Field Listing

Public debt

This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.

Country Comparison Ranking

  • Afghanistan

    7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    7.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Albania

    71.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    73.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Algeria

    27.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    20.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover central government debt as well as debt issued by subnational entities and intra-governmental debt

  • American Samoa

    12.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Andorra

    41% of GDP (2014 est.)

    41.4% of GDP (2013 est.)

  • Angola

    65% of GDP (2017 est.)

    75.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Anguilla

    20.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

    20.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

  • Antigua and Barbuda

    86.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    86.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Argentina

    57.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    55% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Armenia

    53.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    51.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Aruba

    86% of GDP (2017 est.)

    84.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Australia

    40.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    40.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Austria

    78.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    83.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: this is general government gross debt, defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year; it covers the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; as a percentage of GDP, the GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product in current year prices

  • Azerbaijan

    54.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    50.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Bahamas, The

    54.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    50.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Bahrain

    88.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    81.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Bangladesh

    33.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    33.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Barbados

    157.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    149.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Belarus

    53.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    53.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Belgium

    103.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    106% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions; general government debt is defined by the Maastricht definition and calculated by the National Bank of Belgium as consolidated gross debt; the debt is defined in European Regulation EC479/2009 concerning the implementation of the protocol on the excessive deficit procedure annexed to the Treaty on European Union (Treaty of Maastricht) of 7 February 1992; the sub-sectors of consolidated gross debt are: federal government, communities and regions, local government, and social security funds

  • Belize

    99% of GDP (2017 est.)

    95.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Benin

    54.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    49.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Bermuda

    43% of GDP (FY14/15)

  • Bhutan

    106.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    114.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Bolivia

    49% of GDP (2017 est.)

    44.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina

    39.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    44.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.

  • Botswana

    14% of GDP (2017 est.)

    15.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Brazil

    84% of GDP (2017 est.)

    78.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Brunei

    2.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Bulgaria

    23.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    27.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

  • Burkina Faso

    38.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    38.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Burma

    33.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    35.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Burundi

    51.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    48.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Cabo Verde

    125.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    127.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Cambodia

    30.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    29.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Cameroon

    36.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    32.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Canada

    89.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    91.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level

  • Central African Republic

    52.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    56% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Chad

    52.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    52.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Chile

    23.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    21% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • China

    47% of GDP (2017 est.)

    44.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: official data; data cover both central and local government debt, including debt officially recognized by China's National Audit Office report in 2011; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, and China Asset Management Company debt

  • Colombia

    49.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    49.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

  • Comoros

    32.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    27.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the

    18.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    19.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Congo, Republic of the

    130.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    128.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Costa Rica

    48.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    44.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Cote d'Ivoire

    47% of GDP (2017 est.)

    47% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Croatia

    77.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    82.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Cuba

    47.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    42.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Curacao

    33.2% of GDP (2012 est.)

    40.6% of GDP (2011 est.)

  • Cyprus

    97.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    106.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment

  • Czechia

    34.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    36.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Denmark

    35.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    37.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Djibouti

    31.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    33.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Dominica

    82.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    71.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Dominican Republic

    37.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

    34.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Ecuador

    45.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    43.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Egypt

    103% of GDP (2017 est.)

    96.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover central government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

  • El Salvador

    67.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    66.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: El Salvador's total public debt includes non-financial public sector debt, financial public sector debt, and central bank debt

  • Equatorial Guinea

    37.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    43.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Eritrea

    131.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

    132.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Estonia

    9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    9.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities, including sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

  • Eswatini

    28.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    25.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Ethiopia

    54.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

    53.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • European Union

    86.8% of GDP (2014)

    85.5% of GDP (2013)

  • Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

    0% of GDP (2015 est.)

  • Faroe Islands

    35% of GDP (2014 est.)

  • Fiji

    48.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    47.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Finland

    61.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    62.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • France

    96.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    96.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Gabon

    62.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    64.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Gambia, The

    88% of GDP (2017 est.)

    82.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Georgia

    44.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    44.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities; Georgia does not maintain intragovernmental debt or social funds

  • Germany

    63.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    67.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euros; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank

  • Ghana

    71.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    73.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Gibraltar

    7.5% of GDP (2008 est.)

    8.4% of GDP (2006 est.)

  • Greece

    181.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    183.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Greenland

    13% of GDP (2015 est.)

