# Suffrage

This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.

## Afghanistan

18 years of age; universal

## Albania

18 years of age; universal

## Algeria

18 years of age; universal

## American Samoa

18 years of age; universal

## Andorra

18 years of age; universal

## Angola

18 years of age; universal

## Anguilla

18 years of age; universal

## Antigua and Barbuda

18 years of age; universal

## Argentina

18-70 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-17 years of age - optional for national elections

## Armenia

18 years of age; universal

## Aruba

18 years of age; universal

## Australia

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Austria

16 years of age; universal

## Azerbaijan

18 years of age; universal

## Bahamas, The

18 years of age; universal

## Bahrain

20 years of age; universal

## Bangladesh

18 years of age; universal

## Barbados

18 years of age; universal

## Belarus

18 years of age; universal

## Belgium

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Belize

18 years of age; universal

## Benin

18 years of age; universal

## Bermuda

18 years of age; universal

## Bhutan

18 years of age; universal

## Bolivia

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Bosnia and Herzegovina

18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

## Botswana

18 years of age; universal

## Brazil

voluntary between 16 to 18 years of age, over 70, and if illiterate; compulsory between 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote

## British Virgin Islands

18 years of age; universal

## Brunei

18 years of age for village elections; universal

## Bulgaria

18 years of age; universal

## Burkina Faso

18 years of age; universal

## Burma

18 years of age; universal

## Burundi

18 years of age; universal

## Cabo Verde

18 years of age; universal

## Cambodia

18 years of age; universal

## Cameroon

20 years of age; universal

## Canada

18 years of age; universal

## Cayman Islands

18 years of age; universal

## Central African Republic

18 years of age; universal

## Chad

18 years of age; universal

## Chile

18 years of age; universal

## China

18 years of age; universal

## Christmas Island

18 years of age

## Cocos (Keeling) Islands

18 years of age

## Colombia

18 years of age; universal

## Comoros

18 years of age; universal

## Congo, Democratic Republic of the

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Congo, Republic of the

18 years of age; universal

## Cook Islands

18 years of age; universal

## Costa Rica

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Cote d'Ivoire

18 years of age; universal

## Croatia

18 years of age; universal

## Cuba

16 years of age; universal

## Curacao

18 years of age; universal

## Cyprus

18 years of age; universal

## Czechia

18 years of age; universal

## Denmark

18 years of age; universal

## Djibouti

18 years of age; universal

## Dominica

18 years of age; universal

## Dominican Republic

18 years of age; universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age can vote; note - members of the armed forces and national police by law cannot vote

## Ecuador

18-65 years of age; universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, voluntary

## Egypt

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

## El Salvador

18 years of age; universal

## Equatorial Guinea

18 years of age; universal

## Eritrea

18 years of age; universal

## Estonia

18 years of age; universal; age 16 for local elections

## Eswatini

18 years of age

## Ethiopia

18 years of age; universal

## European Union

18 years of age (16 years in Austria); universal; voting for the European Parliament is permitted in each member state

## Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

18 years of age; universal

## Faroe Islands

18 years of age; universal

## Fiji

18 years of age; universal

## Finland

18 years of age; universal

## France

18 years of age; universal

## French Polynesia

18 years of age; universal

## Gabon

18 years of age; universal

## Gambia, The

18 years of age; universal

## Georgia

18 years of age; universal

## Germany

18 years of age; universal; age 16 for some state and municipal elections

## Ghana

18 years of age; universal

## Gibraltar

18 years of age; universal; and British citizens with six months residence or more

## Greece

17 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Greenland

18 years of age; universal

## Grenada

18 years of age; universal

## Guam

18 years of age; universal; note - Guamanians are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

## Guatemala

18 years of age; universal; note - active duty members of the armed forces and police by law cannot vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day

## Guernsey

16 years of age; universal

## Guinea

18 years of age; universal

## Guinea-Bissau

18 years of age; universal

## Guyana

18 years of age; universal

## Haiti

18 years of age; universal

## Holy See (Vatican City)

election of the pope is limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

## Honduras

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Hong Kong

18 years of age in direct elections for 20 of the 90 Legislative Council seats and all of the seats in 18 district councils; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past 7 years; note - in indirect elections, suffrage is limited to about 220,000 members of functional constituencies for the other 70 legislature seats and a 1,500-member election committee for the chief executive drawn from broad sectoral groupings, central government bodies, municipal organizations, and elected Hong Kong officials

## Hungary

18 years of age, 16 if married and marriage is registered in Hungary; universal

## Iceland

18 years of age; universal

## India

18 years of age; universal

## Indonesia

17 years of age; universal; married persons regardless of age

## Iran

18 years of age; universal

## Iraq

18 years of age; universal

## Ireland

18 years of age; universal

## Isle of Man

16 years of age; universal

## Israel

18 years of age; universal; 17 years of age for municipal elections

## Italy

18 years of age; universal except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25

## Jamaica

18 years of age; universal

## Japan

18 years of age; universal

## Jersey

16 years of age; universal

## Jordan

18 years of age; universal

## Kazakhstan

18 years of age; universal

## Kenya

18 years of age; universal

## Kiribati

18 years of age; universal

## Korea, North

17 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Korea, South

18 years of age; universal; note - the voting age was lowered from 19 to 18 beginning with the 2020 national election

