Satellite radar topographic view of the island of Hispaniola. The devastating earthquake at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on 12 January 2010, occurred on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, visible here as a prominent linear landform immediately southwest of the city of Port-au-Prince and as a series of fault traces extending westward along the full length of the southern Tiburon Peninsula. Image courtesy of NASA/JPL/NGA.
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The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when Christopher COLUMBUS first landed on it in 1492 - were virtually wiped out by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but relied heavily on the forced labor of enslaved Africans and environmentally degrading practices. In the late 18th century, Toussaint L'OUVERTURE led a revolution of Haiti's nearly half a million slaves that ended France's rule on the island. After a prolonged struggle, and under the leadership of Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, Haiti became the first country in the world led by former slaves after declaring its independence in 1804, but it was forced to pay an indemnity to France for more than a century and was shunned by other countries for nearly 40 years. After the US occupied Haiti from 1915-1934, Francois "Papa Doc" DUVALIER and then his son Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” DUVALIER led repressive and corrupt regimes that ruled Haiti from 1957-1971 and 1971-1986, respectively. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years. On 4 October 2016, Hurricane Matthew made landfall in Haiti, resulting in over 500 deaths and causing extensive damage to crops, houses, livestock, and infrastructure. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti continues to experience bouts of political instability.



Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates

19 00 N, 72 25 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean


total: 27,750 sq km

land: 27,560 sq km

water: 190 sq km

country comparison to the world: 147

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

<p>slightly smaller than Maryland</p>

Land boundaries

total: 376 km

border countries (1): Dominican Republic 376 km


1,771 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: to depth of exploitation


tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds


mostly rough and mountainous


highest point: Pic la Selle 2,674 m

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

mean elevation: 470 m

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 66.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 38.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 17.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 3.6% (2018 est.)

other: 30% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

970 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas

Natural hazards

lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts

Geography - note

shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic); it is the most mountainous nation in the Caribbean

People and Society


11,198,240 (July 2021 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

country comparison to the world: 82


noun: Haitian(s)

adjective: Haitian

Ethnic groups

Black 95%, mixed and White 5%


French (official), Creole (official)

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

French audio sample:


Protestant/Methodist/Adventist/Jehovah's Witness 51.8%, Roman Catholic 35.4%, Vodou 1.7%, none 11% (2016-17 est.)

note: many Haitians practice elements of Vodou in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; Vodou was recognized as an official religion in 2003

Age structure

0-14 years: 31.21% (male 1,719,961/female 1,734,566)

15-24 years: 20.71% (male 1,145,113/female 1,146,741)

25-54 years: 38.45% (male 2,110,294/female 2,145,209)

55-64 years: 5.3% (male 280,630/female 305,584)

65 years and over: 4.33% (male 210,451/female 269,228) (2020 est.)

This is the population pyramid for Haiti. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. <br/><br/>For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 60.4

youth dependency ratio: 52.1

elderly dependency ratio: 8.3

potential support ratio: 13.3 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 24.1 years

male: 23.8 years

female: 24.3 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 167

Birth rate

21.4 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67

Death rate

7.29 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 105

Net migration rate

-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 169

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas


urban population: 58% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 2.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

2.844 million PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22.4 years (2016/7 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

480 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 22

Infant mortality rate

total: 41.29 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 47.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 35.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 36

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 65.61 years

male: 62.94 years

female: 68.31 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 198

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 91.5% of population

rural: 55.4% of population

total: 75% of population

unimproved: urban: 8.5% of population

rural: 44.6% of population

total: 25% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2013)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 80.6% of population

rural: 40% of population

total: 62.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 19.4% of population

rural: 60% of population

total: 37.9% of population (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 61.7%

male: 65.3%

female: 58.3% (2016)


Environment - current issues

extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; overpopulation leads to inadequate supplies of potable water and and a lack of sanitation; natural disasters

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 14.63 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 2.98 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 6.12 megatons (2020 est.)


tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Land use

agricultural land: 66.4% (2018 est.)

arable land: 38.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10.2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 17.7% (2018 est.)

forest: 3.6% (2018 est.)

other: 30% (2018 est.)


urban population: 58% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 2.47% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 110

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

Food insecurity

severe localized food insecurity: due to reduced agricultural production and socio political turmoil - about 4.4 million people are forecast to be facing severe acute food insecurity or to be in need of urgent food assistance in the March-June 2021 time period; the high levels of food insecurity reflect the worsening household access to food, which was constrained by the negative effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic, primarily through income and job losses; the low availability of locally produced staple crops and high prices of food items exacerbated the situation; the ongoing socio‑political unrest has disrupted market activities, especially in urban areas, and reduced mobility due to road blockage has further affected the access to food (2021)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 2,309,852 tons (2015 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 190 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 51 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 1.209 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