  • Grenada

    70.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    82% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Guam

    22.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

    32.1% of GDP (2013)

  • Guatemala

    24.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    24.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Guinea

    37.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Guinea-Bissau

    53.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    57.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Guyana

    52.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

    50.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Haiti

    31.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    33.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Honduras

    39.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    38.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Hong Kong

    0.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    0.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Hungary

    73.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    76% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and national, state, and local government and social security funds.

  • Iceland

    40% of GDP (2017 est.)

    51.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • India

    71.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

    69.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Indonesia

    28.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Iran

    39.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    47.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: includes publicly guaranteed debt

  • Iraq

    59.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    66% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Ireland

    68.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    73.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Israel

    60.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    62.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Italy

    131.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    132% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: Italy reports its data on public debt according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty; general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year, in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises central, state, and local government and social security funds

  • Jamaica

    101% of GDP (2017 est.)

    113.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Japan

    237.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    235.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Jordan

    95.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    95.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover central government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Kazakhstan

    20.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    19.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Kenya

    54.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

    53.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Kiribati

    26.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    22.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Korea, South

    39.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    39.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Kosovo

    21.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

    19.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Kuwait

    20.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    9.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Kyrgyzstan

    56% of GDP (2017 est.)

    55.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Laos

    63.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    58.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Latvia

    36.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    37.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities, including sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

  • Lebanon

    146.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    145.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover central government debt and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment

  • Lesotho

    33.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    36.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Liberia

    34.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Libya

    4.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    7.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Lithuania

    39.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    40.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: official data; data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

  • Luxembourg

    23% of GDP (2017 est.)

    20.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Macau

    0% of GDP (2017 est.)

    0% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Madagascar

    36% of GDP (2017 est.)

    38.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Malawi

    59.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

    60.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Malaysia

    54.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    56.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: this figure is based on the amount of federal government debt, RM501.6 billion ($167.2 billion) in 2012; this includes Malaysian Treasury bills and other government securities, as well as loans raised externally and bonds and notes issued overseas; this figure excludes debt issued by non-financial public enterprises and guaranteed by the federal government, which was an additional $47.7 billion in 2012

  • Maldives

    63.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    61.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Mali

    35.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    36% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Malta

    50.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    56.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: Malta reports public debt at nominal value outstanding at the end of the year, according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty for general government gross debt; the data include the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); general government comprises the central, state, and local governments, and social security funds

  • Marshall Islands

    25.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    30% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Mauritania

    96.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    100% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Mauritius

    64% of GDP (2017 est.)

    66.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Mexico

    54.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    56.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Micronesia, Federated States of

    24.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    25.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Moldova

    31.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    35.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Mongolia

    91.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    90% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Montenegro

    67.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

    66.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Morocco

    65.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    64.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Mozambique

    102.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    121.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Namibia

    41.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    39.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Nauru

    62% of GDP (2017 est.)

    65% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Nepal

    26.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    27.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Netherlands

    56.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    61.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • New Caledonia

    6.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

    6.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

  • New Zealand

    31.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    33.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Nicaragua

    33.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    31.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: official data; data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions; Nicaragua rebased its GDP figures in 2012, which reduced the figures for debt as a percentage of GDP

  • Niger

    45.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    45.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Nigeria

    21.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    19.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • North Macedonia

    39.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    39.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: official data from Ministry of Finance; data cover central government debt; this data excludes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; includes treasury debt held by foreign entitites; excludes debt issued by sub-national entities; there are no debt instruments sold for social funds

  • Northern Mariana Islands

    7.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

  • Norway

    36.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    36.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Oman

    46.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    32.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: excludes indebtedness of state-owned enterprises

  • Pakistan

    67% of GDP (2017 est.)

    67.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Palau

    24.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

    21.6% of GDP (2015)

  • Panama

    37.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    37.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Papua New Guinea

    36.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    36.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Paraguay

    19.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    18.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Peru

    25.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    24.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities

  • Philippines

    39.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    39% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Poland

    50.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    54.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, the data include subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Portugal

    125.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    129.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Puerto Rico

    51.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    50.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Qatar

    53.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    46.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Romania

    36.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    38.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

  • Russia

    15.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment, debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Rwanda

    40.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    37.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Saint Kitts and Nevis

    62.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    61.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Saint Lucia

    70.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    69.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

    73.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    82.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Samoa

    49.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    52.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • San Marino

    24.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    22.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Sao Tome and Principe

    88.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    93.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Saudi Arabia

    17.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

    13.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Senegal

    48.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Serbia

    62.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    73.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Seychelles

    63.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    69.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Sierra Leone

    63.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    54.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Singapore

    111.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    106.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: Singapore's public debt consists largely of Singapore Government Securities (SGS) issued to assist the Central Provident Fund (CPF), which administers Singapore's defined contribution pension fund; special issues of SGS are held by the CPF, and are non-tradable; the government has not borrowed to finance deficit expenditures since the 1980s; Singapore has no external public debt

  • Slovakia

    50.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    51.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general Government Gross Debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities, including sub-sectors of central, state, local government, and social security funds

  • Slovenia

    73.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    78.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the central, state, local government, and social security funds

  • Solomon Islands

    9.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    7.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Somalia

    76.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    93% of GDP (2014 est.)

  • South Africa

    53% of GDP (2017 est.)

    51.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • South Sudan

    62.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    86.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Spain

    98.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    99% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Sri Lanka

    79.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    79.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: covers central government debt and excludes debt instruments directly owned by government entities other than the treasury (e.g. commercial bank borrowings of a government corporation); the data includes treasury debt held by foreign entities as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement; sub-national entities are usually not permitted to sell debt instruments

  • Sudan

    121.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

    99.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Suriname

    69.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    75.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Sweden

    40.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    42.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Switzerland

    41.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: general government gross debt; gross debt consists of all liabilities that require payment or payments of interest and/or principal by the debtor to the creditor at a date or dates in the future; includes debt liabilities in the form of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs), currency and deposits, debt securities, loans, insurance, pensions and standardized guarantee schemes, and other accounts payable; all liabilities in the GFSM (Government Financial Systems Manual) 2001 system are debt, except for equity and investment fund shares and financial derivatives and employee stock options

  • Syria

    94.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    91.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Taiwan

    35.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    36.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data for central government

  • Tajikistan

    50.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    42% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Tanzania

    37% of GDP (2017 est.)

    38% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Thailand

    41.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

  • Timor-Leste

    3.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    3.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Togo

    75.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    81.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Tonga

    48% of GDP (FY2017 est.)

    51.8% of GDP (FY2016 est.)

  • Trinidad and Tobago

    41.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    37% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Tunisia

    70.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    62.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Turkey

    28.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Turkmenistan

    28.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    24.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Tuvalu

    37% of GDP (2017 est.)

    47.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Uganda

    40% of GDP (2017 est.)

    37.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Ukraine

    71% of GDP (2017 est.)

    81.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: the total public debt of $64.5 billion consists of: domestic public debt ($23.8 billion); external public debt ($26.1 billion); and sovereign guarantees ($14.6 billion)

  • United Arab Emirates

    19.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    20.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • United Kingdom

    87.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    87.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • United States

    78.8% of GDP (2017 est.)

    81.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover only what the United States Treasury denotes as "Debt Held by the Public," which includes all debt instruments issued by the Treasury that are owned by non-US Government entities; the data include Treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by individual US states, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of Treasury borrowings from surpluses in the trusts for Federal Social Security, Federal Employees, Hospital and Supplemental Medical Insurance (Medicare), Disability and Unemployment, and several other smaller trusts; if data for intragovernment debt were added, "gross debt" would increase by about one-third of GDP

  • Uruguay

    65.7% of GDP (2017 est.)

    61.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions.

  • Uzbekistan

    24.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    10.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Vanuatu

    48.4% of GDP (2017 est.)

    46.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Venezuela

    38.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

    31.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover central government debt, as well as the debt of state-owned oil company PDVSA; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include some debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; some debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

  • Vietnam

    58.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    59.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: official data; data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • Virgin Islands

    53.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

    45.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

  • Wallis and Futuna

    5.6% of GDP (2004 est.)

    note: offical data; data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

  • West Bank

    24.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

    23.8% of GDP (2013 est.)

  • World

    67.2% of GDP (2017 est.)

    67.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Yemen

    74.5% of GDP (2017 est.)

    68.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Zambia

    63.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

    60.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

  • Zimbabwe

    82.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

    69.9% of GDP (2016 est.)