Field Listing

Natural hazards

This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes.

  • Afghanistan

    damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts

  • Albania

    destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought

  • Algeria

    mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season; droughts

  • American Samoa

    cyclones common from December to March

    volcanism: limited volcanic activity on the Ofu and Olosega Islands; neither has erupted since the 19th century

  • Andorra

    avalanches

  • Angola

    locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

  • Anguilla

    frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

  • Antarctica

    katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak; large icebergs may calve from ice shelf

  • Antigua and Barbuda

    hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

  • Arctic Ocean

    ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice locked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing from October to May

  • Argentina

    San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas

    volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains along the Chilean border; Copahue (2,997 m) last erupted in 2000; other historically active volcanoes include Llullaillaco, Maipo, Planchon-Peteroa, San Jose, Tromen, Tupungatito, and Viedma

  • Armenia

    occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

  • Aruba

    hurricanes; lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt and is rarely threatened

  • Ashmore and Cartier Islands

    surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime hazards

  • Atlantic Ocean

    icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to September; hurricanes (May to December)

  • Australia

    cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires

    volcanism: volcanic activity on Heard and McDonald Islands

  • Austria

    landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

  • Azerbaijan

    droughts

  • Bahamas, The

    hurricanes and other tropical storms cause extensive flood and wind damage

  • Bahrain

    periodic droughts; dust storms

  • Bangladesh

    droughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season

  • Barbados

    infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

  • Belarus

    large tracts of marshy land

  • Belgium

    flooding is a threat along rivers and in areas of reclaimed coastal land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes

  • Belize

    frequent, devastating hurricanes (June to November) and coastal flooding (especially in south)

  • Benin

    hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north from December to March

  • Bermuda

    hurricanes (June to November)

  • Bhutan

    violent storms from the Himalayas are the source of the country's Bhutanese name, which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

  • Bolivia

    flooding in the northeast (March to April)

    volcanism: volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and the Olca-Paruma volcanic complex (5,762 m to 5,167 m)

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina

    destructive earthquakes

  • Botswana

    periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility

  • Bouvet Island

    occasional volcanism, rock slides; harsh climate, surrounded by pack ice in winter

  • Brazil

    recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

  • British Indian Ocean Territory

    none; located outside routes of Indian Ocean cyclones

  • British Virgin Islands

    hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

  • Brunei

    typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

  • Bulgaria

    earthquakes; landslides

  • Burkina Faso

    recurring droughts

  • Burma

    destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts

  • Burundi

    flooding; landslides; drought

  • Cabo Verde

    prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active

    volcanism: Fogo (2,829 m), which last erupted in 1995, is Cabo Verde's only active volcano

  • Cambodia

    monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

  • Cameroon

    volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes

    volcanism: Mt. Cameroon (4,095 m), which last erupted in 2000, is the most frequently active volcano in West Africa; lakes in Oku volcanic field have released fatal levels of gas on occasion, killing some 1,700 people in 1986

  • Canada

    continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains

    volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant

  • Cayman Islands

    hurricanes (July to November)

  • Central African Republic

    hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; floods are common

  • Chad

    hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues

  • Chile

    severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

    volcanism: significant volcanic activity due to more than three-dozen active volcanoes along the Andes Mountains; Lascar (5,592 m), which last erupted in 2007, is the most active volcano in the northern Chilean Andes; Llaima (3,125 m) in central Chile, which last erupted in 2009, is another of the country's most active; Chaiten's 2008 eruption forced major evacuations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Cerro Hudson, Calbuco, Copahue, Guallatiri, Llullaillaco, Nevados de Chillan, Puyehue, San Pedro, and Villarrica; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

  • China

    frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence

    volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries

  • Christmas Island

    the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard

  • Clipperton Island

    subject to tropical storms and hurricanes from May to October

  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    cyclone season is October to April

