Field Listing

Military – note

This entry includes miscellaneous military information of significance not included elsewhere.

  • Afghanistan

    since early 2015, the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan known as Resolute Support Mission (RSM) has focused on training, advising, and assisting Afghan government forces; as of mid-2020, RSM includes about 16,000 troops from 38 countries (June 2020)

  • Akrotiri

    defense is the responsibility of the UK; Akrotiri has a full RAF base, headquarters for British Forces Cyprus, and Episkopi Support Unit

  • American Samoa

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Andorra

    defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

  • Anguilla

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Antarctica

    the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

  • Argentina

    the Argentine military focuses primarily on border security and counter-narcotics operations; in 2018, the government approved a decree allowing greater latitude for the military in internal security missions, with a focus on logistics support in border areas (2019)

  • Aruba

    defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands; the Aruba security services focus on organized crime and terrorism

  • Ashmore and Cartier Islands

    defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

  • Belgium

    in 2018, the Defense Ministers of Belgium, Denmark and the Netherlands signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for the creation of a Composite Special Operations Component Command (C-SOCC); the C-SOCC was declared operational in December 2020

  • Benin

    Benin participates in the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) against Boko Haram along with Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; the Benin military contingent is in charge of MNJTF garrison duties (2020)

  • Bermuda

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Bouvet Island

    defense is the responsibility of Norway

  • Brazil

    the military's primary role is enforcing border security, particularly in the Amazon states; it also assists with internal security operations with a focus on organized crime

    Brazilian police forces are divided into Federal Police (around 15,000 personnel), Military Police (approximately 400,000 personnel), and Civil Police (approximately 125,000 personnel); the Federal Police serve under the Ministry of Justice, while the Military and Civil police are subordinate to the state governments; the National Public Security Force (Forca Nacional de Seguranca Publica or SENASP) is a national police force made up of Military Police from various states; article 144 of the Brazilian constitution states that all state Military Police are classified as reserve troops and ancillary forces of the Brazilian Army

  • British Indian Ocean Territory

    defense is the responsibility of the UK; in November 2016, the UK extended the US lease on Diego Garcia for 20 years; the lease now expires in December 2036 (2016)

  • British Virgin Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Brunei

    Brunei has a long-standing defense relationship with the United Kingdom and hosts a British Army garrison, which includes a Gurkha battalion and a jungle warfare school; there is also a long-term Singaporean military presence
    (2019)

  • Burkina Faso

    since at least 2016, the Armed Forces of Burkina Faso have been actively engaged in combat operations with terrorist groups linked to al-Qa'ida and ISIS; military operations have occurred in the Centre‐Est, Centre‐Nord, Est, Nord, and Sahel administrative regions

    Burkina Faso is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger; it has committed 550 troops and 100 gendarmes to the force; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries (2020)

  • Burma

    since the country's founding, the armed forces have been heavily involved in domestic politics and ran the country for five decades following a military coup in 1962; the military controls three key security ministries, one of two vice presidential appointments, and 25% of the parliamentary seats; its primary operational focus is internal security, particularly counterinsurgency operations against several insurgent groups in Kachin, Rakhine, and Shan states, such as the Arakan Army, the Kachin Independence Army, the Shan State Army, and the Tang National Liberation Army; these operations have resulted in numerous civilian casualties, human rights abuses, and internal displacement; the military is also engaged in small-scale operations against Naga insurgents along the northwestern border with India (2020)

  • Burundi

    in addition to its foreign deployments, the FDN is focused on internal security missions, particularly against rebel groups opposed to the regime such as National Forces of Liberation (FNL), the Resistance for the Rule of Law-Tabara (aka RED Tabara), and Popular Forces of Burundi (FPB or FOREBU); the groups are based in the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo and have carried out sporadic attacks in Burundi (2020)

  • Cameroon

    the FAC is largely focused on the threat from the terror group Boko Haram along its frontiers with Nigeria and Chad (Far North region) and an insurgency from armed Anglophone separatist groups in the North-West and South-West regions (as of Feb 2020, this internal conflict has left an estimated 3,000 civilians dead and over 500,000 people displaced since fighting started in 2016); in addition, the FAC has occasionally deployed units to the border region with the Central African Republic to counter intrusions from armed militias and bandits (2020)