14.022 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Haiti

conventional short form: Haiti

local long form: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d Ayiti

local short form: Haiti/Ayiti

etymology: the native Taino name means "Land of High Mountains" and was originally applied to the entire island of Hispaniola

Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Port-au-Prince

geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

etymology: according to tradition, in 1706, a Captain de Saint-Andre named the bay and its surrounding area after his ship Le Prince; the name of the town that grew there means, "the Port of The Prince"

Administrative divisions

10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est


1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 January (1804)


history: many previous; latest adopted 10 March 1987

amendments: proposed by the executive branch or by either the Senate or the Chamber of Deputies; consideration of proposed amendments requires support by at least two-thirds majority of both houses; passage requires at least two-thirds majority of the membership present and at least two-thirds majority of the votes cast; approved amendments enter into force after installation of the next president of the republic; constitutional articles on the democratic and republican form of government cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2012

Legal system

civil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Code

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Haiti

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Acting President Ariel HENRY (since 20 July 2021); note - Prime Minister Ariel HENRY has assumed the responsibilities of president following the assassination of President Jovenel MOISE on 7 July 2021; an election is expected to be held on 7 November 2021; MOISE had been president since 7 February 2017

head of government: Prime Minister Ariel HENRY (since 20 July 2021)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president; parliament must ratify the Cabinet and Prime Minister's governing policy

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a single non-consecutive term); last election originally scheduled for 9 October 2016 but postponed until 20 November 2016 due to Hurricane Matthew

election results:
2016: Jovenel MOISE elected president in first round; percent of vote - Jovenel MOISE (PHTK) 55.6%, Jude CELESTIN (LAPEH) 19.6%, Jean-Charles MOISE (PPD) 11%, Maryse NARCISSE (FL) 9%; other 4.8%

2011: Michel MARTELLY elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Michel MARTELLY (Peasant's Response) 68%, Mirlande MANIGAT (RDNP) 32%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral legislature or le Corps l'egislatif ou le Parlement consists of:
le S'enat or Senate (30 seats; 10 filled as of July 2021; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms (2-term limit) with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years)
la Chambre de deput'es or Chamber of Deputies (119 seats; 116 filled as of June 2019; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms; no term limits); note - when the 2 chambers meet collectively it is known as L'Assembl'ee nationale or the National Assembly and is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution

Senate - last held on 20 November 2016 with runoff on 29 January 2017 (next originally scheduled for 27 October 2019, but postponed to 26 September 2021)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 August 2015 with runoff on 25 October 2015 and 20 November 2016 (next originally scheduled for 27 October 2019, but postponed to 26 September 2021)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 27, women 1, percent of women 3.6%
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 115, women 3, percent of women 2.5%; note - total legislature percent of women 2.7%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour de cassation (consists of a chief judge and other judges); note - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of Haiti's constitution states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for 10 years, whereas Article 177 states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for life

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrate's courts;  land, labor, and children's courts

note: the Superior Council of the Judiciary or Conseil Superieur du Pouvoir Judiciaire is a 9-member body charged with the administration and oversight of the judicial branch of government

Political parties and leaders

Alternative League for Haitian Progress and Empowerment or LAPEH [Jude CELESTIN]
Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MCNH [Luc MESADIEU]
Christian National Movement for the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Chavannes JEUNE]
Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
Democratic Alliance Party or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition includes KID and PPRH)
Democratic Centers' National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
Dessalinian Patriotic and Popular Movement or MOPOD [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]
For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]
Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats or FHSD [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE]
Grouping of Citizens for Hope or RESPE [Charles-Henri BAKER]
Haitians for Haiti [Yvon NEPTUNE]
Haitian Tet Kale Party or PHTK [Ann Valerie Timothee MILFORT]
Haiti in Action or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
Independent Movement for National Reconstruction or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
Konbit Pou refe Ayiti or KONBIT
Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Love Haiti or Renmen Ayiti [Jean-Henry CEANT, Camille LEBLANC]
Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]
New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]
Organization for the Advancement of Haiti and Haitians or OLAHH
Party for the Integral Advancement of the Haitian People or PAIPH
Patriotic Unity or IP [Marie Denise CLAUDE]
Peasant's Response or Repons Peyizan [Michel MARTELLY]
Platform Alternative for Progress and Democracy or ALTENATIV [Victor BENOIT and Evans PAUL]
Platform of Haitian Patriots or PLAPH [Dejean BELISAIRE, Himmler REBU]
Platform Pitit Desaline or PPD [Jean-Charles MOISE]
Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]
Rally of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Mirlande MANIGAT]
Renmen Ayiti or RA [Jean-Henry CEANT]
Reseau National Bouclier or Bouclier
Respect or RESPE
Strength in Unity or Ansanm Nou Fo [Leslie VOLTAIRE]
Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Jacques-Edouard ALEXIS]
Truth (Verite)
Union [Chavannes JEUNE]
Unity or Inite [Levaillant LOUIS-JEUNE]
Vigilance or Veye Yo [Lavarice GAUDIN]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Bocchit EDMOND (since 23 December 2020)

chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090

FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, Orlando (FL), New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Michele SISON (since 21 February 2018)

embassy: Tabarre 41, Route de Tabarre, Port-au-Prince

mailing address: 3400 Port-au-Prince Place, Washington, DC 20521-3400

telephone: [011] (509) 2229-8000

FAX: [011] (529) 2229-8027

email address and website:

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoes

National symbol(s)

Hispaniolan trogon (bird), hibiscus flower; national colors: blue, red

National anthem

name: "La Dessalinienne" (The Dessalines Song)

lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD

note: adopted 1904; named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti


Economic overview

Haiti is a free market economy with low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Two-fifths of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, which remains vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters. Poverty, corruption, vulnerability to natural disasters, and low levels of education for much of the population represent some of the most serious impediments to Haiti’s economic growth. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equivalent to more than a quarter of GDP, and nearly double the combined value of Haitian exports and foreign direct investment.

Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, with close to 60% of the population living under the national poverty line, Haiti’s GDP growth rose to 5.5% in 2011 as the Haitian economy began recovering from the devastating January 2010 earthquake that destroyed much of its capital city, Port-au-Prince, and neighboring areas. However, growth slowed to below 2% in 2015 and 2016 as political uncertainty, drought conditions, decreasing foreign aid, and the depreciation of the national currency took a toll on investment and economic growth. Hurricane Matthew, the fiercest Caribbean storm in nearly a decade, made landfall in Haiti on 4 October 2016, with 140 mile-per-hour winds, creating a new humanitarian emergency. An estimated 2.1 million people were affected by the category 4 storm, which caused extensive damage to crops, houses, livestock, and infrastructure across Haiti’s southern peninsula.

US economic engagement under the Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) and the 2008 Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act (HOPE II) have contributed to an increase in apparel exports and investment by providing duty-free access to the US. The Haiti Economic Lift Program (HELP) Act of 2010 extended the CBTPA and HOPE II until 2020, while the Trade Preferences Extension Act of 2015 extended trade benefits provided to Haiti in the HOPE and HELP Acts through September 2025. Apparel sector exports in 2016 reached approximately $850 million and account for over 90% of Haitian exports and more than 10% of the GDP.

Investment in Haiti is hampered by the difficulty of doing business and weak infrastructure, including access to electricity. Haiti's outstanding external debt was cancelled by donor countries following the 2010 earthquake, but has since risen to $2.6 billion as of December 2017, the majority of which is owed to Venezuela under the PetroCaribe program. Although the government has increased its revenue collection, it continues to rely on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability, with over 20% of its annual budget coming from foreign aid or direct budget support.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$31.62 billion note: data are in 2017 dollars (2020 est.)

$32.72 billion note: data are in 2017 dollars (2019 est.)

$33.28 billion note: data are in 2017 dollars (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 136

Real GDP growth rate

1.2% (2017 est.)

1.5% (2016 est.)

1.2% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 166

Real GDP per capita

$2,800 note: data are in 2017 dollars (2020 est.)

$2,900 note: data are in 2017 dollars (2019 est.)

$3,000 note: data are in 2017 dollars (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 198

GDP (official exchange rate)

$8.608 billion (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 22.1% (2017 est.)

industry: 20.3% (2017 est.)

services: 57.6% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 99.1% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 10% (2016 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 32.6% (2016 est.)

investment in inventories: -1.4% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 20% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -60.3% (2017 est.)

note: figure for household consumption also includes government consumption

Agricultural products

sugar cane, cassava, mangoes/guavas, plantains, bananas, yams, avocados, maize, rice, vegetables


textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts

Labor force

4.594 million (2014 est.)

note: shortage of skilled labor; unskilled labor abundant

country comparison to the world: 84

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 38.1%

industry: 11.5%

services: 50.4% (2010)

Unemployment rate

40.6% (2010 est.)

note: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs

country comparison to the world: 216

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.7%

highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)


revenues: 1.567 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 1.65 billion (2017 est.)

Public debt

31.1% of GDP (2017 est.)

33.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 164

Fiscal year

1 October - 30 September

Current account balance

-$348 million (2017 est.)

-$83 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 112


$1.73 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2019 est.)

$1.78 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 160

Exports - partners

United States 81%, Canada 7% (2019)

Exports - commodities

clothing and apparel, eels, essential oils, perfumes, mangoes, cocoa beans (2019)


$5.21 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2019 est.)

$5.67 billion note: data are in current year dollars (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 136

Imports - partners

United States 39%, China 22%, Turkey 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, rice, clothing and apparel, palm oil, poultry meats (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.361 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$2.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 117

Debt - external

$2.762 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$2.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

Exchange rates

gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -

65.21 (2017 est.)

63.34 (2016 est.)

63.34 (2015 est.)

50.71 (2014 est.)

45.22 (2013 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 39% (2019)

electrification - urban areas: 60% (2019)

electrification - rural areas: 12% (2019)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 5,952 (2019)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 203

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 6,843,380 (2019)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 60.76 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: plagued by political and economic turmoil complicated by natural disasters, Haiti’s telecommunications infrastructure is among the least-developed in the world; reliance on satellite and wireless mobile technology due to poor fixed-line infrastructure; investment boosted broadband availability though customer base is poor and theft of equipment remains problematic; promotion of LTE will enable access to remote areas and e-money services; World Bank grant to provide digital preparation and response for any future crises (2020)

domestic: fixed-line is less than 1 per 100; mobile-cellular telephone services have expanded greatly in the last decade due to low-cost GSM (Global Systems for Mobile) phones and pay-as-you-go plans; mobile-cellular teledensity is 58 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 509; landing points for the BDSNi and Fibralink submarine cables to 14 points in the Bahamas and Dominican Republic; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

98 television stations throughout the country, including 1 government-owned; cable TV subscription service available; 850 radio stations (of them, only 346 are licensed), including 1 government-owned; more than 100 community radio stations; over 64 FM stations in Port-au-Prince alone; VOA Creole Service broadcasts daily on 30 affiliate stations


Internet users

total: 4.28 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 12.33% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 100

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 31,100 (2019)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 149


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1

Airports - with paved runways

total: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2019)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 8 (2013)


total: 4,266 km (2009)

paved: 768 km (2009)

unpaved: 3,498 km (2009)

country comparison to the world: 152

Merchant marine

total: 4

by type: general cargo 3, other 1 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 168

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Port-au-Prince

Military and Security

Military and security forces

the Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH), disbanded in 1995, began to be reconstituted in 2017 to assist with natural disaster relief, border security, and combating transnational crime; it established an Army command in 2018; the small Coast Guard is not part of the military, but rather the Haitian National Police (2021)

note - the National Police has a paramilitary, rapid-response unit known as the Motorized Intervention Unit or BIM


Military and security service personnel strengths

the FAdH has approximately 500 troops (the force is planned to eventually have around 5,000 personnel); approximately 16,000 National Police (2021)

Military - note

according to the Haitian Government, the mission of the reconstituted armed forces will focus on patrolling the border with the Dominican Republic, combating smuggling, and executing recovery efforts after natural disasters

the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) operated in Haiti from 2004 until 2017; its mission was to help restore stability after President Bertrand ARISTIDE fled the country, including assisting with the political process, strengthening government institutions, and promoting and protecting human rights; following the completion of MINUSTAH’s mandate in 2017, a smaller peacekeeping mission, the UN Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH), operated until 2019; its mission was to assist with the further development and strengthening of the national police, as well as Haiti’s justice and prison systems, and to promote and protect human rights; in 2019, the UN established the UN Integrated Office in Haiti (BINUH) with the political mission of advising the Haiti Government in elections, governance, and security; as of 2021, BINUH continued to operate

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

since 2004, peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti have assisted in maintaining civil order in Haiti; the mission currently includes 6,685 military, 2,607 police, and 443 civilian personnel; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 17,105 (violence among armed gangs in the metropolitan area os Port-au-Prince) (2021)

stateless persons: 2,992 (2018); note - individuals without a nationality who were born in the Dominican Republic prior to January 2010

Illicit drugs

a transit point for cocaine from South America and marijuana from Jamaica en route to the United States; not a producer or large consumer of illicit drugs; some cultivation of cannabis for local consumption