Field Listing

Economic overview

235 Results

This entry briefly describes five economic components for a given country:

national economy, including a brief economic history.

domestic markets, including labor and wage markets, as well as brief commentary on economic sector portfolios.

financial power and public finance, including brief discussions of financial market strengths and security, lending/exchange rates (especially if abnormalities exist), and foreign direct investments.

trade power and influence, including brief commentary on chief imports and exports.

regional strategy and efforts, including key partners, regional economic development efforts, and any underlying economic data integrity concerns.


extremely low-income South Asian economy; import drops, currency depreciation, disappearing central bank reserves, and increasing inflation after Taliban takeover; increasing Chinese trade; hit hard by COVID; ongoing sanctions


upper-middle -income Balkan economy; EU accession candidate; growth bolstered by tourism, services, construction, and private consumption; fiscal consolidation through revenue collection to address public debt; challenges include weak governance, corruption, climate adaptation, vulnerability to energy sector shocks, and emigration of workers


suffering oil and gas economy; lack of sector and market diversification; political instability chilling domestic consumption; poor credit access and declines in business confidence; COVID-19 austerity policies; delayed promised socio-economic reforms

American Samoa

tourism, tuna, and government services-based territorial economy; sustained economic decline; vulnerable tuna canning industry; large territorial government presence; minimum wage increases to rise to federal standards by 2036


high GDP; low unemployment; non-EU Euro user; co-principality duty-free area between Spain and France; tourist hub but hit hard by COVID-19; modern, non-tax haven financial sector; looking for big tech investments; new member of SEPA and IMF


middle-income, oil-dependent African economy; widespread poverty; rising inflation and currency depreciation; seeking diversification through agricultural production; significant corruption in public institutions; major infrastructure investments from China and US; exited OPEC in 2023


small, tourism-dependent, territorial-island economy; very high public debt; COVID-19 crippled economic activity; partial recovery underway via tourism, benefitting from its high amount of timeshare residences; considering reopening oil refinery

Antigua and Barbuda

dual island-tourism and construction-driven economy; emerging “blue economy”; limited water supply and susceptibility to hurricanes limit activity; improving road infrastructure; friendly to foreign direct investment; looking at financial innovation in cryptocurrency and blockchain technologies


large diversified economy; financial risks from debt obligations, rapid inflation, and reduced investor appetites; resource-rich, export-led growth model; increasing trade relations with China; G20 and OAS leader; tendency to nationalize businesses and under-report inflation


EEU-and CIS-member state but seeking more EU and US trade; business-friendly growth environments; stable monetary regime but vulnerable demand economy; key copper and gold exporter; persistent unemployment; large diaspora and remittances


small, tourism-dependent, territorial-island economy; very high public debt; COVID-19 crippled economic activity; partial recovery underway via tourism, benefitting from its high amount of timeshare residences; considering reopening oil refinery


highly developed, diversified, regionally and globally integrated economy; strong mining, manufacturing, and service sectors; net exporter driven by commodities to East Asian trade partners; “Future Made in Australia” program focused on green energy investments


one of the strongest EU and euro economies; diversified trade portfolios and relations; enormous trade economy; Russian energy dependence, but investing in alternative energy; aging labor force but large refugee population; large government debt


oil-based economy; macroeconomic instabilities due to demand shocks; recent state bailout of largest lender; potential economic gains from Nagorno-Karabakh conflict; negatively impacted by COVID-19; investing in human capital to diversify and retain younger generation

Bahamas, The

high-income tourism and financial services economy; major income inequality; strong US bilateral relations; several tax relief programs; targeted investment in agriculture, energy, light manufacturing, and technology industries


growing, economically diverse Middle Eastern island economy; major recovery and balancing efforts to fulfill Economic Vision 2030; regional finance hub; increasing openness; high youth unemployment; water scarcity amid reservoir depletion


one of the fastest growing emerging market economies; strong economic rebound following COVID-19; significant poverty reduction; exports dominated by textile industry; weakened exports and remittances resulted in declining foreign exchange reserves and 2022 IMF loan request


largest Eastern Caribbean economy; dependent on US imports and currency strength; high Human Development Index; key tourism and financial sectors; declining but still very high public debt; cost-of-living and cost competitiveness vulnerabilities


declining Russian energy subsidies will end in 2024; growing public debt; strong currency pressures have led to higher inflation; recent price controls on basic food and drugs; public sector wage increases and fragile private sector threaten household income gains and economic growth


high-income, core EU and eurozone economy; slow but steady growth supported by household consumption and energy shock recovery; high public debt and structural deficits linked to social spending; aging workforce with weak productivity growth and participation rates


tourism- and agriculture-driven economy; strong post-pandemic rebound; innovative and ecological bond restructuring that significantly lowered public debt and expanded marine protections; central bank offering USD-denominated treasury notes; high mobility across borders


robust economic growth; slightly declining but still widespread poverty; strong trade relations with Nigeria; cotton exporter; COVID-19 has led to capital outflows and border closures; WAEMU member with currency pegged to the euro; recent fiscal deficit and debt reductions


small, tourism- and construction-based, territorial-island economy; American import and tourist destination; known offshore banking hub; increasing inflation; major re-exportation and re-importation area


hydropower investments spurring economic development; Gross National Happiness economy; sharp poverty declines; low inflation; strong monetary and fiscal policies; stable currency; fairly resilient response to COVID-19; key economic and strategic relations with India; climate vulnerabilities


resource-rich economy benefits during commodity booms; has bestowed juridical rights to Mother Earth, impacting extraction industries; increasing Chinese lithium mining trade relations; hard hit by COVID-19; increased fiscal spending amid poverty increases; rampant banking and finance corruption

Bosnia and Herzegovina

import-dominated economy; remains consumption-heavy; lack of private sector investments and diversification; jointly addressing structural economic challenges; Chinese energy infrastructure investments; high unemployment; tourism industry impacted by COVID-19


good economic governance and financial management; diamond-driven growth model declining; rapid poverty reductions; high unemployment, particularly among youth; COVID-19 sharply contracted the economy and recovery is slow; public sector wages have posed fiscal challenges


industrial-led economic growth model; recovering from 2014-2016 recession when COVID-19 hit; industry limited by Amazon rainforest but increasing deforestation; new macroeconomic structural reforms; high income inequality; left UNASUR to join PROSUR