  • Cayman Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Central African Republic

    the FACA is currently assessed as unable to provide adequate internal security for the country; the military was dissolved following the 2013 rebel seizure of the government and has struggled to rebuild in the years of instability since; France, Russia, the UN, and the European Union are providing various levels of security assistance

    the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) has operated in the country since 2014; its peacekeeping mission includes providing security, protecting civilians, facilitating humanitarian assistance, disarming and demobilizing armed groups, and supporting the country’s fragile transitional government; in November 2019, the UN Security Council extended the mandate of the MINUSCA peacekeeping mission another year; as of March 2020, MINUSCA had approximately 13,200 total personnel, including about 10,700 troops and 2,000 police

    the European Union Training Mission in the Central African Republic (EUTM-RCA) has operated in the country since 2016; the EUTM-RCA contributes to the restructuring of the country's military and defense sector through advice, training, and educational programs (2020)

  • Chad

    the ANT is chiefly focused on counterinsurgency/counter-terrorist operations against Boko Haram (BH) and the Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA) in the Lake Chad Basin area (primarily the Lac Province) and countering the terrorist threat in the Sahel; in 2020, it conducted a large military operation against BH in the Lake Chad region; also in 2020, Chad sent troops to the tri-border area with Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger to combat ISWA militants

    Chad is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger; Chad has committed 550 troops and 100 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane; Chad hosts the headquarters of Operation Barkhane in N’Djamena

    Chad has committed approximately 1,000-1,500 troops to the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) against Boko Haram; national MNJTF troop contingents are deployed within their own territories, although cross‐border operations are conducted periodically; in 2019, Chad sent more than 1,000 troops to Nigeria’s Borno State to fight BH as part of the MNJTF mission (2020)

  • Christmas Island

    defense is the responsibility of Australia

  • Clipperton Island

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    defense is the responsibility of Australia; the territory has a five-person police force

  • Colombia

    the Colombian Armed Forces are primarily focused on internal security, particularly counter-narcotics, counter-terrorism, and counterinsurgency operations against drug traffickers, militants from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and National Liberation Army (ELN) terrorist/guerrilla organizations, and other illegal armed groups; the Colombian Government signed a peace agreement with the FARC in 2016, but some former members (known as dissidents) have returned to fighting; the Colombian military resumed operations against FARC dissidents and their successor paramilitary groups in late 2019; in 2017, the Colombian Government initiated formal peace talks with the ELN, but in January 2019, the government ended the peace talks shortly after the ELN exploded a car bomb at the National Police Academy in Bogotá; the military is also focused on the security challenges posed by its neighbor, Venezuela (2020)

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the

    the modern FARDC was created out of the armed factions of the two Congo wars of 1996-1997 and 1998-2003; as part of the peace accords that ended the last war, the largest rebel groups were incorporated into the FARDC; many armed groups (at least 70 and by some recent estimates more than 100), however, continue to fight; as of September 2020, the FARDC is actively engaged in combat operations against numerous armed groups inside the country, particularly in the eastern provinces of Ituri, North Kivu, and South Kivu, although violence also continues in Maniema, Kasai, Kasai Central, and Tanganyika provinces; the military is widely assessed as being unable to provide adequate security throughout the country due to insufficient training, poor morale and leadership, ill-discipline and corruption, low equipment readiness, a fractious ethnic makeup, and the sheer size of the country and diversity of armed rebel groups

    MONUSCO, the United Nations peacekeeping and stabilization force in the Democratic Republic of Congo, has operated in the central and eastern parts of the country since 1999; as of March 2020, MONUSCO comprised around 18,500 personnel, including nearly 14,000 military troops; in December 2019, the UN extended MONUSCO's s mandate until 20 December 2020; MONUSCO includes a Force Intervention Brigade (FIB; 3 infantry battalions), the first ever UN peacekeeping force specifically tasked to carry out targeted offensive operations to neutralize and disarm groups considered a threat to state authority and civilian security (2020)

  • Cook Islands

    defense is the responsibility of New Zealand in consultation with the Cook Islands and at its request

  • Coral Sea Islands

    defense is the responsibility of Australia

  • Cote d'Ivoire

    the military has mutinied several times since the late 1990s, most recently in 2017, and has had a large role in the country’s political turmoil; currently, the FACI is focused on internal security and the growing threat posed by Islamic militants associated with the al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) terrorist group operating across the border in southern Burkina Faso; AQIM militants conducted significant attacks in the country in 2016 and 2020; Côte d’Ivoire since 2016 has stepped up border security and built a joint terrorism training center with France near Abidjan in 2018

    the UN maintained a 9,000-strong peacekeeping force in Cote d’Ivoire (UNOCI) from 2004 until 2017 (2020)

  • Cuba

    the FAR remains well trained and professional in nature, but the collapse of the Soviet Union deprived the Cuban military of its major economic and logistic support and had a significant impact on the state of equipment; the lack of replacement parts for its existing equipment has increasingly affected operational capabilities (2019)

  • Curacao

    defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (2019)

  • Cyprus

    the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNICYP) was set up in 1964 to prevent further fighting between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities on the island and bring about a return to normal conditions; as of March 2020, the UNICYP mission consisted of about 830 personnel (2020)

  • Denmark

    in 2018, the Defense Ministers of Belgium, Denmark and the Netherlands signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for the creation of a Composite Special Operations Component Command (C-SOCC); the C-SOCC was declared operational in December 2020

  • Dhekelia

    defense is the responsibility of the UK; includes Dhekelia Garrison and Ayios Nikolaos Station connected by a roadway

  • Dominica

    Dominica participates in the Regional Security System (RSS) an international agreement for the defense and security of the eastern Caribbean region (2019)

  • Egypt

    since 2011, the Egyptian Armed Forces, police, and other security forces have been actively engaged in counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations in the North Sinai governorate against several militant groups, particularly the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham – Sinai Province; as of early 2020, Egypt reportedly had over 40,000 troops plus thousands of police and other security personnel deployed to the Sinai for internal security duties

    the military has a large stake in the civilian economy, including running businesses, producing consumer and industrial goods, importing commodities, and building and managing infrastructure projects, such as bridges, roads, hospitals, and housing developments

    the Multinational Force & Observers (MFO) has operated in the Sinai since 1982 as a peacekeeping and monitoring force to supervise the implementation of the security provisions of the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli Treaty of Peace; the MFO is an independent international organization, created by agreement between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the State of Israel; it is composed of about 1,150 troops from 13 countries (2020)

  • Ethiopia

    each of the nine states has a regional, a special police force, or both that report to regional civilian authorities; local militias operate across the country in loose and varying coordination with these regional police, the Ethiopian Federal Police (EFP), and the military; the EFP reports to the Ministry of Peace, which was created in October of 2018 (2019)

  • European Union

    the current five-nation Eurocorps, formally established in 1992 and activated the following year, began in 1987 as a French-German Brigade; Belgium (1993), Spain (1994), and Luxembourg (1996) joined over the next few years; five additional countries participate in Eurocorps as associated nations: Greece, Poland, and Turkey (since 2002), Italy and Romania (joined in 2009 and 2016 respectively); Eurocorps consists of approximately 1,000 troops at its headquarters in Strasbourg, France and the 5,000-man Franco-German Brigade (2020)

  • Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Faroe Islands

    defense is the responsibility of Denmark

  • French Polynesia

    defense is the responsibility of France and France maintains forces in French Polynesia (2019)

  • French Southern and Antarctic Lands

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Georgia

    Georgia does not have any military stationed in the separatist territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, but large numbers of Russian servicemen have been stationed in these regions since the 2008 Russia-Georgia War (2019)

  • Gibraltar

    defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1991 (2019)

  • Greenland

    The Danish military’s Joint Arctic Command in Nuuk is responsible for territorial defense of Greenland (2019)

  • Guam

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Guernsey

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands

    defense is the responsibility of Australia; Australia conducts fisheries patrols

  • Holy See (Vatican City)

    defense is the responsibility of Italy

  • Hong Kong

    defense is the responsibility of China

  • Iceland

    Iceland is the only NATO member that has no standing military force; defense of Iceland remains a NATO commitment and NATO maintains an air policing presence in Icelandic airspace; Iceland participates in international peacekeeping missions with the civilian-manned Icelandic Crisis Response Unit (ICRU) (2019)

