note: in October 2020, Sudan’s transitional government signed a peace agreement with several armed groups in Darfur; the agreement provided for the establishment of a joint security force comprised of 12,000 members tasked with securing the region of Darfur in place of UNAMID

  • Svalbard

    Svalbard is a territory of Norway, demilitarized by treaty on 9 February 1920; Norwegian military activity is limited to fisheries surveillance by the Norwegian Coast Guard

  • Syria

    the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) has operated in the Golan between Israel and Syria since 1974 to monitor the ceasefire following the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and supervise the areas of separation between the two countries; as of late 2020, UNDOF consisted of about 1,100 military personnel

  • Tanzania

    as of late 2020, the TPDF had deployed additional troops to its border with Mozambique to prevent a spillover of the growing violence in the northern Mozambican province of Cabo Delgado

  • Thailand

    including the most recent in 2014, the military has attempted nearly 20 coups since the fall of absolute monarchy in 1932

    since 2004, the military has fought against separatist insurgents in the southern provinces of Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat, as well as parts of Songkhla; the insurgency is rooted in ethnic Malay nationalist resistance to Thai rule that followed the extension of Siamese sovereignty over the Patani Sultanate in the 18th century; the insurgency consists of several armed groups, the largest of which is the Barisan Revolusi Nasional-Koordinasi (BRN-C): since 2018, the Thai military has been negotiating with an umbrella organization, MARA Pattani, that claims to represent the insurgency groups; since 2004, the fighting has claimed about 7,000 lives; as of mid-2020, an estimated 100,000 military and paramilitary forces were deployed in the south to combat the insurgency

     

  • Tokelau

    defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

  • Tunisia

    the Tunisian military’s primary operational areas of focus are counter-terrorism, counterinsurgency, and border security; it conducts counter-terrorism and counterinsurgency operations against al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Islamic State of ash-Sham (ISIS)-linked militants who have been fighting a low-intensity insurgency against the government, mostly in the mountainous region along the border with Algeria, particularly the Chaambi Mountains near the city of Kasserine; the Tunisian military routinely conducts joint operations with Algerian security forces against these  groups, as well to counter smuggling and trafficking activities; the Tunisian military in recent years also has increased its role in securing the southern border against militant activity, smuggling, and trafficking from war-torn Libya; the Tunisian Government has constructed a complex structure of berms, trenches, and water-filled moats, complemented by electronic surveillance equipment such as motion detectors, ground surveillance radars, and infrared sensors along the 220-kilometer border with Libya; in the more populace northern border area, the Tunisian Army backs up Ministry of Interior security forces (Customs and the National Guard), while in the more remote southern sections of the frontier a military exclusion or buffer zone has been created, with the Tunisian Army having the lead in conducting patrols, interdiction, and making arrests

  • Turkey

    the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) has actively pursued the goal of asserting civilian control over the military since first taking power in 2002; the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) role in internal security has been significantly reduced; the TSK leadership continues to be an influential institution within Turkey, but plays a much smaller role in politics; the Turkish military remains focused on the threats emanating from the Syrian civil war, Russia's actions in Ukraine, and the PKK insurgency; primary domestic threats are listed as fundamentalism (with the definition in some dispute with the civilian government), separatism (Kurdish discontent), and the extreme left wing; Ankara strongly opposed establishment of an autonomous Kurdish region in Iraq; an overhaul of the Turkish Land Forces Command (TLFC) taking place under the "Force 2014" program is to produce 20-30% smaller, more highly trained forces characterized by greater mobility and firepower and capable of joint and combined operations; the TLFC has taken on increasing international peacekeeping responsibilities including in Afghanistan; the Turkish Navy is a regional naval power that wants to develop the capability to project power beyond Turkey's coastal waters; the Navy is heavily involved in NATO, multinational, and UN operations; its roles include control of territorial waters and security for sea lines of communications; the Turkish Air Force adopted an "Aerospace and Missile Defense Concept" in 2002 and has initiated project work on an integrated missile defense system; in a controversial move, it purchased the Russian S-400 air defense system for an estimated $2.5 billion in July 2019; Air Force priorities include attaining a modern deployable, survivable, and sustainable force structure, and establishing a sustainable command and control system; Turkey is a NATO ally (joined 1952) and hosts NATO's Land Forces Command in Izmir, as well as the AN/TPY-2 radar as part of NATO Missile Defense

  • Turks and Caicos Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Uganda

    the UPDF, which is constitutionally granted seats in parliament, is widely viewed as a key constituency for MUSEVENI; it has been used by MUSEVENI and the NRM to break up rallies, raid opposition offices, and surveil rival candidates; during the 2020 election cycle, senior UPDF officer said that the military would not obey a non-NRM political leader

    the UPDF has conducted operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo against a Congo-based Ugandan rebel group, the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), which was designated as a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the US State Department in March 2021 as the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (ISIS-DRC; see the Terrorist Group Appendix); beginning in 2012, the UPDF also led regional efforts to pursue the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), a small, violent group of Ugandan origin that conducted widespread attacks against civilians in much of Central Africa; the UPDF withdrew from the mission in 2017 after declaring that the LRA no longer posed a security threat

    Uganda intervened in the South Sudan civil war in 2013-2016 and UPDF forces have clashed with South Sudanese forces along the border as recently as 2020

  • Ukraine

    the Ukrainian military’s primary concern is Russia’s material support for armed separatist forces in the eastern provinces of Donetsk and Luhansk where the conflict has become stalemated along a 250-mile front known as the line of contact; since the cease-fire of October 2019, Ukrainian military casualties along the front line have fallen significantly despite continued sporadic exchanges of fire through 2020 and into 2021

  • United Kingdom

    the UK is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

  • United States

    the US is a member of NATO and was one of the original 12 countries to sign the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) in 1949

  • United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Venezuela

    between 2013 and 2017, Venezuela established at least a dozen military-led firms in a variety of economic sectors, such as agriculture, banking, construction, insurance, the media, mining, oil, and tourism; as of mid-2019, military officers reportedly led at least 60 state-owned companies

  • Virgin Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Wake Island

    defense is the responsibility of the US; the US Air Force is responsible for overall administration and operation of the island facilities; the launch support facility is administered by the US Missile Defense Agency (MDA)

  • Wallis and Futuna

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Zimbabwe

    the ZDF was formed after independence from the former Rhodesian Army and the two guerrilla forces that opposed it during the Rhodesian Civil War (aka "Bush War") of the 1970s, the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA); internal security is a key current responsibility, and the military continues to play an active role in the country’s politics since the coup of 2017