## Kosovo

18 years of age; universal

## Kuwait

21 years of age and at least 20-year citizenship

## Kyrgyzstan

18 years of age; universal

## Laos

18 years of age; universal

## Latvia

18 years of age; universal

## Lebanon

21 years of age; authorized for all men and women regardless of religion; excludes persons convicted of felonies and other crimes or those imprisoned; excludes all military and security service personnel regardless of rank

## Lesotho

18 years of age; universal

## Liberia

18 years of age; universal

## Libya

18 years of age, universal

## Liechtenstein

18 years of age; universal

## Lithuania

18 years of age; universal

## Luxembourg

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Macau

18 years of age in direct elections for some legislative positions, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past 7 years; note - indirect elections are limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" and an election committee for the chief executive drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, central government bodies, and elected Macau officials

## Madagascar

18 years of age; universal

## Malawi

18 years of age; universal

## Malaysia

18 years of age; universal (2019)

## Maldives

18 years of age; universal

## Mali

18 years of age; universal

## Malta

18 years of age (16 in local council elections); universal

## Marshall Islands

18 years of age; universal

## Mauritania

18 years of age; universal

## Mauritius

18 years of age; universal

## Mexico

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Micronesia, Federated States of

18 years of age; universal

## Moldova

18 years of age; universal

## Monaco

18 years of age; universal

## Mongolia

18 years of age; universal

## Montenegro

18 years of age; universal

## Montserrat

18 years of age; universal

## Morocco

18 years of age; universal

## Mozambique

18 years of age; universal

## Namibia

18 years of age; universal

## Nauru

20 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Nepal

18 years of age; universal

## Netherlands

18 years of age; universal

## New Caledonia

18 years of age; universal

## New Zealand

18 years of age; universal

## Nicaragua

16 years of age; universal

## Niger

18 years of age; universal

## Nigeria

18 years of age; universal

## Niue

18 years of age; universal

## Norfolk Island

18 years of age; universal

## North Macedonia

18 years of age; universal

## Northern Mariana Islands

18 years of age; universal; note - indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

## Norway

18 years of age; universal

## Oman

21 years of age; universal; note - members of the military and security forces by law cannot vote

## Pakistan

18 years of age; universal; note - there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims

## Palau

18 years of age; universal

## Panama

18 years of age; universal

## Papua New Guinea

18 years of age; universal

## Paraguay

18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 75

## Peru

18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70

## Philippines

18 years of age; universal

## Pitcairn Islands

18 years of age; universal with three years residency

## Poland

18 years of age; universal

## Portugal

18 years of age; universal

## Puerto Rico

18 years of age; universal; note - island residents are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

## Qatar

18 years of age; universal

## Romania

18 years of age; universal

## Russia

18 years of age; universal

## Rwanda

18 years of age; universal

## Saint Barthelemy

18 years of age, universal

## Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha

18 years of age

## Saint Kitts and Nevis

18 years of age; universal

## Saint Lucia

18 years of age; universal

## Saint Martin

18 years of age, universal

## Saint Pierre and Miquelon

18 years of age; universal

## Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

18 years of age; universal

## Samoa

21 years of age; universal

## San Marino

18 years of age; universal

## Sao Tome and Principe

18 years of age; universal

## Saudi Arabia

18 years of age; restricted to males; universal for municipal elections

## Senegal

18 years of age; universal

## Serbia

18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

## Seychelles

18 years of age; universal

## Sierra Leone

18 years of age; universal

## Singapore

21 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Sint Maarten

18 years of age; universal

## Slovakia

18 years of age; universal

## Slovenia

18 years of age; universal

## Solomon Islands

21 years of age; universal

## Somalia

18 years of age; universal

## South Africa

18 years of age; universal

## South Sudan

18 years of age; universal

## Spain

18 years of age; universal

## Sri Lanka

18 years of age; universal

## Sudan

17 years of age; universal

## Suriname

18 years of age; universal

## Sweden

18 years of age; universal

## Switzerland

18 years of age; universal

## Syria

18 years of age; universal

## Taiwan

20 years of age; universal; note - in March 2022, the Legislative Yuan approved lowering the voting age to 18, but the change will require a constitutional amendment that must be submitted to a referendum

## Tajikistan

18 years of age; universal

## Tanzania

18 years of age; universal

## Thailand

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Timor-Leste

17 years of age; universal

## Togo

18 years of age; universal

## Tokelau

21 years of age; universal

## Tonga

21 years of age; universal

## Trinidad and Tobago

18 years of age; universal

## Tunisia

18 years of age; universal except for active government security forces (including the police and the military), people with mental disabilities, people who have served more than three months in prison (criminal cases only), and people given a suspended sentence of more than six months

## Turkey (Turkiye)

18 years of age; universal

## Turkmenistan

18 years of age; universal

## Turks and Caicos Islands

18 years of age; universal

## Tuvalu

18 years of age; universal

## Uganda

18 years of age; universal

## Ukraine

18 years of age; universal

## United Arab Emirates

limited; note - rulers of the seven emirates each select a proportion of voters for the Federal National Council (FNC) that together account for about 12 percent of Emirati citizens

## United Kingdom

18 years of age; universal

## United States

18 years of age; universal

## Uruguay

18 years of age; universal and compulsory

## Uzbekistan

18 years of age; universal

## Vanuatu

18 years of age; universal

## Venezuela

18 years of age; universal

## Vietnam

18 years of age; universal

## Virgin Islands

18 years of age; universal; note - island residents are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

## Wallis and Futuna

18 years of age; universal

## Yemen

18 years of age; universal

## Zambia

18 years of age; universal

## Zimbabwe

18 years of age; universal