  • Isle of Man

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Israel

    the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) has operated in the Golan between Israel and Syria since 1974 to monitor the ceasefire following the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and supervise the areas of separation between the two countries; as of March 2020, UNDOF consisted of about 1,000 personnel (2020)

  • Jan Mayen

    defense is the responsibility of Norway

  • Jersey

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Kenya

    the Kenya Coast Guard Service (established 2018) is under the Ministry of Interior, but led by a military officer and comprised of personnel from the military, as well as the National Police Service, intelligence services, and other government agencies (2020)

  • Kiribati

    Kiribati does not have military forces; defense assistance is provided by Australia and NZ

  • Lebanon

    the United Nations Interim Force In Lebanon (UNIFIL) has operated in the country since 1978, originally under UNSCRs 425 and 426 to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and security and assist the Lebanese Government in restoring its effective authority in the area; following the July-August 2006 war, the UN Security Council adopted resolution 1701 enhancing UNIFIL and deciding that in addition to the original mandate, it would, among other things, monitor the cessation of hostilities; accompany and support the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) as they deploy throughout the south of Lebanon; and extend its assistance to help ensure humanitarian access to civilian populations and the voluntary and safe return of displaced persons; UNIFIL had about 10,200 personnel deployed in the country as of March 2020 (2020)

  • Lesotho

    Lesotho's declared policy for its military is the maintenance of the country's sovereignty and the preservation of internal security; in practice, external security is guaranteed by South Africa

  • Libya

    as of the Fall of 2020, there were at least 10,000 foreign mercenaries and proxy forces estimated to be deployed in Libya to bolster both GNA- and LNA-aligned forces (2020)

  • Macau

    defense is the responsibility of China; the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) maintains a garrison in Macau

  • Mali

    prior to the August 2020 coup, the Malian military had intervened in the political arena at least five times since the country gained independence in 1960; two attempts failed (1976 and 1978), while three succeeded (1968, 1991, and 2012); the military collapsed in 2012 during the fighting against Tuareg rebels and Islamic militants

    since 2017, the FAMa, along with other government security and paramilitary forces, has conducted multiple major operations against militants in the eastern, central, and northern parts of the country; up to 4,000 troops reportedly have been deployed; the stated objectives for the most recent operation (Operation Maliko in early 2020) was to end terrorist activity and restore government authority in seven of the country’s 10 regions, including Mopti, Ségou, Gao, Kidal, Ménaka, Taoudénit, and Timbuktu

    Mali is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Chad, Mauritania, and Niger; it has committed 1,100 troops and 200 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane 

    the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) has operated in the country since 2013; the Mission's responsibilities include providing security, rebuilding Malian security forces, supporting national political dialogue, and assisting in the reestablishment of Malian government authority; as of March 2020, MINUSMA had around 15,500 military, police, and civilian personnel deployed

    the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM-M) also has operated in the country since 2013; the EUTM-M provides advice and training to the Malian Armed Forces and military assistance to the G5 Sahel Joint Force; as of August 2020, the mission included more than 600 personnel from 28 European countries (2020)

  • Marshall Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Mauritania

    since a spate of terrorist attacks in the 2000s, including a 2008 attack on a military base in the country’s north that resulted in the deaths of 12 soldiers, the Mauritanian Government has increased the defense budget and military equipment acquisitions, enhanced military training, heightened security cooperation with its neighbors and the international community, and built up the military’s special operations and civil-military affairs forces

    Mauritania is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, and Niger; it has committed 550 troops and 100 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane (2020)

  • Micronesia, Federated States of

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Monaco

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Montserrat

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Mozambique

    the Mozambique Defense and Security Forces are facing a growing insurgency involving terrorist/militant groups with ties to the Islamic State in Central Africa in the northern province of Cabo Delgado, an area known for rich liquid natural gas deposits; insurgent attacks in the province began in 2017 and as of November 2020, the fighting had left an estimated 2,000 dead and over 300,000 displaced; Mozambique has brought in private military companies to provide assistance to its security forces (2020)