  • Colombia

    highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts

    volcanism: Galeras (4,276 m) is one of Colombia's most active volcanoes, having erupted in 2009 and 2010 causing major evacuations; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Nevado del Ruiz (5,321 m), 129 km (80 mi) west of Bogota, erupted in 1985 producing lahars (mudflows) that killed 23,000 people; the volcano last erupted in 1991; additionally, after 500 years of dormancy, Nevado del Huila reawakened in 2007 and has experienced frequent eruptions since then; other historically active volcanoes include Cumbal, Dona Juana, Nevado del Tolima, and Purace

  • Comoros

    cyclones possible during rainy season (December to April); volcanic activity on Grand Comore

    volcanism: Karthala (2,361 m) on Grand Comore Island last erupted in 2007; a 2005 eruption forced thousands of people to be evacuated and produced a large ash cloud

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the

    periodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); active volcanoes in the east along the Great Rift Valley

    volcanism: Nyiragongo (3,470 m), which erupted in 2002 and is experiencing ongoing activity, poses a major threat to the city of Goma, home to a quarter million people; the volcano produces unusually fast-moving lava, known to travel up to 100 km /hr; Nyiragongo has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; its neighbor, Nyamuragira, which erupted in 2010, is Africa's most active volcano; Visoke is the only other historically active volcano

  • Congo, Republic of the

    seasonal flooding

  • Cook Islands

    tropical cyclones (November to March)

  • Coral Sea Islands

    occasional tropical cyclones

  • Costa Rica

    occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season and landslides; active volcanoes

    volcanism: Arenal (1,670 m), which erupted in 2010, is the most active volcano in Costa Rica; a 1968 eruption destroyed the town of Tabacon; Irazu (3,432 m), situated just east of San Jose, has the potential to spew ash over the capital city as it did between 1963 and 1965; other historically active volcanoes include Miravalles, Poas, Rincon de la Vieja, and Turrialba

  • Cote d'Ivoire

    coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible

  • Croatia

    destructive earthquakes

  • Cuba

    the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August to November (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every other year); droughts are common

  • Curacao

    Curacao is south of the Caribbean hurricane belt and is rarely threatened

  • Cyprus

    moderate earthquake activity; droughts

  • Czechia

    flooding

  • Denmark

    flooding is a threat in some areas of the country (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

  • Djibouti

    earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods

    volcanism: experiences limited volcanic activity; Ardoukoba (298 m) last erupted in 1978; Manda-Inakir, located along the Ethiopian border, is also historically active

  • Dominica

    flash floods are a constant threat; destructive hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months

    volcanism: Dominica was the last island to be formed in the Caribbean some 26 million years ago, it lies in the middle of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from the island of Saba in the north to Grenada in the south; of the 16 volcanoes that make up this arc, five are located on Dominica, more than any other island in the Caribbean: Morne aux Diables (861 m), Morne Diablotins (1,430 m), Morne Trois Pitons (1,387 m), Watt Mountain (1,224 m), which last erupted in 1997, and Morne Plat Pays (940 m); the two best known volcanic features on Dominica, the Valley of Desolation and the Boiling Lake thermal areas, lie on the flanks of Watt Mountain and both are popular tourist destinations

  • Dominican Republic

    lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic droughts

  • Ecuador

    frequent earthquakes; landslides; volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts

    volcanism: volcanic activity concentrated along the Andes Mountains; Sangay (5,230 m), which erupted in 2010, is mainland Ecuador's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes in the Andes include Antisana, Cayambe, Chacana, Cotopaxi, Guagua Pichincha, Reventador, Sumaco, and Tungurahua; Fernandina (1,476 m), a shield volcano that last erupted in 2009, is the most active of the many Galapagos volcanoes; other historically active Galapagos volcanoes include Wolf, Sierra Negra, Cerro Azul, Pinta, Marchena, and Santiago

