Photos of Bermuda

Introduction

Background

Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists heading for Virginia. Self-governing since 1620, Bermuda is the oldest and most populous of the British Overseas Territories. Vacationing on the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important for the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years as Bermuda has developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of South Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates

32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references

North America

Area

total: 54 sq km

land: 54 sq km

water: 0 sq km

comparison ranking: total 230

Area - comparative

about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Coastline

103 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm

Climate

subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain

low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation

highest point: Town Hill 79 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

Natural resources

limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use

agricultural land: 14.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 14.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 20% (2018 est.)

other: 65.2% (2018 est.)

Population distribution

relatively even population distribution throughout

Natural hazards

hurricanes (June to November)

Geography - note

consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by the US Government from 1941 to 1995

People and Society

Population

72,576 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 202

Nationality

noun: Bermudian(s)

adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups

African descent 52%, White 31%, mixed 9%, Asian 4%, other 4% (2010 est.)

Languages

English (official), Portuguese

Religions

Protestant 46.2% (includes Anglican 15.8%, African Methodist Episcopal 8.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 6.7, Pentecostal 3.5%, Methodist 2.7%, Presbyterian 2.0%, Church of God 1.6%, Baptist 1.2%, Salvation Army 1.1%, Brethren 1.0%, other Protestant 2.0%), Roman Catholic 14.5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.3%, other Christian 9.1%, Muslim 1%, other 3.9%, none 17.8%, unspecified 6.2% (2010 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.45% (male 6,126/female 5,815)

15-64 years: 61.66% (male 22,401/female 22,347)

65 years and over: 21.89% (2023 est.) (male 6,763/female 9,124)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 52.9

youth dependency ratio: 22.8

elderly dependency ratio: 30.1

potential support ratio: 3.3 (2021)

Median age

total: 43.7 years (2023 est.)

male: 41.4 years

female: 46.3 years

comparison ranking: total 33

Population growth rate

0.32% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 164

Birth rate

11 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 164

Death rate

9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 50

Net migration rate

1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 63

Population distribution

relatively even population distribution throughout

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.2% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

10,000 HAMILTON (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.8 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 219

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 79.2 years

female: 85.5 years

comparison ranking: total population 28

Total fertility rate

1.89 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 126

Gross reproduction rate

0.92 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: NA

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: NA

total: 0.1% of population (2020)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 99.9% of population

rural: NA

total: 99.9% of population

unimproved: urban: 0.1% of population

rural: NA

total: 0.1% of population (2020)

Education expenditures

1.9% of GDP (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 188

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 12 years

female: 13 years (2015)

Environment

Environment - current issues

dense population and heavy vehicle traffic create serious congestion and air pollution problems; water resources scarce (most obtained as rainwater or from wells); solid waste disposal; hazardous waste disposal; sewage disposal; overfishing; oil spills

Climate

subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Land use

agricultural land: 14.8% (2018 est.)

arable land: 14.8% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 20% (2018 est.)

other: 65.2% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: -0.2% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Air pollutants

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.61 megatons (2016 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 82,000 tons (2012 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 1,640 tons (2012 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 2% (2012 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Bermuda

former: Somers Islands

etymology: the islands making up Bermuda are named after Juan de BERMUDEZ, an early 16th century Spanish sea captain and the first European explorer of the archipelago

Government type

Overseas Territory of the UK with limited self-government; parliamentary democracy

Dependency status

overseas territory of the UK

Capital

name: Hamilton

geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 47 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

etymology: named after Henry HAMILTON (ca. 1734-1796) who served as governor of Bermuda from 1788-1794

Administrative divisions

9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick

Independence

none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday

Bermuda Day, 24 May; note - formerly known as Victoria Day, Empire Day, and Commonwealth Day

Constitution

history: several previous (dating to 1684); latest entered into force 8 June 1968 (Bermuda Constitution Order 1968)

amendments: proposal procedure - NA; passage by an Order in Council in the UK; amended several times, last in 2012

Legal system

English common law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the UK

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King CHARLES III (since 8 September 2022); represented by Governor Rena LALGIE (since 14 December 2020)

head of government: Premier David BURT (since 19 July 2017)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
Senate (11 seats; 3 members appointed by the governor, 5 by the premier, and 3 by the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms) 
House of Assembly (36 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve up to 5-year terms)

elections:
Senate - last appointments in 2022 (next appointments in 2027)
House of Assembly - last held on 1 October 2020 (next to be held by 2025)

election results: Senate - composition as of October 2023 - men 4, women 7, percent of women 63.6%
House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - PLP 62.1%, OBA 32.3%, other 5.4%, independent 0.2%; seats by party - PLP 30, OBA 6; composition as of October 2023 - men 26, women 9, percent of women 25%; note - total Parliament percent of women as of September 2023 - 34%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and at least 2 justices); Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 4 puisne judges, and 1 associate justice); note - the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) is the court of final appeal

judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal justice appointed by the governor; justice tenure by individual appointment; Supreme Court judges nominated by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission and appointed by the governor; judge tenure based on terms of appointment

subordinate courts: commercial court (began in 2006); magistrates' courts

Political parties and leaders

Free Democratic Movement or FDM [Marc A. R. BEAN]
One Bermuda Alliance or OBA [N. H. Cole SIMONS]
Progressive Labor Party or PLP [E. David BURT]

International organization participation

Caricom (associate), ICC (NGOs), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC (NGOs), UPU, WCO

Diplomatic representation in the US

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Consul General Karen GRISSETTE (since 6 July 2021)

embassy: US Consulate Bermuda, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, DV 03, Bermuda

mailing address: 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300

telephone: (441) 295-1342

FAX: (441) 295-1592

email address and website:
HamiltonConsulate@state.gov

https://bm.usconsulate.gov/

consulate(s) general: 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DV O3

Flag description

red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (a white shield with a red lion standing on a green grassy field holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag; it was the shipwreck of the vessel, filled with English colonists originally bound for Virginia, that led to the settling of Bermuda

note: the flag is unusual in that it is only British overseas territory that uses a red ensign, all others use blue

National symbol(s)

red lion

Coat of arms of Bermuda:
Coat of arms of Bermuda

National anthem

name: Hail to Bermuda

lyrics/music: Bette JOHNS

note: serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the King" is official (see United Kingdom)

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural); note - excerpted from the UK entry

selected World Heritage Site locales: Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications

Economy

Economic overview

small, tourism- and construction-based, territorial-island economy; American import and tourist destination; known offshore banking hub; increasing inflation; major re-exportation and re-importation area

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$5.157 billion (2022 est.)
$5.01 billion (2021 est.)
$4.863 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 179

Real GDP growth rate

2.93% (2022 est.)
3.01% (2021 est.)
-6.84% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 138

Real GDP per capita

$81,200 (2022 est.)
$78,600 (2021 est.)
$76,100 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 8

GDP (official exchange rate)

$7.546 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.9% (2017 est.)
1.4% (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 29

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: N/A (2015)

Moody's rating: A2 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: A+ (2015)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 5.3% (2017 est.)

services: 93.8% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 3; industry 221; agriculture 200

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 51.3% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 15.7% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 13.7% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 49.8% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -30.4% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products, honey

Industries

international business, tourism, light manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate

0.1% (2021 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 159

Labor force

33,480 (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 202

Unemployment rate

7% (2017 est.)
7% (2016 est.)

comparison ranking: 140

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 29.3% (2014 est.)

male: 29.7%

female: 29%

comparison ranking: total 43

Remittances

23.85% of GDP (2022 est.)
23.23% of GDP (2021 est.)
22.86% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $999.2 million (2017 est.)

expenditures: $1.176 billion (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 128

Public debt

43% of GDP (FY14/15)

comparison ranking: 126

Taxes and other revenues

16.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 127

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

$962.258 million (2021 est.)
$853.85 million (2020 est.)
$838.701 million (2019 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 50

Exports

$1.136 billion (2021 est.)
$1.027 billion (2020 est.)
$1.605 billion (2019 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 178

Exports - partners

Jamaica 49.1%, Luxembourg 36.1%, US 4.9% (2017)

Exports - commodities

recreational boats, ships, trailers, aircraft, fertilizers (2021)

Imports

$1.925 billion (2021 est.)
$1.723 billion (2020 est.)
$2.224 billion (2019 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 178

Imports - partners

United States 44%, South Korea 17%, Germany 10%, Canada 8% (2019)

Imports - commodities

ships, refined petroleum, postage stamps, recreational boats, aircraft (2019)

Debt - external

$2.515 billion (2017 est.)
$2.435 billion (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 149

Exchange rates

Bermudian dollars (BMD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
1 (2022 est.)
1 (2021 est.)
1 (2020 est.)
1 (2019 est.)
1 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 172,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 533.434 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 41 million kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 213; exports 213; installed generating capacity 176; transmission/distribution losses 42; consumption 169

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 5,200 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 117

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 178

Refined petroleum products - imports

3,939 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 178

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

796,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 796,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 180

Energy consumption per capita

176.312 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 24

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 25,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 171

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 68,000 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 200

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: the telecom sector has seen a decline in subscriber numbers (particularly for prepaid mobile services the mainstay of short term visitors) and revenue; fixed and mobile broadband services are two areas that have benefited from the crisis as employees and students have resorted to working from home; one area of the telecom market that is not prepared for growth is 5G mobile; governments, regulators, and even the mobile network operators have shown that they have not been investing in 5G opportunities at the present time; network expansion and enhancements remain concentrated around improving LTE coverage (2021)

domestic: the system has a fixed-line teledensity of 39 per 100, coupled with a mobile-cellular teledensity of roughly 110 per 100 persons (2021)

international: country code - 1-441; landing points for the GlobeNet, Gemini Bermuda, CBUS, and the CB-1 submarine cables to the Caribbean, South America and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 (2019)

Broadcast media

3 TV stations; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; roughly 13 radio stations operating

Internet users

total: 64,000 (2021 est.)

percent of population: 100% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 197

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 23,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 163

Transportation

Airports

1 (2024)

comparison ranking: 231

Roadways

total: 447 km

paved: 447 km (2010)

note: 225 km public roads; 222 km private roads

comparison ranking: total 197

Merchant marine

total: 122 (2023)

by type: container ship 15, oil tanker 8, other 99

comparison ranking: total 81

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Hamilton, Ireland Island, Saint George

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Royal Bermuda Regiment; Bermuda Police Service (2024)

note: the Royal Bermuda Regiment (aka "The Regiment") includes the Royal Bermuda Regiment Coast Guard

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Royal Bermuda Regiment has about 350 troops (2024)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the Regiment is equipped with small arms (2024)

Military service age and obligation

men and women who are Commonwealth citizens and 18-45 years of age can volunteer for the Bermuda Regiment; service is for a minimum period of three years and two months from the date of enlistment; service can be extended only by volunteering or an executive order from the Governor; annual training commitment is about 30 days a year, which includes a two-week camp, weekends, and drill nights (2024)

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Bermuda Regiment’s responsibilities include maritime security of Bermuda’s inshore waters, search and rescue, ceremonial duties, humanitarian/disaster assistance, security of key installations, and assisting the Bermuda Police with maintaining public order; it includes explosive ordnance disposal, diver, maritime, security police, and support units (2023)

Transnational Issues