  • Nauru

    Nauru maintains no defense forces; under an informal agreement, defense is the responsibility of Australia

  • Navassa Island

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Netherlands

    in 2018, the Defense Ministers of Belgium, Denmark and the Netherlands signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for the creation of a Composite Special Operations Component Command (C-SOCC); the C-SOCC was declared operational in December 2020

  • New Caledonia

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Niger

    as of September 2020, the FAN was conducting counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations against Islamic militants on two fronts; in the Diffa region, the Nigeria-based Boko Haram terrorist group has conducted dozens of attacks on security forces, army bases, and civilians; on Niger’s western border with Mali, the Islamic State-West Africa (ISWA) has conducted numerous attacks on security personnel; a series of ISWA attacks on FAN forces near the Malian border in December of 2019 and January of 2020 resulted in the deaths of more than 170 soldiers

    Niger is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, and Chad; it has committed 1,100 troops and 200 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane

    Niger also has about 1,000 troops committed to the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) against Boko Haram; national MNJTF troop contingents are deployed within their own country territories, although cross‐border operations are conducted periodically (2020)

  • Nigeria

    the Nigerian Armed Forces are used primarily for internal security operations; in the northeast, the military is conducting counterinsurgency/counter-terrorist operations against the Boko Haram (BH) and Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA) terrorist groups, where it has deployed as many as 70,000 troops at times; in the northwest, it faces threats from criminal gangs, bandits, and militants associated with ongoing farmer-herder violence, as well as BH and ISWA terrorists; the military also focuses on the Niger Delta region to protect the oil industry against militants and criminal activity, although the levels of violence there have decreased in recent years (2020)

  • Niue

    defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

  • Norfolk Island

    defense is the responsibility of Australia

  • Northern Mariana Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Palau

    Under a 1994 Compact of Free Association between Palau and the US, the US until 2044 is responsible for the defense of Palaus and the US military is granted access to the islands, but it has not stationed any military forces there. (2020)

  • Paracel Islands

    occupied by China, which is assessed to maintain 20 outposts in the Paracels (Antelope, Bombay, and North reefs; Drummond, Duncan, Lincoln, Middle, Money, North, Pattle, Quanfu, Robert, South, Tree, Triton, Woody, and Yagong islands; South Sand and West Sand; Observation Bank); the outposts range in size from one or two buildings to bases with significant military infrastructure; Woody Island is the main base in the Paracels and includes an airstrip with fighter aircraft hangers, naval facilities, surveillance radars, and defenses such as surface-to-air missiles and anti-ship cruise missiles; fighter aircraft have deployed to the island (2020)

  • Philippines

    the AFP's primary operational focus is on internal security duties, particularly in the south, where several insurgent and terrorist groups operate and an estimated 60% of the armed forces were deployed as of 2019; the Philippines National Police (PNP) also has an active role in counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations alongside the AFP (2019)

  • Pitcairn Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Puerto Rico

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Saint Barthelemy

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • Saint Lucia

    St. Lucia is a member of the Regional Security System (RSS), an international agreement for the defense and security of the eastern Caribbean region.

  • Saint Martin

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Samoa

    Samoa has no formal defense structure or regular armed forces; informal defense ties exist with NZ, which is required to consider any Samoan request for assistance under the 1962 Treaty of Friendship

  • San Marino

    defense is the responsibility of Italy

  • Sint Maarten

    defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

  • Somalia

    Somali military forces are heavily engaged in operations against the al-Shabaab terrorist organization, including joint operations with the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM); AMISOM has operated in the country with the approval of the United Nations (UN) since 2007; AMISOM's peacekeeping mission includes assisting Somali forces in providing security for a stable political process, enabling the gradual handing over of security responsibilities from AMISOM to the Somali security forces, and reducing the threat posed by Al-Shabaab and other armed opposition groups; as of early 2020, AMISOM had about 19,000 military troops and 1,000 police personnel from six African countries deployed in Somalia; the next UN Security Council AMISOM mandate renewal debate is schedule for February 2021 (in 2017, the Somali Government drafted a Somalia Transition Plan that called for the gradual transfer of security responsibilities from AMISOM to the Somali security forces by 2021)