  • Egypt

    periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms

  • El Salvador

    known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes

    volcanism: significant volcanic activity; San Salvador (1,893 m), which last erupted in 1917, has the potential to cause major harm to the country's capital, which lies just below the volcano's slopes; San Miguel (2,130 m), which last erupted in 2002, is one of the most active volcanoes in the country; other historically active volcanoes include Conchaguita, Ilopango, Izalco, and Santa Ana

  • Equatorial Guinea

    violent windstorms; flash floods

    volcanism: Santa Isabel (3,007 m), which last erupted in 1923, is the country's only historically active volcano; Santa Isabel, along with two dormant volcanoes, form Bioko Island in the Gulf of Guinea

  • Eritrea

    frequent droughts, rare earthquakes and volcanoes; locust swarms

    volcanism: Dubbi (1,625 m), which last erupted in 1861, was the country's only historically active volcano until Nabro (2,218 m) came to life on 12 June 2011

  • Estonia

    sometimes flooding occurs in the spring

  • Eswatini

    drought

  • Ethiopia

    geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

    volcanism: volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, forcing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir

  • European Union

    flooding along coasts; avalanches in mountainous area; earthquakes in the south; volcanic eruptions in Italy; periodic droughts in Spain; ice floes in the Baltic

  • Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

    strong winds persist throughout the year

  • Faroe Islands

    strong winds and heavy rains can occur throughout the year

  • Fiji

    cyclonic storms can occur from November to January

  • Finland

    severe winters in the north

  • France

    metropolitan France: flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires in south near the Mediterranean;

    overseas departments: hurricanes (cyclones); flooding;

    volcanism: Montagne Pelee (1,394 m) on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean is the most active volcano of the Lesser Antilles arc, it last erupted in 1932; a catastrophic eruption in May 1902 destroyed the city of St. Pierre, killing an estimated 30,000 people;; La Soufriere (1,467 m) on the island of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean last erupted from July 1976 to March 1977;; these volcanoes are part of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south

  • French Polynesia

    occasional cyclonic storms in January

  • French Southern and Antarctic Lands

    Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are inactive volcanoes; Iles Eparses subject to periodic cyclones; Bassas da India is a maritime hazard since it is under water for a period of three hours prior to and following the high tide and surrounded by reefs

    volcanism: Reunion Island - Piton de la Fournaise (2,632 m), which has erupted many times in recent years including 2010, 2015, and 2017, is one of the world's most active volcanoes; although rare, eruptions outside the volcano's caldera could threaten nearby cities

  • Gabon

    none

  • Gambia, The

    droughts

  • Gaza Strip

    droughts

  • Georgia

    earthquakes

  • Germany

    flooding

  • Ghana

    dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts

  • Gibraltar

    occasional droughts; no streams or large bodies of water on the peninsula (all potable water comes from desalination)

  • Greece

    severe earthquakes

    volcanism: Santorini (367 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; although there have been very few eruptions in recent centuries, Methana and Nisyros in the Aegean are classified as historically active

  • Greenland

    continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island

  • Grenada

    lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November

    volcanism: Mount Saint Catherine (840 m) lies on the island of Grenada; Kick 'em Jenny, an active submarine volcano (seamount) on the Caribbean Sea floor, lies about 8 km north of the island of Grenada; these two volcanoes are at the southern end of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends up to the Netherlands dependency of Saba in the north

  • Guam

    frequent squalls during rainy season; relatively rare but potentially destructive typhoons (June to December)

  • Guatemala

    numerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms

    volcanism: significant volcanic activity in the Sierra Madre range; Santa Maria (3,772 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pacaya (2,552 m), which erupted in May 2010 causing an ashfall on Guatemala City and prompting evacuations, is one of the country's most active volcanoes with frequent eruptions since 1965; other historically active volcanoes include Acatenango, Almolonga, Atitlan, Fuego, and Tacana; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