British Indian Ocean Territory

small island territory economy; economic activity mainly on Diego Garcia with national military installations; recently settled disputes with Mauritius have increased oil exports; established marine reserve has limited commercial fishing

British Virgin Islands

British Caribbean island territorial economy; strong tourism and services industries; vulnerable to hurricanes; navigating public debt insolvency since 2008 Crisis; considered a tax haven; high electrification costs; major rum exporter


almost exclusively an oil and gas economy; high income country; expansive and robust welfare system; the majority of the population works for the government; promulgating a nationalized halal brand; considering establishment of a bond market and stock exchange


upper-middle-income EU economy; currency pegged to the euro with accession pending; joined Schengen area as of March 2024; global events and internal political turmoil triggered export slump and stalled reforms; EU structural funds contributing to investment recovery; skilled labor shortage driven by emigration and aging population

Burkina Faso

highly agrarian, low-income economy; limited natural resources; widespread poverty; terrorism disrupting potential economic activity; improving trade balance via increases in gold exports; economy inflating after prior deflation; growing public debt but still manageable


prior to COVID-19 and the February 2021 military coup, massive declines in poverty, rapid economic growth, and improving social welfare; underdevelopment, climate change, and unequal investment threaten progress and sustainability planning; since coup, foreign assistance has ceased from most funding sources


highly agrarian, low-income Sub-Saharan economy; declining foreign assistance; increasing fiscal insolvencies; dense and still growing population; COVID-19 weakened economic recovery and flipped two years of deflation

Cabo Verde

stable, middle-income, developing island economy; strong GDP growth led by tourism sector recovery; sustained poverty reduction through PEDS II development plan; high reliance on foreign remittances and aid to finance external debt


one of the fastest growing economies; tourism and clothing exports; substantial manufacturing and construction sectors; COVID-19 declines and the suspension of EU market preferential access; massive reductions in poverty, but rural areas remain disproportionately poor


largest CEMAC economy with many natural resources; recent political instability and terrorism reducing economic output; systemic corruption; poor property rights enforcement; increasing poverty in northern regions


one of the world’s leading developed economies; globally integrated commercial and financial markets; largest US trading partner; key energy, forestry, manufacturing and service industries; inflation recovering following interest rate hikes; government priorities include climate policy, immigration and affordable housing

Cayman Islands

dominant offshore banking territory; services sector accounts for over 85% of economic activity; recently adopted a fiscal responsibility framework to combat tax evasion and money laundering; large tourism sector; does not have any welfare system; high standard of living

Central African Republic

enormous natural resources; extreme poverty; weak public institutions and infrastructure; political and gender-based violence have led to displacement of roughly 25% of population; Bangui-Douala corridor blockade reduced activity and tax collection; strong agricultural performance offset COVID-19 downturn


primarily oil-based economy, vulnerable to regional competition and international price shocks; increasing extreme poverty and minimal human capital capacities; one of the most environmentally disrupted economies; high maternal and infant mortality rates destabilizing labor force potentials


export-driven economy; leading copper producer; though hit by COVID-19, fairly quick rebound from increased liquidity and rapid vaccine rollouts; decreasing poverty but still lingering inequality; public debt rising but still manageable; recent political violence has had negative economic consequences


one of the world’s top two economies; sustained growth due to export relations, its manufacturing sector, and low-wage workers; only major economy to avoid COVID-19 economic decline; recovery efforts slowing due to longstanding poverty imbalances and other institutional issues; state-sponsored economic controls

Christmas Island

high-income Australian territorial economy; development through government services and phosphate mining; operates Australia’s Immigration Detention Centre; increasing tourism and government investments; sustained environmental protections


prior to COVID-19, one of the most consistent growth economies; declining poverty; large stimulus package has mitigated economic fallout, but delayed key infrastructure investments; successful inflation management; sound flexible exchange rate regime; domestic economy suffers from lack of trade integration and infrastructure


small trade-based island economy; declining remittances; new structural and fiscal reforms; adverse cyclone and COVID-19 impacts; manageable debts; fragile liquidity environment; large foreign direct investment; state-owned enterprises suffering

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

very poor, large, natural resource-rich sub-Saharan country; possesses the world’s second largest rainforest; increasing Chinese extractive sector trade; massive decrease in government investments; increasing current account deficit and public debts

Congo, Republic of the

primarily an oil- and natural resources-based economy; recovery from mid-2010s oil devaluation has been slow and curtailed by COVID-19; extreme poverty increasing, particularly in southern rural regions; attempting to implement recommended CEMAC reforms; increasing likelihood of debt default

Cook Islands

high-income self-governing New Zealand territorial economy; tourism-based activity but diversifying; severely curtailed by COVID-19 pandemic; copra and tropical fruit exporter; Asian Development Bank aid recipient

Costa Rica

trade-based upper middle-income economy; green economy leader, having reversed deforestation; investing in blue economy infrastructure; declining poverty until hard impacts of COVID-19; lingering inequality and growing government debts have prompted a liquidity crisis

Cote d'Ivoire

one of West Africa’s most influential, stable, and rapidly developing economies; poverty declines in urban but increases in rural areas; strong construction sector and increasingly diverse economic portfolio; increasing but manageable public debt; large labor force in agriculture


tourism-based economy that was one of the hardest hit by COVID-19 economic disruptions; newest euro user since 2023, helping recover from a 6-year recession; public debt increases due to COVID-19 and stimulus packages; weak exports; continuing emigration; new liquefied natural gas import terminal


still largely state-run planned economy, although privatization increasing under new constitution; widespread protests due to lack of basic necessities and electricity; massive foreign investment increases recently; known tobacco exporter; unique oil-for-doctors relationship with Venezuela; widespread corruption


high-income island economy; developed infrastructure; tourism and financial services-based economy; investing in information technology incentives; oil refineries service Venezuela and China; unique COVID-19 stimulus support applied to government debts rather than household support


services-based, high-income EU island economy; heavy tourism; sustained growth between recovery of national banking system and COVID-19 trade restrictions; high living standards; a known financial hub, its stock exchange functions as an investment bridge between EU-and EEU-member countries

note: Even though the whole of the island is part of the EU, implementation of the EU "acquis communautaire" has been suspended in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, known locally as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, until political conditions permit the reunification of the island. Its market-based economy is roughly one-fifth the size of its southern neighbor and is likewise dominated by the service sector with a large portion of the population employed by the government. Manufacturing is limited mainly to food and beverages, furniture and fixtures, construction materials, metal and non-metal products, textiles and clothing. Little trade exists with the Republic of Cyprus outside of construction, historically relying heavily upon Turkey for financial aid, defense, telecommunications, utilities, and postal services. The Turkish Lira is the preferred currency, though foreign currencies are widely accepted in business transactions.


high-income, diversified EU economy; manufacturing-oriented exporter led by automotive industry; growth stalled by inflation and energy supply disruption; business-friendly regulatory frameworks; tight labor market with low unemployment; seeking reforms to support decarbonization and improve energy efficiency


high-income, EU member, trade-oriented Nordic economy; growth driven by pharmaceuticals, energy and services; large share of employment in public sector; fixed exchange rate pegged to euro; strong fiscal position; tight labor market addressed by migrant workers and higher average retirement age


food import-dependent Horn of Africa economy driven by various national military bases and port-based trade; fairly resilient from COVID-19 disruptions; major re-exporter; increasing Ethiopian and Chinese trade relations; investing in infrastructure


highly agrarian OECS island economy; ECCU-member state; large banana exporter; improved oversight of its citizenship-by-investment program; emerging ecotourism, information and communications, and education industries

Dominican Republic

surging middle-income tourism, construction, mining, and telecommunications OECS economy; major foreign US direct investment and free-trade zones; developing local financial markets; improving debt management; declining poverty


highly informal South American economy; USD currency user; major banana exporter; hard hit by COVID-19; macroeconomic fragility from oil dependency; successful debt restructuring; China funding budget deficits; social unrest hampering economic activity


Africa’s second-largest economy; 2030 Vision to diversify markets and energy infrastructure; improving fiscal, external, and current accounts; underperforming private sector; poor labor force participation; expanded credit access

El Salvador

growth-challenged Central American economy buttressed via remittances; dense labor force; fairly aggressive COVID-19 stimulus plan; new and lower banking reserve requirements; earthquake, tropical storm, and crime disruptions; widespread corruption

Equatorial Guinea

growing CEMAC economy and new OPEC member; large oil and gas reserves; targeting economic diversification and poverty reduction; still recovering from CEMAC crisis; improving public financial management; persistent poverty; hard-hit by COVID-19


largely agrarian economy with a significant mining sector; substantial fiscal surplus due to tight controls; high and vulnerable debts; increased Ethiopian trade and shared port usage decreasing prices; financial and economic data integrity challenges


advanced, service-based EU and eurozone economy; economic downturn due to inflation, trade, and energy impacts of Ukraine war; decline in intra-EU trade; low public debt relative to EU members; recovery depends on improving private investment and productivity rates


landlocked southern African economy; South African trade dependent and currency pegging; CMA and SACU member state; COVID-19 economic slowdown; growing utilities inflation; persistent poverty and unemployment; HIV/AIDS labor force disruptions


growing Horn of Africa construction- and services-based economy; port access via Djibouti and Eritrea; widespread but declining poverty; COVID-19, locust invasion, and Tigray crisis disruptions; public investment increases; second largest African labor force

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

British South American territorial economy; longstanding fishing industry; surging tourism prior to COVID-19 and Brexit; recent offshore hydrocarbon discoveries threaten ecotourism industries; no central bank and must have British approval on currency shifts

Faroe Islands

high-income Danish territorial economy; party neither to the EU nor the Schengen Area; associate Nordic Council member; very low unemployment; unique foreign ownership allowance in fishing industry; known salmon exporter; growing IT industries


upper-middle income, tourism-based Pacific island economy; susceptible to ocean rises; key energy and infrastructure investments; post-pandemic tourism resurgence; improved debt standing; limited workforce


high-income, export-based EU and eurozone economy; major timber, metals, engineering, telecom, and electronics industries; emerging from recession triggered by inflation, weak consumer and export demand, and lower private investment; labor market reform plan to address structural rigidities


high-income, advanced and diversified EU economy and euro user; strong tourism, aircraft manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and industrial sectors; high public debt; ongoing pension reform efforts; transitioning to a green economy via "France 2030" strategy

French Polynesia

small, territorial-island tourism-based economy; large French financing; lower EU import duties; Pacific Islands Forum member; fairly resilient from COVID-19; oil-dependent infrastructure

French Southern and Antarctic Lands

very small, fishing-based, domestic economic activity; military base servicing


natural-resource-rich, upper-middle-income, Central African economy; significant reliance on oil and mineral exports; highly urbanized population; high levels of poverty and unemployment; uncertainty on institutional and development reform progress following 2023 military coup

Gambia, The

low-income West African economy; agriculture-dominant; high poverty rate; heightened inflation; dependent on foreign assistance and remittances; structural reforms conditioned by IMF Extended Credit Facility program


main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products, such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages


leading diversified, export-driven, core EU and eurozone economy; key automotive, chemical, engineering, finance, and green energy industries; growth stalled by energy crisis; tight labor market with falling working-age population; fiscal rebalancing with phaseout of energy price supports


West African lower-middle income economy; major gold, oil and cocoa exporter; macroeconomic challenges following nearly four decades of sustained growth; recent progress in debt restructuring, fiscal reforms, financial stability, and curbing runaway inflation under 2023-26 IMF credit facility program


British territorial high-income economy; Brexit caused significant economic disruption to longstanding financial services, shipping, and tourism industries; ongoing negotiations to rejoin EU Schengen Area; independent taxation authority


developed EU and eurozone economy; strong post-COVID growth driven by tourism, shipping industry, exports, and foreign investment supported by EU cohesion funds; public debt remains high despite recent budget surplus; challenges from negative household savings, high unemployment, corruption, and competitiveness gaps


large self-governing Danish territorial economy; preferential EU market access; high-income economy; dependent on Danish financial support, even for whaling and sealing industries; growing tourism; hydropower-fueled but environmentally fragile economy


small OECS service-based economy; large tourism, construction, transportation, and education sectors; major spice exporter; shrinking but still high public debt; vulnerable to hurricanes; emerging blue economy incentives


small Pacific island US territorial economy; upper income, tourism-based economy; hard-hit by COVID-19 disruptions; relaunched many industries via vaccination tourism; domestic economy relies on multiple military bases; environmentally fragile economy


developing Central American economy; steady economic growth fueled by remittances; high poverty and income inequality; limited government services, lack of employment opportunities, and frequent natural disasters impede human development efforts and drive emigration


high-income English Channel island economy; strong financial sector but stressed due to COVID-19 disruptions; manufacturing, tourism, and construction industries suffered but expected to recover; stable inflation; maintains independent taxation authority


growing but primarily agrarian West African economy; major mining sector; improving fiscal and debt balances prior to COVID-19; economy increasingly vulnerable to climate change; slow infrastructure improvements; gender wealth and human capital gaps


extremely poor West African economy; ethnically diverse labor force; increasing government expenditures; slight inflation due to food supply disruptions; major cashew exporter; systemic banking instabilities and corruption; vulnerable to oil price shocks


small, hydrocarbon-driven South American export economy; major forest coverage being leveraged in carbon credit offsets to encourage preservation; strengthening financial sector; large bauxite and gold resources


small Caribbean island economy and OECS-member state; extreme poverty and inflation; enormous income inequality; ongoing civil unrest due to recent presidential assassination; US preferential market access; very open to foreign direct investment

Holy See (Vatican City)

limited, tourism-based economy; euro user but issues commemorative stamps and coins; solar energy producer; some printing industry to support museums and religious needs


second-fastest-growing Central American economy; COVID-19 and two hurricanes crippled activity; high poverty and inequality; declining-but-still-high violent crime disruption; systemic corruption; coffee and banana exporter; enormous remittances

Hong Kong

high-income tourism- and services-based economy; global financial hub; COVID-19 and political protests fueled recent recession; ongoing recovery but lower-skilled unemployment remains high; investing in job-reskilling programs


high-income EU and OECD economy; tightening fiscal policy in response to budget deficit; delayed EU cohesion fund disbursement due to judicial independence concerns; high inflation and low consumer confidence; seeking alternatives to dependence on Russian natural gas 


high-income north Atlantic island economy; non-EU member but market integration via European Economic Area (EEA); dominant tourism, fishing, and aluminum industries vulnerable to demand swings and volcanic activity; inflation remains above target rate; barriers to foreign business access and economic diversification


largest South Asian economy; still informal domestic economies; COVID-19 reversed both economic growth and poverty reduction; credit access weaknesses contributing to lower private consumption and inflation; new social and infrastructure equity efforts


one of the fastest growing economies and largest in Southeast Asia; upper middle-income country; human capital and competitiveness phase of its 20-year development plan; COVID-19 reversed poverty reduction trajectory; strengthening financial resilience


traditionally state-controlled economy but reforming state-owned financial entities; strong oil/gas, agricultural, and service sectors; recent massive inflation due to exchange rate depreciation, international sanctions, and investor uncertainty; increasing poverty


highly oil-dependent Middle Eastern economy; fiscal sustainability subject to fluctuation in oil prices; rising public confidence in economic conditions; import-dependent for most sectors; persistent challenges of corruption, informal markets, banking access, and political fragility


strong, export-based EU economy; multinational-business-friendly environment known for resilience, even amid COVID-19 disruptions; real wage growth beyond other OECD members; high livings standards; strong social equity and cohesion; aging labor force

Isle of Man

high-income British island economy; known financial services and tourism industries; taxation incentives for technology and financial firms to operate; historic fishing and agriculture industries are declining; major online gambling and film industry locale


high-income, technology- and industrial-based economy; economic contraction and fiscal deficits resulting from war in Gaza; labor force stabilizing following military reservist mobilization; high-tech industry remains resilient while construction and tourism among hardest-hit sectors


core EU economy; strong services, manufacturing, and tourism sectors; sustained recovery in post-COVID inflationary environment; high public debt levels; increasing poverty levels particularly in poorer south; strong exports to EU and US partners


upper middle-income Caribbean island economy; ongoing debt restructuring; hurricane-vulnerable economy; high crime, youth unemployment, and poverty; susceptible to commodity shocks from ongoing Russia invasion of Ukraine


fourth-largest economy; trade-oriented and highly diversified; high public debt levels; real wage declines in inflationary environment; sustained near-zero central bank rates coupled with depreciation of yen; strong rebound in tourism


British territorial island economy; strong offshore banking and finance sectors; low asset taxation; strong tourism sector prior to COVID-19 and Brexit; one of the most expensive places to live; minimal welfare system; historical cider industry


low growth, upper middle-income Middle Eastern economy; high debt and unemployment, especially for youth and women; key US foreign assistance recipient; natural resource-poor and import-reliant


oil and gas giant, with growing international investment; domestic economy hit hard by COVID-19 disruptions; reforming civil society and improving business confidence; legacy state controls and Russian influence inhibit growth and autonomy


fast growing, third largest Sub-Saharan economy; strong agriculture sector with emerging services and tourism industries; IMF program to address current account and debt service challenges; business-friendly policies foster infrastructure investment, digital innovation and public-private partnerships; vulnerable to climate change-induced droughts


lower-middle income, Pacific island economy; environmentally fragile; sizable remittances; key phosphate mining fund; tourism and fishing industries; public sector-dominated economy; recent withdrawal from Pacific Islands Forum; ongoing constitutional crisis

Korea, North

one of the last centrally planned economies; hard hit by COVID-19, crop failures, international sanctions, and isolationist policies; declining growth and trade, and heavily reliant on China; poor exchange rate stability; economic data integrity issues

Korea, South

strong export- and technology-oriented East Asian economy; manufacturing led by semiconductor and automotive industries; aging workforce; increased restraint in fiscal policy while maintaining industry support initiatives


small-but-growing European economy; non-EU member but unilateral euro user; very high unemployment, especially youth; vulnerable reliance on diaspora tourism services, curtailed by COVID-19 disruptions; unclear public loan portfolio health


small, high-income, oil-based Middle East economy; renewable energy proponent; regional finance and investment leader; maintains oldest sovereign wealth fund; emerging space and tourism industries; mid-way through 25-year development program


landlocked, lower-middle-income Central Asian economy; natural resource rich; growing hydroelectricity and tourism; high remittances; corruption limits investment; COVID-19 and political turmoil hurt GDP, limited public revenues, and increased spending


lower middle-income, socialist Southeast Asian economy; one of the fastest growing economies; declining but still high poverty; natural resource rich; new anticorruption efforts; already high and growing public debt; service sector hit hard by COVID-19


high-income EU and eurozone member; economic contraction triggered by export decline and energy shocks; recovery driven by easing inflation, wage growth, and investments supported by EU funds; challenges from skilled labor shortages, capital market access, large informal sector, and green and digital transitions 


upper middle-income Middle Eastern economy; economic activity hurt by economic depression, COVID-19, and port explosion; hyperinflation and sharp poverty increases; banks have ceased lending; new financing facility helping with recovery


lower middle-income economy surrounded by South Africa; environmentally fragile and politically unstable; key infrastructure and renewable energy investments; dire poverty; urban job and income losses due to COVID-19; systemic corruption


low-income West African economy; food scarcity, especially in rural areas; high poverty and inflation; bad recession prior to COVID-19 due to Ebola crisis; growing government debt; longest continuously operated rubber plantation; large informal economy


upper middle-income, fossil fuel-based North African economy; 31% economic contraction due to COVID-19 and 2020 oil blockade; reduced government spending; central bank had to devalue currency; public wages are over 60% of expenditures


high-income European economy; Schengen Area participant; key European financial leader; integrated with Swiss economy and franc currency user; one of the highest GDP per capita countries; relies on US and Eurozone markets for exports


high-income EU and eurozone member, largest Baltic economy; growth stalled due to Ukraine war impact on energy, exports, and fiscal spending for defense and refugee support; rebound supported by EU fund-driven investments and reduced inflation; structural challenges include pension reform, labor market inefficiencies, health care, and education spending


high-income EU and eurozone economy; global, highly capitalized banking sector; one of highest GDP-per-capita countries; trending toward recovery after economic contraction from energy-driven inflation, reduced exports and investments, and financial sector weakness


high-income, Chinese special administrative region economy; known for apparel exports and gambling tourism; currency pegged to Hong Kong dollar; significant recession due to 2015 Chinese anticorruption campaign; COVID-19 further halved economic activity


low-income East African island economy; natural resource rich; extreme poverty; return of political stability has helped growth; sharp tax revenue drop due to COVID-19; leading vanilla producer; environmentally fragile


low-income East African economy; primarily agrarian; investing in human capital; urban poverty increasing due to COVID-19; high public debt; endemic corruption and poor property rights; poor hydroelectric grid; localized pharmaceutical industry


upper middle-income Southeast Asian economy; implementing key anticorruption policies; major electronics, oil, and chemicals exporter; trade sector employs over 40% of jobs; key economic equity initiative; high labor productivity


upper middle-income Indian Ocean island economy; major tourism, fishing, and shipping industries; high public debt; systemic corruption; crippled by COVID-19; ongoing deflation; poverty has tripled since pandemic began


low-income Saharan economy; recession due to COVID-19 and political instability; extreme poverty; environmentally fragile; high public debt; agricultural and gold exporter; terrorism and warfare are common


high-income, EU-member European economy; diversified portfolio; euro user; dependent on food and energy imports; strong tourism, trade, and manufacturing sectors; high North African immigration; large welfare system; educated workforce

Marshall Islands

upper middle-income Pacific island economy; US aid reliance; large public sector; coconut oil production as diesel fuel substitute; growing offshore banking locale; fishing rights seller; import-dependent


lower middle-income West African economy; primarily agrarian; rising urbanization; poor property rights; systemic corruption; endemic social and workforce tensions; wide-scale terrorism; foreign over-fishing; environmentally fragile


upper middle-income Indian Ocean island economy; diversified portfolio; investing in maritime security; strong tourism sector decimated by COVID-19; expanding in information and financial services; environmentally fragile


upper-middle income economy; highly integrated with US via trade and nearshore manufacturing; low unemployment; inflation gradually decreasing amid tight monetary policy; state intervention in energy sector and public infrastructure projects; challenges from income inequality, corruption, and cartel-based violence

Micronesia, Federated States of

lower middle-income Pacific island economy; US aid reliance, sunsetting in 2024; low entrepreneurship; mostly fishing and farming; US dollar user; no patent laws; tourism remains underdeveloped; significant corruption


upper middle-income Eastern European economy; sustained growth reversed by COVID-19; significant remittances; Russian energy and regional dependence; agricultural exporter; declining workforce due to emigration and low fertility


high-income European economy; non-EU euro user; considered a tax haven; tourism and banking are largest sectors; negatively impacted by COVID-19; major oceanographic museum; among most expensive real estate; major state-owned enterprises


lower middle-income East Asian economy; large human capital improvements over last 3 decades; agricultural and natural resource rich; export and consumption-led growth; high inflation due to supply bottlenecks and increased food and energy prices; currency depreciation


upper middle-income, small Balkan economy; uses euro as de facto currency; strong growth driven by tourism and consumption; new impetus for EU accession under Europe Now government; influx of affluent migrants from Russia and Ukraine; progress in fiscal position subject to risks from pension costs, debt service, and informal sector


formerly high-income economy; volcanic activity destroyed much of original infrastructure and economy; new capital and port is being developed; key geothermal and solar power generation; key music recording operations


lower middle-income North African economy; ongoing recovery from recent drought and earthquake; rebounding via tourism, manufacturing, and raw materials processing; significant trade and investment with EU; reform programs include fiscal rebalancing, state enterprise governance and private sector investments


low-income East African economy; subsistence farming dominates labor force; return to growth led by agriculture and extractive industries; Islamist insurgency threatens natural gas projects in north; ongoing foreign debt restructuring and resolution under IMF Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative


upper middle-income, export-driven Sub-Saharan economy; natural resource rich; Walvis Bay port expansion for trade; high potential for renewable power generation and energy independence; major nature-based tourist locale; natural resource rich; shortage of skilled labor


upper-middle-income Pacific island country; phosphate resource exhaustion made island interior uninhabitable; licenses fishing rights; houses Australia’s Regional Processing Centre; former tax haven; largely dependent on foreign subsidies


low-income South Asian economy; post-conflict fiscal federalism increasing stability; COVID-19 hurt trade and tourism; widening current account deficits; environmentally fragile economy from earthquakes; growing Chinese relations and investments


high-income, core EU- and eurozone-member economy; trade-oriented with strong services, logistics, and high tech sectors; exiting mild recession triggered by inflation and weak export demand; tight labor market; low deficits and manageable public debt; strong ratings for innovation, competitiveness, and business climate

New Caledonia

upper-middle-income French Pacific territorial economy; enormous nickel reserves; ongoing French independence negotiations; large Chinese nickel exporter; luxury eco-tourism destination; large French aid recipient; high cost-of-living; lingering wealth disparities

New Zealand

high-income, globally integrated Pacific island economy; strong agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism sectors; reliant on Chinese market for exports; slow recovery from post-COVID recession and inflation; challenges of fiscal deficits, below-average productivity, and curbing greenhouse gas emissions


low-income Central American economy; until 2018, nearly 20 years of sustained GDP growth; recent struggles due to COVID-19, political instability, and hurricanes; significant remittances; increasing poverty and food scarcity since 2005; sanctions limit investment


low-income Sahel economy; major instability and humanitarian crises limit economic activity; COVID-19 eliminated recent antipoverty gains; economy rebounding since December 2020 Nigerian border reopening and new investments; uranium resource rich


largest African market economy; enormous but mostly lower middle income labor force; major oil exporter; key telecommunications and finance industries; susceptible to energy prices; regional leader in critical infrastructure; primarily agrarian employment


upper-middle-income self-governing New Zealand territorial economy; environmentally fragile; massive emigration; post-pandemic tourism rebound; postage stamps, small-scale agricultural processing, and subsistence farming; most recent Asian Development Bank member

Norfolk Island

high-income Australian territorial economy; key tourism and re-exportation industries; small labor force and declining participation creating more part-time jobs; former tax haven; increasing medical cannabis exporter; little transportation infrastructure

North Macedonia

upper-middle-income European economy; recovering from energy-driven inflation; macroeconomic support from IMF and EU lending facilities; stalled progress on EU accession; fiscal consolidation hampered by deficit spending on public works; structural challenges of emigration, low productivity growth, and governance

Northern Mariana Islands

US Pacific island commonwealth economy; growing Chinese and Korean tourist destination; hit hard by 2018 typhoon; dependent on energy imports; exempt from some US labor and immigration laws; longstanding garment production


high-income, non-EU economy with trade links via European Economic Area (EEA); key European energy security role as leader in oil, gas, and electricity exports; major fishing, forestry, and extraction industries; oil sovereign fund supports generous welfare system; low unemployment; inflation and response hampering growth in non-energy sectors


high-income, oil-based economy; large welfare system; growing government debt; citizenship-based labor force growth policy; US free trade agreement; diversifying portfolio; high female labor force participation


lower middle-income South Asian economy; extremely high debt; endemic corruption; major currency devaluation; major food insecurity and inflation; environmentally fragile agricultural sector; regional disputes with India and Afghanistan hinder investment


high-income Pacific island economy; environmentally fragile; subsistence agriculture and fishing industries; US aid reliance; rebounding post-pandemic tourism industry and services sector; very high living standard and low unemployment


upper middle-income Central American economy; increasing Chinese trade; US dollar user; canal expansion fueling broader infrastructure investment; services sector dominates economy; historic money-laundering and illegal drug hub

Papua New Guinea

lower middle-income Pacific island economy; primarily informal agrarian sector; natural resource-rich; key liquified natural gas exporter; growing young workforce; slow post-pandemic recovery; increasingly impoverished citizenry; sustainable inflation


upper middle-income South American economy; COVID-19 hit while still recovering from 2019 Argentina-driven recession; global hydroelectricity leader; major corruption and money-laundering locale; highly agrarian economy; significant income inequality


upper middle-income South American economy; hit hard by political instability and COVID-19 but rebounding quickly; second-largest cocaine producer; current account balance improving; persistent income inequality; diversified exporter


growing Southeast Asian economy; commercial rebound led by transportation, construction and financial services; electronics exports recovering from sector slowdown; significant remittances; interest rate rises following heightened inflation; uncertainties due to increased regional tensions with China 

Pitcairn Islands

small South Pacific British island territorial economy; exports primarily postage stamps, handicraft goods, honey, and tinctures; extremely limited infrastructure; dependent upon UK and EU aid; recent border reopening post-COVID-19


high-income, diversified, EU-member economy; significant growth in GDP, trade, and investment since joining EU in 2004; rebounding from slowdown triggered by inflation and fall in consumer demand; strong foreign investment supported by EU structural funds; income tax reform and defense spending have added to public debt


high-income EU and eurozone economy; strong services sector led by tourism and banking; tight labor market; private consumption and export recovery driving post-inflation rebound; EU Recovery and Resilience Plan (RRP) funds a key driver of public investment; high public debt but improving fiscal position

Puerto Rico

US Caribbean island territorial economy; hit hard by COVID-19 and hurricanes; declining labor force and job growth after a decade of continuous recession; capital-based industry and tourism; high poverty; energy import-dependent


high-income, oil-and-gas-based Middle Eastern economy; National Vision 2030 government strategy for economic development, diversification, favorable business conditions to grow investment and employment; infrastructure investments; Islamic finance leader; citizenship-based labor force growth


high-income EU member economy; joined Schengen area as of March 2024; euro membership delayed over convergence criteria; persistent inflation but recovery driven by consumption and EU-funded investments; skilled labor shortage; regional economic disparities; fiscal reforms to address rising deficits


natural resource-rich Eurasian economy; leading energy exporter to Europe and Asia; decreased oil export reliance; endemic corruption, Ukrainian invasion, and lack of green infrastructure limit investment and have led to sanctions


fast-growing Sub-Saharan economy; major public investments; trade and tourism hit hard by COVID-19; increasing poverty after 2 decades of declines; Ugandan competition for regional influence; major coffee exporter; contested GDP figures

Saint Barthelemy

high-income French Caribbean territorial economy; duty-free luxury commerce and tourism industries; import-dependent for food, water, energy, and manufacturing; large Brazilian and Portuguese labor supply; environmentally fragile

Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha

upper middle-income, British Atlantic Ocean territorial economy; native (but pegged to British pound) currency user on 2 of 3 islands; significant UK financial support; unique land/farming commune structure; military-related economic activity; sport fishing locale

Saint Kitts and Nevis

high-income, tourism-based Caribbean OECS economy; better debt balancing; CARICOM and ECCU member; growing offshore financial and telecommunications hub; environmentally fragile; unique citizenship-driven growth model

Saint Lucia

upper middle-income, tourism-based Caribbean island economy; environmentally fragile; energy import-dependent; major banana producer; well-educated labor force; key infrastructure, IT, and communications investments

Saint Martin

high-income French Caribbean territorial economy; extremely reliant on tourism, with severe COVID-19 impacts; near-total destruction from Hurricane Irma in 2017; some offshore banking; import-dependent; duty-free commerce; yachting destination

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

high-income, French North American territorial economy; primarily fishing exports; substantial French Government support; highly seasonal labor force; euro user; increasing tourism and aquaculture investments

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

upper middle-income Caribbean island economy; key agriculture and tourism sectors; environmentally fragile; diversifying economy across services, science and knowledge, and creative industries; CARICOM member and US Caribbean Basin Initiative beneficiary


ower middle-income Pacific island economy; enormous fishing and agriculture industries; significant remittances; growing offshore financial hub; recently hosted Pacific Games to drive tourism and infrastructure growth

San Marino

high-income, non-EU European economy; surrounded by Italy, which is the dominant importer and exporter; open border to EU and a euro user; strong financial sector; high foreign investments; low taxation; increasingly high and risky debt

Sao Tome and Principe

ower middle-income Central African island economy; falling cocoa production due to drought and mismanagement; joint oil venture with Nigeria; government owns 90% of land; high debt, partly from fuel subsidies; tourism gutted by COVID-19

Saudi Arabia

high-income, oil-based Middle Eastern economy; OPEC leader; diversifying portfolio; declining per-capita incomes; young labor force; key human capital gaps; heavy bureaucracy and increasing corruption; substantial poverty; low innovation economy


lower middle-income, services-driven West African economy; key mining, construction, agriculture, and fishing industries; tourism and exports hit hard by COVID-19; large informal economy; developing offshore oil and gas fields; systemic corruption


upper middle-income Balkan economy; current EU accession candidate; hit by COVID-19; pursuing green growth development; manageable public debt; new anticorruption efforts; falling unemployment; historic Russian relations; energy import-dependent


high-income Indian Ocean island economy; rapidly growing tourism sector; major tuna exporter; offshore financial hub; environmentally fragile and investing in ocean rise mitigation; recently discovered offshore oil potential; successful anticorruption efforts

Sierra Leone

low-income West African economy; primarily subsistent agriculture; key iron and diamond mining activities suspended; slow recovery from 1990s civil war; systemic corruption; high-risk debt; high youth unemployment; natural resource rich


high-income, service-based Southeast Asian economy; renowned for financial markets and Asian Infrastructure Exchange; business-driven regulations; low unemployment; electronics, oil, and chemicals exporter; continuing education investment

Sint Maarten

high-income, tourism-based Dutch autonomous constituent economy; severe hurricane- and COVID-19-related economic recessions; multilateral trust fund helping offset economic downturn; no property taxation; re-exporter to Saint Martin


high-income EU- and eurozone-member economy; manufacturing and exports led by automotive sector; weakening of anti-corruption laws may impact foreign investment and status of EU funds; influx of foreign labor offsets aging workforce; widening fiscal deficit from social spending and EU-financed public investments 


high-income, EU and eurozone member economy; high per-capita income and low inequality; key exports in automotive and pharmaceuticals; tight labor market with low unemployment; growth supported by EU funds and reconstruction from 2023 floods; pressures over public sector wage demands

Solomon Islands

lower middle-income Pacific island economy; natural resource rich but environmentally fragile; key agrarian sector; growing Chinese economic relationship; infrastructure damage due to social unrest; metal mining operations


low-income African Horn economy; 30 years of war and instability crippled economic potential; high remittances for basic survival; new fiscal federalism approach; cleared some unsustainable debt; environmentally fragile; digitally driven urbanization efforts

South Africa

upper middle-income South African economy; hard hit by COVID-19; poor utilities management; key rare earth goods exporter; high income inequality; hosts Africa’s largest stock exchange; rising unemployment, especially youth; land rights changes

South Sudan

low-income, oil-based Sahelian economy; extreme poverty and food insecurity; COVID-19 and ongoing violence threaten socioeconomic potential; environmentally fragile; ongoing land and property rights issues; natural resource rich but lacks infrastructure


high-income core EU and eurozone economy; strong growth driven by public consumption, tourism, and other service exports; tight labor market despite high structural unemployment; government debt remains high amid deficit reductions; innovation and economic freedom ranked lower than EU and OECD peers

Sri Lanka

economic contraction in 2022-23 marked by increased poverty and significant inflation; IMF two-year debt relief program following 2022 sovereign default; structural challenges from non-diversified economy and rigid labor laws; heavy dependence on tourism receipts and remittances


low-income Sahel economy; one of the world’s major agricultural exporters; shared oil pipeline exports with South Sudan; transitional government increasing human capital investment; food prices hit hard by COVID-19; ongoing Gezira Scheme irrigation project


upper middle-income South American economy; new floating currency regime; key aluminum goods, gold, and hydrocarbon exporter; new IMF plan for economic recovery and fiscal sustainability; controversial hardwood industry


high-income Norwegian island economy; major coal mining, tourism, and research sectors; recently established northernmost brewery; key whaling and fishing base; home to the Global Seed Vault


high-income, largest Nordic economy; EU member but non-euro user; export-oriented led by automotive, electronics, machinery and pharmaceuticals; highly ranked for competitiveness, R&D investments and governance; slowdown triggered by high inflation, weak consumption and financial tightening


high-income, non-EU European economy; top ten in GDP per capita; renowned banking and financial hub; low unemployment and inflation; slowed GDP growth post-pandemic; highly skilled but aging workforce; key pharmaceutical and precision manufacturing exporter; leader in innovation and competitiveness indices


low-income Middle Eastern economy; prior infrastructure and economy devastated by 11-year civil war; ongoing US sanctions; sporadic trans-migration during conflict; currently being supported by World Bank trust fund; ongoing hyperinflation