    UN Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) is mandated by the Security Council to work with the Federal Government of Somalia to support national reconciliation, provide advice on peace-building and state-building, monitor the human rights situation, and help coordinate the efforts of the international community

    the UN Support Office in Somalia (UNSOS) is responsible for providing logistical field support to AMISOM, UNSOM, the Somali National Army, and the Somali Police Force on joint operations with AMISOM

    the European Union Training Mission in Somalia (EUTM-S) has operated in the country since 2010; the EUTM provides advice and training to the Somali military; the US and Turkey maintain separate unilateral military training missions in Somalia (2020)

  • South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • South Sudan

    under the September 2018 peace agreement, all armed groups in South Sudan were to assemble at designated sites where fighters could be either disarmed and demobilized, or integrated into unified military and police forces; the unified forces were then to be retrained and deployed prior to the formation of a national unity government; all fighters were ordered to these sites in July 2019; some progress toward merging the various armed forces into a national army has been made; for example, in May 2020, South Sudan announced that it was graduating some unified forces at various training centers across the country, and in June the SSPDF incorporated some senior officers from the main opposition force, the Sudan People's Liberation Movement Army - in Opposition (SPLM/A-IO) into its rank structure; nevertheless, progress has been slow, and as of December 2020 armed clashes continued to occur between government forces and armed militant groups

    the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) has operated in the country since 2011 with the objectives of consolidating peace and security and helping establish conditions for the successful economic and political development of South Sudan; UNMISS had more than 18,000 personnel deployed in the country as of May 2020

    United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) has operated in the disputed Abyei region along the border between Sudan and South Sudan since 2011; UNISFA's mission includes ensuring security, protecting civilians, strengthening the capacity of the Abyei Police Service, de-mining, monitoring/verifying the redeployment of armed forces from the area, and facilitating the flow of humanitarian aid; UNISFA had about 4,000 personnel deployed as of March 2020 (2020)

  • Spratly Islands

    Spratly Islands consist of more than 100 small islands or reefs of which about 45 are claimed and occupied by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam

    China: assessed to have 7 outposts (Fiery Cross, Mischief, Subi, Cuarteron, Gavin, Hughes, and Johnson reefs); the outposts on Fiery Cross, Mischief, and Subi include air bases with helipads and dozens of fighter jet hangers, naval port facilities, surveillance radars, air defense sites, anti-ship cruise missiles, and other military infrastructure such as communications, barracks, maintenance facilities, and ammunition and fuel bunkers

    Malaysia:  assessed to have 5 outposts in the southern portion of the archipelago, closest to the Malaysian state of Sabah (Ardasier Reef, Eric Reef, Mariveles Reef, Shallow Reef, and Investigator Shoal); all the outposts have helicopter landing pads, while Shallow Reef also has an airstrip

    Philippines: assessed to occupy 9 features (Commodore Reef, Second Thomas Shoal, Flat Island, Loaita Cay, Loaita Island, Nanshan Island, Northeast Cay, Thitu Island, and West York Island); Thitu Island has the only Philippine airstrip in the Spratlys

    Taiwan: maintains an outpost with an airstrip on Itu Aba Island

    Vietnam: assessed to occupy about 49 outposts spread across 27 features, including facilities on 21 rocks and reefs in the Spratlys, plus 14 platforms known as “economic, scientific, and technological service stations,” or Dịch vụ-Khoa (DK1), on six underwater banks to the southeast that Vietnam does not consider part of the disputed island chain, although China and Taiwan disagree; Spratly Islands outposts are on Alison Reef, Amboyna Cay, Barque Canada Reef, Central Reef, Collins Reef, Cornwallis South Reef, Discovery Great Reef, East Reef, Grierson Reef, Ladd Reef, Landsdowne Reef, Namyit Island, Pearson Reef, Petley Reef, Sand Cay, Sin Cowe Island, South Reef, Southwest Cay, Spratly Island, Tennent Reef, West Reef; Spratly Island includes an airstrip with aircraft hangers; the six underwater banks with outposts include Vanguard, Rifleman, Prince of Wales, Prince Consort, Grainger, and Alexandra

    (2020)

  • Sudan

    United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) has operated in the disputed Abyei region along the border between Sudan and South Sudan since 2011; UNISFA's mission includes ensuring security, protecting civilians, strengthening the capacity of the Abyei Police Service, de-mining, monitoring/verifying the redeployment of armed forces from the area, and facilitating the flow of humanitarian aid; UNISFA had about 4,000 personnel deployed as of January 2020

    in addition, the United Nations African Union Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) has operated in the war-torn Darfur region since 2007; UNAMID is a joint African Union-UN peacekeeping force with the mission of bringing stability to Darfur, including protecting civilians, facilitating humanitarian assistance, and promoting mediation efforts, while peace talks on a final settlement continue; as of March 2020, UNAMID had about 6,500 personnel deployed; the UNAMID mission is scheduled to close at the end of 2021 (2020)

  • Svalbard

    Svalbard is a territory of Norway, demilitarized by treaty on 9 February 1920; Norwegian military activity is limited to fisheries surveillance by the Norwegian Coast Guard

  • Syria

    the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) has operated in the Golan between Israel and Syria since 1974 to monitor the ceasefire following the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and supervise the areas of separation between the two countries; as of October 2019, UNDOF consisted of about 1,140 personnel

  • Tanzania

    the TPDF has deployed additional troops to its border with Mozambique to prevent a spillover of the growing violence in the northern Mozambican province of Cabo Delgado (2020)

  • Thailand

    including the most recent in 2014, the military has conducted 12 successful coups and attempted an additional seven since the fall of absolute monarchy in 1932; since 2004, the military has fought against separatist insurgents in the southern provinces of Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat, as well as parts of Songkhla; as of 2019, approximately 60,000 security forces, including large numbers of paramilitary troops such as the Thai Rangers, were stationed in the south (2019)

  • Tokelau

    defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

  • Turkey

    the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) has actively pursued the goal of asserting civilian control over the military since first taking power in 2002; the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) role in internal security has been significantly reduced; the TSK leadership continues to be an influential institution within Turkey, but plays a much smaller role in politics; the Turkish military remains focused on the threats emanating from the Syrian civil war, Russia's actions in Ukraine, and the PKK insurgency; primary domestic threats are listed as fundamentalism (with the definition in some dispute with the civilian government), separatism (Kurdish discontent), and the extreme left wing; Ankara strongly opposed establishment of an autonomous Kurdish region in Iraq; an overhaul of the Turkish Land Forces Command (TLFC) taking place under the "Force 2014" program is to produce 20-30% smaller, more highly trained forces characterized by greater mobility and firepower and capable of joint and combined operations; the TLFC has taken on increasing international peacekeeping responsibilities including in Afghanistan; the Turkish Navy is a regional naval power that wants to develop the capability to project power beyond Turkey's coastal waters; the Navy is heavily involved in NATO, multinational, and UN operations; its roles include control of territorial waters and security for sea lines of communications; the Turkish Air Force adopted an "Aerospace and Missile Defense Concept" in 2002 and has initiated project work on an integrated missile defense system; in a controversial move, it purchased the Russian S-400 air defense system for an estimated $2.5 billion in July 2019; Air Force priorities include attaining a modern deployable, survivable, and sustainable force structure, and establishing a sustainable command and control system; Turkey is a NATO ally and hosts NATO's Land Forces Command in Izmir, as well as the AN/TPY-2 radar as part of NATO Missile Defense (2019)

  • Turks and Caicos Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the UK

  • United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Virgin Islands

    defense is the responsibility of the US

  • Wake Island

    defense is the responsibility of the US; the US Air Force is responsible for overall administration and operation of the island facilities; the launch support facility is administered by the US Missile Defense Agency (MDA)

  • Wallis and Futuna

    defense is the responsibility of France

  • Zimbabwe

    the ZDF was formed after independence from the former Rhodesian Army and the two guerrilla forces that opposed it during the Rhodesian Civil War (aka "Bush War") of the 1970s, the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA); internal security is a key current responsibility, and the military continues to play an active role in the country’s politics since the coup of 2017 (2020)