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Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Photos of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

The last remnant of France's once-vast holdings in North America, this island archipelago off the coast of Newfoundland bears the scars of a complicated geologic history. Saint Pierre and Miquelon cover just 242 sq km (93 sq mi), and the three biggest islands lend the entire archipelago its name.
In this false-color satellite image, vegetation appears in varying shades of pink and red, bare land is beige, urbanized areas are blue-gray, and water appears in shades of blue and blue-green.
Saint Pierre is the smallest of the archipelago's major islands, a mostly northeast-southwest running landmass with several smaller islands and islets scattered around it. In the west (top of the image), Miquelon consists of three main sections: an arc-shaped body in the north (top right), Grande Miquelon immediately southeast of that, and Langlade (or Petite Miquelon) Island in the south. Grande Miquelon and Langlade are connected by a tombolo, a ridge of beach material (typically sand), built by wave action, that connects an island to the mainland. This tombolo formed in the eighteenth century.
The terrain of the archipelago consists of mostly barren rock. Deforestation has claimed much of the vegetation, although woodland still covers 20 percent of the surface. Scrub vegetation and peatland are extensive. Cold, wet, foggy weather predominates, with windy springs and autumns. 
The islands, particularly Langlade, bear a scoured appearance, and this is no coincidence. During the Pleistocene Ice Age, glacial ice scraped the island. Today, wind and waves continue to erode these landmasses. For several months a year, winds regularly exceed 60 km (35 mi) per hour, and frequent storms pound the coastlines with high waves. Anecdotal evidence from local fishermen suggests that recent mild winters and less extensive sea ice might have allowed more erosion by ocean waves. Photo courtesy of NASA.



First settled by the French in the early 17th century, Saint Pierre and Miquelon are the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions. They attained the status of an overseas collectivity in 2003.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)

Geographic coordinates

46 50 N, 56 20 W

Map references

North America


total: 242 sq km

land: 242 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

comparison ranking: total 214

Area - comparative

one and half times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 0 km


120 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windy


mostly barren rock


highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

Natural resources

fish, deepwater ports

Land use

agricultural land: 8.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 12.5% (2018 est.)

other: 78.8% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2022)

Population distribution

most of the population is found on Saint Pierre Island; a small settlement is located on the north end of Miquelon Island

Natural hazards

persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard

Geography - note

vegetation scanty; the islands are actually part of the northern Appalachians along with Newfoundland

People and Society


total: 5,132

male: 2,476

female: 2,656 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 227; male 227; total 227


noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)

adjective: French

Ethnic groups

Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)


French (official)

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, une source indispensable d'informations de base. (French)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

French audio sample:


Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%

Age structure

0-14 years: 13.1% (male 346/female 328)

15-64 years: 61.6% (male 1,559/female 1,600)

65 years and over: 25.3% (2024 est.) (male 571/female 728)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 52

youth dependency ratio: 26.1

elderly dependency ratio: 25.9

potential support ratio: 3.9 (2021)

Median age

total: 51.2 years (2024 est.)

male: 50.5 years

female: 51.9 years

comparison ranking: total 2

Population growth rate

-1.21% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 234

Birth rate

6.4 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 227

Death rate

11.7 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 20

Net migration rate

-6.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 215

Population distribution

most of the population is found on Saint Pierre Island; a small settlement is located on the north end of Miquelon Island


urban population: 90.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.75% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

6,000 SAINT-PIERRE (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 148

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.8 years (2024 est.)

male: 79.5 years

female: 84.3 years

comparison ranking: total population 41

Total fertility rate

1.6 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 183

Gross reproduction rate

0.78 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 91.4% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 8.6% of population (2017 est.)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020)


total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA


Environment - current issues

overfishing; recent test drilling for oil in waters around Saint Pierre and Miquelon may bring future development that would impact the environment


cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windy

Land use

agricultural land: 8.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 8.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 12.5% (2018 est.)

other: 78.8% (2018 est.)


urban population: 90.1% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.75% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030


Country name

conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon

local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

etymology: Saint-Pierre is named after Saint PETER, the patron saint of fishermen; Miquelon may be a corruption of the Basque name Mikelon

Government type

parliamentary democracy (Territorial Council); overseas collectivity of France

Dependency status

overseas collectivity of France


name: Saint-Pierre

geographic coordinates: 46 46 N, 56 11 W

time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

etymology: named after Saint Peter, the patron saint of fisherman

Administrative divisions

none (territorial overseas collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 2 communes at the second order - Saint Pierre, Miquelon


none (overseas collectivity collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)

National holiday

Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790)


history: 4 October 1958 (French Constitution)

amendments: amendment procedures of France's constitution apply

Legal system

French civil law


see France


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Prefect Christian POUGET (since 6 January 2021)

head of government: President of Territorial Council Bernard BRIAND (since 13 October 2020)

cabinet: Le Cabinet du Prefet

elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 April and 24 April 2022 (next to be held in 2027); prefect appointed by French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior; Territorial Council president elected by Territorial Council councilors by absolute majority vote; term NA; election last held on 13 October 2020 (next to be held in NA)

election results:
2020: Bernard BRIAND elected President of Territorial Council; Territorial Council vote - 17 for, 2 abstentions