  • Guernsey

    very large tidal variation and fast currents can make local waters dangerous

  • Guinea

    hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season

  • Guinea-Bissau

    hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; brush fires

  • Guyana

    flash flood threat during rainy seasons

  • Haiti

    lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts

  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands

    Mawson Peak, an active volcano, is on Heard Island

  • Holy See (Vatican City)

    occasional earthquakes

  • Honduras

    frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast

  • Hong Kong

    occasional typhoons

  • Iceland

    earthquakes and volcanic activity

    volcanism: Iceland, situated on top of a hotspot, experiences severe volcanic activity; Eyjafjallajokull (1,666 m) erupted in 2010, sending ash high into the atmosphere and seriously disrupting European air traffic; scientists continue to monitor nearby Katla (1,512 m), which has a high probability of eruption in the very near future, potentially disrupting air traffic; Grimsvoetn and Hekla are Iceland's most active volcanoes; other historically active volcanoes include Askja, Bardarbunga, Brennisteinsfjoll, Esjufjoll, Hengill, Krafla, Krisuvik, Kverkfjoll, Oraefajokull, Reykjanes, Torfajokull, and Vestmannaeyjar

  • India

    droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes

    volcanism: Barren Island (354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years

  • Indian Ocean

    occasional icebergs pose navigational hazard in southern reaches

  • Indonesia

    occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires

    volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; on 22 December 2018, a large explosion and flank collapse destroyed most of the 338 m high island of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) and generated a deadly tsunami inundating portions of western Java and southern Sumatra leaving more than 400 dead; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, Sinabung, and Tambora; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

  • Iran

    periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes

  • Iraq

    dust storms; sandstorms; floods

  • Ireland

    rare extreme weather events

  • Isle of Man

    occasional high winds and rough seas

  • Israel

    sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes

  • Italy

    regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice

    volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Etna (3,330 m), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and Vulsini

  • Jamaica

    hurricanes (especially July to November)

  • Jan Mayen

    dominated by the volcano Beerenberg

    volcanism: Beerenberg (2,227 m) is Norway's only active volcano; volcanic activity resumed in 1970; the most recent eruption occurred in 1985

  • Japan

    many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors but occasional severe earthquakes) every year; tsunamis; typhoons

    volcanism: both Unzen (1,500 m) and Sakura-jima (1,117 m), which lies near the densely populated city of Kagoshima, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Asama, Honshu Island's most active volcano, Aso, Bandai, Fuji, Iwo-Jima, Kikai, Kirishima, Komaga-take, Oshima, Suwanosejima, Tokachi, Yake-dake, and Usu; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

  • Jersey

    very large tidal variation can be hazardous to navigation

  • Jordan

    droughts; periodic earthquakes; flash floods

  • Kazakhstan

    earthquakes in the south; mudslides around Almaty

  • Kenya

    recurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons

    volcanism: limited volcanic activity; the Barrier (1,032 m) last erupted in 1921; South Island is the only other historically active volcano

  • Kiribati

    typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; occasional tornadoes; low level of some of the islands make them sensitive to changes in sea level

  • Korea, North

    late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding; occasional typhoons during the early fall

    volcanism: Changbaishan (2,744 m) (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu or P'aektu-san), on the Chinese border, is considered historically active

  • Korea, South

    occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; low-level seismic activity common in southwest

    volcanism: Halla (1,950 m) is considered historically active although it has not erupted in many centuries

  • Kuwait

    sudden cloudbursts are common from October to April and bring heavy rain, which can damage roads and houses; sandstorms and dust storms occur throughout the year but are most common between March and August

  • Kyrgyzstan

    major flooding during snow melt; prone to earthquakes

  • Laos

    floods, droughts

  • Latvia

    large percentage of agricultural fields can become waterlogged and require drainage

  • Lebanon

    earthquakes; dust storms, sandstorms

  • Lesotho

    periodic droughts

  • Liberia

    dust-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to March)

  • Libya

    hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms

  • Liechtenstein

    avalanches, landslides

  • Lithuania

    occasional floods, droughts

  • Luxembourg

    occasional flooding

  • Macau

    typhoons

  • Madagascar

    periodic cyclones; drought; and locust infestation

    volcanism: Madagascar's volcanoes have not erupted in historical times

  • Malawi

    flooding; droughts; earthquakes

  • Malaysia

    flooding; landslides; forest fires

  • Maldives

    tsunamis; low elevation of islands makes them sensitive to sea level rise

  • Mali

    hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding

  • Malta

    occasional droughts

  • Marshall Islands

    infrequent typhoons

  • Mauritania

    hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind primarily in March and April; periodic droughts

  • Mauritius

    cyclones (November to April); almost completely surrounded by reefs that may pose maritime hazards

  • Mexico

    tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts

    volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

  • Micronesia, Federated States of

    typhoons (June to December)

  • Moldova

    landslides

  • Monaco

    none

  • Mongolia

    dust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditions

  • Montenegro

    destructive earthquakes

  • Montserrat

    volcanic eruptions; severe hurricanes (June to November)

    volcanism: Soufriere Hills volcano (915 m), has erupted continuously since 1995; a massive eruption in 1997 destroyed most of the capital, Plymouth, and resulted in approximately half of the island becoming uninhabitable; the island of Montserrat is part of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south

  • Morocco

    in the north, the mountains are geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes; periodic droughts; windstorms; flash floods; landslides; in the south, a hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time, often severely restricting visibility

  • Mozambique

    severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces

  • Namibia

    prolonged periods of drought

  • Nauru

    periodic droughts

  • Navassa Island

    hurricanes

  • Nepal

    severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons

  • Netherlands

    flooding

    volcanism: Mount Scenery (887 m), located on the island of Saba in the Caribbean, last erupted in 1640;; Round Hill (601 m), a dormant volcano also known as The Quill, is located on the island of St. Eustatius in the Caribbean;; these islands are at the northern end of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends south to Grenada

  • New Caledonia

    cyclones, most frequent from November to March

    volcanism: Matthew and Hunter Islands are historically active

  • New Zealand

    earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity

    volcanism: significant volcanism on North Island; Ruapehu (2,797 m), which last erupted in 2007, has a history of large eruptions in the past century; Taranaki has the potential to produce dangerous avalanches and lahars; other historically active volcanoes include Okataina, Raoul Island, Tongariro, and White Island; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

  • Nicaragua

    destructive earthquakes; volcanoes; landslides; extremely susceptible to hurricanes

    volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Cerro Negro (728 m), which last erupted in 1999, is one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes; its lava flows and ash have been known to cause significant damage to farmland and buildings; other historically active volcanoes include Concepcion, Cosiguina, Las Pilas, Masaya, Momotombo, San Cristobal, and Telica

  • Niger

    recurring droughts

  • Nigeria

    periodic droughts; flooding

  • Niue

    tropical cyclones

  • Norfolk Island

    tropical cyclones (especially May to July)

  • North Macedonia

    high seismic risks

  • Northern Mariana Islands

    active volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; typhoons (especially August to November)

  • Norway

    rockslides, avalanches

    volcanism: Beerenberg (2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano

  • Oman

    summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts

  • Pacific Ocean

    surrounded by a zone of violent volcanic and earthquake activity sometimes referred to as the "Pacific Ring of Fire"; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire; 80% of tsunamis, caused by volcanic or seismic events, occur within the "Pacific Ring of Fire"; subject to tropical cyclones (typhoons) in southeast and east Asia from May to December (most frequent from July to October); tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico and strike Central America and Mexico from June to October (most common in August and September); cyclical El Nino/La Nina phenomenon occurs in the equatorial Pacific, influencing weather in the Western Hemisphere and the western Pacific; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north from October to May; persistent fog in the northern Pacific can be a maritime hazard from June to December

  • Pakistan

    frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

  • Palau

    typhoons (June to December)

  • Panama

    occasional severe storms and forest fires in the Darien area

  • Papua New Guinea

    active volcanism; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis

    volcanism: severe volcanic activity; Ulawun (2,334 m), one of Papua New Guinea's potentially most dangerous volcanoes, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Rabaul (688 m) destroyed the city of Rabaul in 1937 and 1994; Lamington erupted in 1951 killing 3,000 people; Manam's 2004 eruption forced the island's abandonment; other historically active volcanoes include Bam, Bagana, Garbuna, Karkar, Langila, Lolobau, Long Island, Pago, St. Andrew Strait, Victory, and Waiowa; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

  • Paracel Islands

    typhoons

  • Paraguay

    local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)

  • Peru

    earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

    volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

  • Philippines

    astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms each year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis

    volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Taal (311 m), which has shown recent unrest and may erupt in the near future, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Mayon (2,462 m), the country's most active volcano, erupted in 2009 forcing over 33,000 to be evacuated; other historically active volcanoes include Biliran, Babuyan Claro, Bulusan, Camiguin, Camiguin de Babuyanes, Didicas, Iraya, Jolo, Kanlaon, Makaturing, Musuan, Parker, Pinatubo, and Ragang; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

  • Pitcairn Islands

    occasional tropical cyclones (especially November to March), but generally only heavy tropical storms; landslides

  • Poland

    flooding

  • Portugal

    Azores subject to severe earthquakes

    volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

  • Puerto Rico

    periodic droughts; hurricanes

  • Qatar

    haze, dust storms, sandstorms common

  • Romania

    earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

  • Russia

    permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development; volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula; spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia

    volcanism: significant volcanic activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands; the peninsula alone is home to some 29 historically active volcanoes, with dozens more in the Kuril Islands; Kliuchevskoi (4,835 m), which erupted in 2007 and 2010, is Kamchatka's most active volcano; Avachinsky and Koryaksky volcanoes, which pose a threat to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Bezymianny, Chikurachki, Ebeko, Gorely, Grozny, Karymsky, Ketoi, Kronotsky, Ksudach, Medvezhia, Mutnovsky, Sarychev Peak, Shiveluch, Tiatia, Tolbachik, and Zheltovsky; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

  • Rwanda

    periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga Mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo

    volcanism: Visoke (3,711 m), located on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the country's only historically active volcano

  • Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha

    active volcanism on Tristan da Cunha

    volcanism: the island volcanoes of Tristan da Cunha (2,060 m) and Nightingale Island (365 m) experience volcanic activity; Tristan da Cunha erupted in 1962 and Nightingale in 2004

  • Saint Kitts and Nevis

    hurricanes (July to October)

    volcanism: Mount Liamuiga (1,156 m) on Saint Kitts, and Nevis Peak (985 m) on Nevis, are both volcanoes that are part of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles, which extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south

  • Saint Lucia

    hurricanes

    volcanism: Mount Gimie (948 m), also known as Qualibou, is a caldera on the west of the island; the iconic twin pyramidal peaks of Gros Piton (771 m) and Petit Piton (743 m) are lava dome remnants associated with the Soufriere volcano; there have been no historical magmatic eruptions, but a minor steam eruption in 1766 spread a thin layer of ash over a wide area; Saint Lucia is part of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south

  • Saint Martin

    subject to hurricanes from July to November

  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon

    persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard

  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

    hurricanes; La Soufriere volcano on the island of Saint Vincent is a constant threat

    volcanism: La Soufriere (1,234 m) on the island of Saint Vincent last erupted in 1979; the island of Saint Vincent is part of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south

  • Samoa

    occasional cyclones; active volcanism

    volcanism: Savai'I Island (1,858 m), which last erupted in 1911, is historically active

  • San Marino

    occasional earthquakes

  • Sao Tome and Principe

    flooding

  • Saudi Arabia

    frequent sand and dust storms

    volcanism: despite many volcanic formations, there has been little activity in the past few centuries; volcanoes include Harrat Rahat, Harrat Khaybar, Harrat Lunayyir, and Jabal Yar

  • Senegal

    lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts

  • Serbia

    destructive earthquakes

  • Seychelles

    lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; occasional short droughts

  • Sierra Leone

    dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to February); sandstorms, dust storms

  • Singapore

    flash floods

  • Sint Maarten

    subject to hurricanes from July to November

  • Slovakia

    flooding

  • Slovenia

    flooding; earthquakes

  • Solomon Islands

    tropical cyclones, but rarely destructive; geologically active region with frequent earthquakes, tremors, and volcanic activity; tsunamis

    volcanism: Tinakula (851 m) has frequent eruption activity, while an eruption of Savo (485 m) could affect the capital Honiara on nearby Guadalcanal

  • Somalia

    recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season

  • South Africa

    prolonged droughts

    volcanism: the volcano forming Marion Island in the Prince Edward Islands, which last erupted in 2004, is South Africa's only active volcano

  • South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands

    the South Sandwich Islands have prevailing weather conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship; they are also subject to active volcanism

  • Southern Ocean

    huge icebergs with drafts up to several hundred meters; smaller bergs and iceberg fragments; sea ice (generally 0.5 to 1 m thick) with sometimes dynamic short-term variations and with large annual and interannual variations; deep continental shelf floored by glacial deposits varying widely over short distances; high winds and large waves much of the year; ship icing, especially May-October; most of region is remote from sources of search and rescue

  • Spain

    periodic droughts, occasional flooding

    volcanism: volcanic activity in the Canary Islands, located off Africa's northwest coast; Teide (3,715 m) has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; La Palma (2,426 m), which last erupted in 1971, is the most active of the Canary Islands volcanoes; Lanzarote is the only other historically active volcano

  • Spratly Islands

    typhoons; numerous reefs and shoals pose a serious maritime hazard

  • Sri Lanka

    occasional cyclones and tornadoes

  • Sudan

    dust storms and periodic persistent droughts

  • Suriname

    flooding

  • Svalbard

    ice floes often block the entrance to Bellsund (a transit point for coal export) on the west coast and occasionally make parts of the northeastern coast inaccessible to maritime traffic

  • Sweden

    ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

  • Switzerland

    avalanches, landslides; flash floods

  • Syria

    dust storms, sandstorms

    volcanism: Syria's two historically active volcanoes, Es Safa and an unnamed volcano near the Turkish border have not erupted in centuries

  • Taiwan

    earthquakes; typhoons

    volcanism: Kueishantao Island (401 m), east of Taiwan, is its only historically active volcano, although it has not erupted in centuries

  • Tajikistan

    earthquakes; floods

  • Tanzania

    flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought

    volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru

  • Thailand

    land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts

  • Timor-Leste

    floods and landslides are common; earthquakes; tsunamis; tropical cyclones

  • Togo

    hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts

  • Tokelau

    lies in Pacific cyclone belt

  • Tonga

    cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou

    volcanism: moderate volcanic activity; Fonualei (180 m) has shown frequent activity in recent years, while Niuafo'ou (260 m), which last erupted in 1985, has forced evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Late and Tofua

  • Trinidad and Tobago

    outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms

  • Tunisia

    flooding; earthquakes; droughts

  • Turkey

    severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van; landslides; flooding

    volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier

  • Turkmenistan

    earthquakes; mudslides; droughts; dust storms; floods

  • Turks and Caicos Islands

    frequent hurricanes

  • Tuvalu

    severe tropical storms are usually rare, but in 1997 there were three cyclones; low levels of islands make them sensitive to changes in sea level

  • Uganda

    droughts; floods; earthquakes; landslides; hailstorms

  • Ukraine

    occasional floods; occasional droughts

  • United Arab Emirates

    frequent sand and dust storms

  • United Kingdom

    winter windstorms; floods

  • United States

    tsunamis; volcanoes; earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; hurricanes along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts; tornadoes in the Midwest and Southeast; mud slides in California; forest fires in the west; flooding; permafrost in northern Alaska, a major impediment to development

    volcanism: volcanic activity in the Hawaiian Islands, Western Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and in the Northern Mariana Islands; both Mauna Loa (4,170 m) in Hawaii and Mount Rainier (4,392 m) in Washington have been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pavlof (2,519 m) is the most active volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Arc and poses a significant threat to air travel since the area constitutes a major flight path between North America and East Asia; St. Helens (2,549 m), famous for the devastating 1980 eruption, remains active today; numerous other historically active volcanoes exist, mostly concentrated in the Aleutian arc and Hawaii; they include: in Alaska: Aniakchak, Augustine, Chiginagak, Fourpeaked, Iliamna, Katmai, Kupreanof, Martin, Novarupta, Redoubt, Spurr, Wrangell, Trident, Ugashik-Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, Veniaminof; in Hawaii: Haleakala, Kilauea, Loihi; in the Northern Mariana Islands: Anatahan; and in the Pacific Northwest: Mount Baker, Mount Hood; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

  • United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges

    Baker, Howland, and Jarvis Islands: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island poses a maritime hazard;

    Kingman Reef: wet or awash most of the time, maximum elevation of less than 2 m makes Kingman Reef a maritime hazard;

    Midway Islands, Johnston, and Palmyra Atolls: NA

  • Uruguay

    seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts

  • Uzbekistan

    earthquakes; floods; landslides or mudslides; avalanches; droughts

  • Vanuatu

    tropical cyclones (January to April); volcanic eruption on Aoba (Ambae) island began on 27 November 2005, volcanism also causes minor earthquakes; tsunamis

    volcanism: significant volcanic activity with multiple eruptions in recent years; Yasur (361 m), one of the world's most active volcanoes, has experienced continuous activity in recent centuries; other historically active volcanoes include Aoba, Ambrym, Epi, Gaua, Kuwae, Lopevi, Suretamatai, and Traitor's Head

  • Venezuela

    subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts

  • Vietnam

    occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta

  • Virgin Islands

    several hurricanes in recent years; frequent and severe droughts and floods; occasional earthquakes

  • Wake Island

    subject to occasional typhoons

  • Wallis and Futuna

    cyclones; tsunamis

  • West Bank

    droughts

  • World

    large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones); natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions)

    volcanism: volcanism is a fundamental driver and consequence of plate tectonics, the physical process reshaping the Earth's lithosphere; the world is home to more than 1,500 potentially active volcanoes, with over 500 of these having erupted in historical times; an estimated 500 million people live near these volcanoes; associated dangers include lava flows, lahars (mudflows), pyroclastic flows, ash clouds, ash fall, ballistic projectiles, gas emissions, landslides, earthquakes, and tsunamis; in the 1990s, the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, created a list of 16 Decade Volcanoes worthy of special study because of their great potential for destruction: Avachinsky-Koryaksky (Russia), Colima (Mexico), Etna (Italy), Galeras (Colombia), Mauna Loa (United States), Merapi (Indonesia), Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Rainier (United States), Sakurajima (Japan), Santa Maria (Guatemala), Santorini (Greece), Taal (Philippines), Teide (Spain), Ulawun (Papua New Guinea), Unzen (Japan), Vesuvius (Italy); see second note under "Geography - note"

  • Yemen

    sandstorms and dust storms in summer

    volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Jebel at Tair (Jabal al-Tair, Jebel Teir, Jabal al-Tayr, Jazirat at-Tair) (244 m), which forms an island in the Red Sea, erupted in 2007 after awakening from dormancy; other historically active volcanoes include Harra of Arhab, Harras of Dhamar, Harra es-Sawad, and Jebel Zubair, although many of these have not erupted in over a century

  • Zambia

    periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)

  • Zimbabwe

    recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare