Photos of Nauru

Introduction

Background

The exact origins of the Nauruans are unclear since their language does not resemble any other in the Pacific region. Germany annexed the island in 1888. A German-British consortium began mining the island's phosphate deposits early in the 20th century. Australian forces occupied Nauru in World War I; it subsequently became a League of Nations mandate. After the Second World War - and a brutal occupation by Japan - Nauru became a UN trust territory. It achieved independence in 1968 and became one of the richest countries in the world because of its extensive phosphate stocks; however, the phosphate was depleted in the early 1980s and the quality of life began to decline. In 2001, an Australian offshore refugee processing center was opened in Nauru, providing an economic lifeline. Nauru is one of Taiwan's few remaining diplomatic partners, and in 2008, Nauru recognized the breakaway Georgian republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, south of the Marshall Islands

Geographic coordinates

0 32 S, 166 55 E

Area

total: 21 sq km

land: 21 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 239

Area - comparative

about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical with a monsoonal pattern; rainy season (November to February)

Terrain

sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate plateau in center

Elevation

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Command Ridge 70 m

Natural resources

phosphates, fish

Land use

agricultural land: 20% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 20% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 80% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources

10 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Population distribution

extensive phosphate mining made approximately 90% of the island unsuitable for farming; most people live in the fertile coastal areas, especially along the southwest coast

Natural hazards

periodic droughts

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

Nauru is the third-smallest country in the world behind the Holy See (Vatican City) and Monaco; it is the smallest country in the Pacific Ocean, the smallest country outside Europe, the world's smallest island country, and the the world's smallest independent republic; situated just 53 km south of the Equator, Nauru is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Nauruan(s)

adjective: Nauruan

Ethnic groups

Nauruan 88.9%, part Nauruan 6.6%, I-Kiribati 2%, other 2.5% (2007 est.)

Languages

Nauruan 93% (official, a distinct Pacific Island language), English 2% (widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes), other 5% (includes I-Kiribati 2% and Chinese 2%) (2011 est.)

note: data represent main language spoken at home; Nauruan is spoken by 95% of the population, English by 66%, and other languages by 12%

Religions

Protestant 60.4% (includes Nauru Congregational 35.7%, Assembly of God 13%, Nauru Independent Church 9.5%, Baptist 1.5%, and Seventh Day Adventist 0.7%), Roman Catholic 33%, other 3.7%, none 1.8%, unspecified 1.1% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 30.87% (male 1,337/female 1,684)

15-24 years: 16.35% (male 734/female 866)

25-54 years: 42.57% (male 2,115/female 2,050)

55-64 years: 6.72% (male 262/female 396)

65 years and over: 3.48% (male 122/female 219) (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 27 years

male: 28.2 years

female: 25.9 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

Birth rate

21.49 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 66

Death rate

6.24 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 148

Net migration rate

-11.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 223

Population distribution

extensive phosphate mining made approximately 90% of the island unsuitable for farming; most people live in the fertile coastal areas, especially along the southwest coast

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.18% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 0.84 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 0.79 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.66 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.56 male(s)/female

total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 7.96 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 10.25 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 155

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 67.62 years

male: 64.06 years

female: 71.3 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 184

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

1.35 physicians/1,000 population (2015)

Hospital bed density

5 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 96.3% of population

total: 96.3% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.7% of population

total: 3.7% of population (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: malaria

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 9 years

male: 9 years

female: 10 years (2008)

Environment

Environment - current issues

limited natural freshwater resources, roof storage tanks that collect rainwater and desalination plants provide water; a century of intensive phosphate mining beginning in 1906 left the central 90% of Nauru a wasteland; cadmium residue, phosphate dust, and other contaminants have caused air and water pollution with negative impacts on health; climate change has brought on rising sea levels and inland water shortages

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 12.53 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.05 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.01 megatons (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

10 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Climate

tropical with a monsoonal pattern; rainy season (November to February)

Land use

agricultural land: 20% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 20% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 80% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 100% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.18% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: malaria

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 6,192 tons (2016 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Nauru

conventional short form: Nauru

local long form: Republic of Nauru

local short form: Nauru

former: Pleasant Island

etymology: the island name may derive from the Nauruan word "anaoero" meaning "I go to the beach"

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: no official capital; government offices in the Yaren District

time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare, Baitsi, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren

Independence

31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, NZ-, and UK-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday

Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

Constitution

history: effective 29 January 1968

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament; amendments to constitutional articles, such as the republican form of government, protection of fundamental rights and freedoms, the structure and authorities of the executive and legislative branches, also requires two-thirds majority of votes in a referendum; amended 1968, 2009, 2014

Legal system

mixed legal system of common law based on the English model and customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Suffrage

20 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: President Lionel AINGIMEA (since 27 August 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Lionel AINGIMEA (since 27 August 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of Parliament

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by Parliament (eligible for a second term); election last held on 27 August 2019 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: Lionel AINGIMEA elected president; Parliament vote - Lionel AINGIMEA (independent) 12, David ADEANG (Nauru First) 6

Legislative branch

description: unicameral parliament (19 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote using the "Dowdall" counting system by which voters rank candidates on their ballots; members serve 3-year terms)

elections: last held on 24 August 2019 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independent 19; composition - men 17, women 2, percent of women 10.5%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and several justices); note - in late 2017, the Nauruan Government revoked the 1976 High Court Appeals Act, which had allowed appeals beyond the Nauruan Supreme Court, and in early 2018, the government formed its own appeals court