2017: Stephane LENORMAND elected President of Territorial Council vote - NA

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Territorial Council or Conseil Territorial (19 seats - Saint Pierre 15, Miquelon 4; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 6-year terms);
Saint Pierre and Miquelon indirectly elects 1 senator to the French Senate by an electoral college to serve a 6-year term and directly elects 1 deputy to the French National Assembly by absolute majority vote to serve a 5-year term

elections: Territorial Council - first round held on 20 March and second round held on 27 March 2022 (next to be held in March 2028)

French Senate - last held on 27 September 2020 (next to be held no later than September 2025)

French National Assembly - last held on 12 and 19 June 2022 (next to be held by June 2027)

election results: Territorial Council - percent of vote by party in first round - AD 45.9%, Focus on the Future 37%, Together to Build 17.1%; percent of vote by party in second round - AD 51.8%, Focus on the Future 38.1%, Together to Build 10.1%, seats by party - AD 15, Focus on the Future 4; composition - men NA, women NA, percent of women NA%

French Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PS 1 (affiliated with UMP)

French National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AD 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel (composition NA)

judge selection and term of office: judge selection and tenure NA

subordinate courts: NA

Political parties and leaders

Archipelago Tomorrow (Archipel Domain) or AD (affiliated with The Republicans)
Focus on the Future (Cap sur l'Avenir) [Annick GIRARDIN] (affiliated with Left Radical Party)
Together to Build (Ensemble pour Construire) [Karine CLAIREAUX]

Diplomatic representation in the US

none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)

Flag description

a yellow three-masted sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on a blue background with scattered, white, wavy lines under the ship; a continuous black-over-white wavy line divides the ship from the white wavy lines; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part (called ikkurina) is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the rectangle into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one above the other; these three heraldic arms represent settlement by colonists from the Basque Country (top), Brittany, and Normandy; the blue on the main portion of the flag symbolizes the Atlantic Ocean and the stylized ship represents the Grande Hermine in which Jacques Cartier "discovered" the islands in 1536

note: the flag of France used for official occasions

National symbol(s)

16th-century sailing ship

National anthem

note: as a collectivity of France, "La Marseillaise" is official (see France)


Economic overview

high-income, French North American territorial economy; primarily fishing exports; substantial French Government support; highly seasonal labor force; euro user; increasing tourism and aquaculture investments

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$261.3 million (2015 est.)
$215.3 million (2006 est.)

note: supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million

comparison ranking: 217

GDP (official exchange rate)

$261.3 million (2015 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.5% (2015)
4.5% (2010)

comparison ranking: 25

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2% (2006 est.)

industry: 15% (2006 est.)

services: 83% (2006 est.)

comparison rankings: services 25; industry 182; agriculture 176

Agricultural products

vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish


fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Labor force

4,429 (2015)

comparison ranking: 216

Unemployment rate

8.7% (2015 est.)
9.9% (2008 est.)

comparison ranking: 156


revenues: $70 million (1996 est.)

expenditures: $60 million (1996 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

3.8% (of GDP) (1996 est.)

comparison ranking: 10

Exports - partners

Canada 84%, France 11%, Ireland 3%, Slovakia 1%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 0% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

processed crustaceans, shellfish, fish, special purpose motor vehicles, vehicle parts/accessories (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars

Imports - partners

France 52%, Canada 42%, Netherlands 2%, Germany 1%, Belgium 1% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, packaged medicine, other foods, plastic products, cars (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
0.885 (2017 est.)
0.903 (2016 est.)
0.9214 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)



installed generating capacity: 26,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 47.267 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 1.733 million kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 204; exports 204; installed generating capacity 204; transmission/distribution losses 9; consumption 202

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 600 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 152

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 139

Refined petroleum products - imports

650 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 203

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

84,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 84,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 209

Energy consumption per capita

0 Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 205


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 4,800 (2015 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76 (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 206

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: adequate (2019)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity 76 per 100 persons (2019)

international: country code - 508; landing point for the St Pierre and Miquelon Cable connecting Saint Pierre & Miquelon and Canada; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite system (2019)

Broadcast media

8 TV stations, all part of the French Overseas Network, and local cable provided by SPM Telecom; 3 of 4 radio stations on St. Pierre and on Miquelon are part of the French Overseas Network (2021)

Internet users

total: 5,099 (2022 est.)

percent of population: 88.7% (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total 223



2 (2024)

comparison ranking: 203


total: 117 km

paved: 80 km

unpaved: 37 km (2009)

comparison ranking: total 215


total ports: 2 (2024)

large: 0

medium: 0

small: 1

very small: 0

size unknown: 1

ports with oil terminals: 1

key ports: Miquelon, St. Pierre

Military and Security

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of France