high-income East Asian economy; most technologically advanced computer microchip manufacturing; increasing Chinese interference threatens market capabilities; minimum wages rising; longstanding regional socioeconomic inequality


lower middle-income Central Asian economy; key gold, cotton, and aluminum exporter; declining poverty; sustained high growth; very limited private sector; substantial illicit drug trade; significant remittances; environmentally fragile


emerging lower middle-income East African economy; resource-rich and growing tourism; strong post-pandemic recovery from hospitality, electricity, mining, and transit sectors; declining poverty; stable inflation; gender-based violence economic and labor force disruptions


upper middle-income Southeast Asian economy; substantial infrastructure; major electronics, food, and automobile parts exporter; globally used currency; extremely low unemployment, even amid COVID-19; ongoing Thailand 4.0 economic development


lower middle-income Southeast Asian economy; government expenditures funded via oil fund drawdowns; endemic corruption undermines growth; foreign aid-dependent; wide-scale poverty, unemployment, and illiteracy


low-income West African economy; primarily agrarian economy; has a deep-water port; growing international shipping locale; improving privatization and public budgeting transparency; key phosphate mining industry; extremely high rural poverty


small New Zealand territorial island economy; labor force can work in New Zealand or Australia; significant remittances; largely solar-powered infrastructure; reliant on New Zealand funding; stamp, coin, and crafts producer


upper middle-income Pacific island economy; enormous diaspora and remittance reliance; key tourism and agricultural sectors; major fish exporter; rapidly growing Chinese infrastructure investments; rising methamphetamine hub

Trinidad and Tobago

high-income Caribbean economy; major hydrocarbon exporter; key tourism and finance sectors; high inflation and growing public debt; long foreign currency access delays; large foreign reserves and sovereign wealth fund


lower middle-income North African economy; drafting reforms for foreign lenders; high unemployment, especially for youth and women; hit hard by COVID-19; high public sector wages; high public debt; protectionist austerity measures; key EU trade partner

Turkey (Turkiye)

upper middle-income, diversified Middle Eastern economy; heightened inflation and currency depreciation triggered by expansionary monetary and fiscal policy ahead of 2023 elections, now being reversed; industrializing economy that maintains large agricultural base


upper middle-income Central Asian economy; has 10% of global natural gas reserves, exporting to Russia and China; natural resource rich; authoritarian and dominated by state-owned enterprises; major central-south Asian pipeline development

Turks and Caicos Islands

British Caribbean island territorial economy; GDP and its tourism industry hit hard by COVID-19 disruptions; major biodiversity locale; US dollar user; fossil fuel dependent; negative trade balance; increasing unemployment


upper middle-income Pacific island economy; extremely environmentally fragile; currency pegged to Australian dollar; large international aid recipient; subsistence agrarian sector; Te Kakeega sustainable development; domain name licensing incomes


low-income, primarily agrarian East African economy; COVID-19 hurt economic growth and poverty reduction; lower oil prices threaten prior sector investments; endemic corruption; natural resource rich; high female labor force participation but undervalued


lower- middle-income, non-EU Eastern European economy; key wheat and corn exporter; gradual recovery after 30% GDP contraction at start of war; damage to infrastructure and agriculture balanced by consumer and business resilience; international aid has stabilized foreign exchange reserves, allowing managed currency float; continued progress on anti-corruption reforms

United Arab Emirates

historically oil-driven Middle Eastern economy; diversifying into a trade-oriented logistics and supply chain leader; strong foreign direct investment orientation; building trade and investment ties through partnership agreements; growing banking sector; recent economic linkages with Israel slowing due to Gaza conflict

United Kingdom

high-income, diversified, non-EU European economy; global financial center and dominant service sector; sluggish growth from stringent monetary policy, reduced business investment, low productivity and participation rates, and post-Brexit trade frictions; fiscal austerity in face of high public debt 

United States

high-income, diversified North American economy; NATO leader; largest importer and second-largest exporter; home to leading financial exchanges; high and growing public debt; rising socioeconomic inequalities; historically low interest rates; hit by COVID-19


high-income, export-oriented South American economy; South America’s largest middle class; low socioeconomic inequality; growing homicide rates; growing Chinese and EU relations; 2019 Argentine recession hurt; key milk, beef, rice, and wool exporter


lower middle-income Central Asian economy; CIS Free Trade Area member but no intention of EAEU membership; key natural gas, cotton, and gold exporter; landlocked and environmentally fragile; positive growth through COVID-19, but poverty increasing


lower-middle income Pacific island economy; extremely reliant on subsistence agriculture and tourism; environmentally fragile; struggling post-pandemic and Tropical Cyclone Harold rebound; sizeable inflation; road infrastructure aid from Australia


South American economy; ongoing hyperinflation since mid-2010s; chaotic economy due to political corruption, infrastructure cuts, and human rights abuses; in debt default; oil exporter; hydropower consumer; rising Chinese relations


lower middle-income socialist East Asian economy; rapid economic growth since Đổi Mới reforms; strong investment and productivity growth; tourism and manufacturing hub; TPP signatory; declining poverty aside from ethnic minorities; systemic corruption

Virgin Islands

high-income, tourism-based American territorial economy; severe COVID-19 economic disruptions; major rum distillery; high public debt; sluggish reopening of large oil refinery; environmentally susceptible to hurricanes; many informal industries

Wallis and Futuna

lower-middle-income, agrarian French dependency economy; heavily reliant on French subsidies; licenses fishing rights to Japan and South Korea; major remittances from New Caledonia; aging workforce; import-dependent; deforestation-fueled fragility


low-income Middle Eastern economy; infrastructure, trade, and economic institutions devastated by civil war; oil/gas-dependent but decreasing reserves; massive poverty, food insecurity, and unemployment; high inflation


lower middle-income Sub-Saharan economy; major copper exporter; high public debt is held mostly by China; systemic corruption; one of youngest and fastest growing labor forces; regional hydroelectricity exporter; extreme rural poverty


low income Sub-Saharan economy; political instability and endemic corruption have prevented reforms and stalled debt restructuring; new Zimbabwe Gold (ZiG) currency latest effort to combat ongoing hyperinflation; reliant on natural resource extraction, agriculture and remittances