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president to serve until age 65

subordinate courts: District Court, Family Court

Political parties and leaders

Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG]
Nauru First (Naoero Amo) Party
Nauru Party (informal)

note: loose multiparty system

International organization participation

ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, G-77, ICAO, ICCt, IFAD, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Marlene Inemwin MOSES (since 13 March 2006)

chancery: 800 2nd Avenue, Suite 400 D, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 937-0074

FAX: [1] (212) 937-0079

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: the US does not have an embassy in Nauru; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Nauru

Flag description

blue with a narrow, horizontal, gold stripe across the center and a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; blue stands for the Pacific Ocean, the star indicates the country's location in relation to the Equator (the gold stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of Nauru; the star's white color represents phosphate, the basis of the island's wealth

National symbol(s)

frigatebird, calophyllum flower; national colors: blue, yellow, white

National anthem

name: "Nauru Bwiema" (Song of Nauru)

lyrics/music: Margaret HENDRIE/Laurence Henry HICKS

note: adopted 1968

Economy

Economic overview

Revenues of this tiny island - a coral atoll with a land area of 21 square kilometers - traditionally have come from exports of phosphates. Few other resources exist, with most necessities being imported, mainly from Australia, its former occupier and later major source of support. Primary reserves of phosphates were exhausted and mining ceased in 2006, but mining of a deeper layer of "secondary phosphate" in the interior of the island began the following year. The secondary phosphate deposits may last another 30 years. Earnings from Nauru’s export of phosphate remains an important source of income. Few comprehensive statistics on the Nauru economy exist; estimates of Nauru's GDP vary widely.

The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income from phosphates are serious long-term problems. In anticipation of the exhaustion of Nauru's phosphate deposits, substantial amounts of phosphate income were invested in trust funds to help cushion the transition and provide for Nauru's economic future.

Although revenue sources for government are limited, the opening of the Australian Regional Processing Center for asylum seekers since 2012 has sparked growth in the economy. Revenue derived from fishing licenses under the "vessel day scheme" has also boosted government income. Housing, hospitals, and other capital plant are deteriorating. The cost to Australia of keeping the Nauruan government and economy afloat continues to climb.

Real GDP growth rate

4% (2017 est.)

10.4% (2016 est.)

2.8% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 75

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$145 million (2019 est.)

$145 million (2018 est.)

$137 million (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2015 dollars

country comparison to the world: 223

GDP (official exchange rate)

$114 million (2017 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$11,583 (2019 est.)

$11,471 (2018 est.)

$10,667 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 137

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 6.1% (2009 est.)

industry: 33% (2009 est.)

services: 60.8% (2009 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 98% (2016 est.)

government consumption: 37.6% (2016 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 42.2% (2016 est.)

exports of goods and services: 11.2% (2016 est.)

imports of goods and services: -89.1% (2016 est.)

Agricultural products

coconuts, tropical fruit, vegetables, pork, eggs, pig offals, pig fat, poultry, papayas, cabbages

Industries

phosphate mining, offshore banking, coconut products

Labor force - by occupation

note: most of the labor force is employed in phosphate mining, public administration, education, and transportation

Budget

revenues: 103 million (2017 est.)

expenditures: 113.4 million (2017 est.)

Public debt

62% of GDP (2017 est.)

65% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 71

Fiscal year

1 July - 30 June

Current account balance

$5 million (2017 est.)

$2 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Exports

$125 million (2013 est.)

$110.3 million (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 197

Exports - partners

Thailand 34%, Australia 16%, United States 13%, South Korea 10%, Philippines 9%, Japan 7%, France 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

fish, calcium phosphates, low-voltage protection equipment, air conditioners, leather apparel (2019)

Imports

$64.9 million (2016 est.)

$143.1 million (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 219

Imports - partners

Taiwan 52%, Australia 28% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, construction vehicles, tug boats, poultry meats, cars (2019)

Exchange rates

Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar -

1.311 (2017 est.)

1.3452 (2016 est.)

1.3452 (2015 est.)

1.3291 (2014 est.)

1.1094 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 99.8% (2018)

electrification - urban areas: 99.4% (2018)

electrification - rural areas: 98.7% (2018)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 1,900

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (July 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 219

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 9,212

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 94.58 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 214

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: adequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilities; geography is a challenge for the islands; there is a need to service the tourism sector and the South Pacific Islands economy; mobile technology is booming (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular 95 per 100 (2019)

international: country code - 674; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated

Broadcast media

1 government-owned TV station broadcasting programs from New Zealand sent via satellite or on videotape; 1 government-owned radio station, broadcasting on AM and FM, utilizes Australian and British programs (2019)

Internet users

total: 5,524

percent of population: 57% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 215

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 45,457 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7.94 million mt-km (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 1 (2019)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

Roadways

total: 30 km (2002)

paved: 24 km (2002)

unpaved: 6 km (2002)

country comparison to the world: 219

Merchant marine

total: 5

by type: oil tanker 2, other 3 (2020)

country comparison to the world: 166

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Nauru

Military and Security

Military and security forces

no regular military forces

Military - note

Nauru maintains no defense forces; under an informal agreement, defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues