Photos of Jersey

Introduction

Background

Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II. The Bailiwick of Jersey is a British Crown dependency, which means that it is not part of the UK but is rather a self-governing possession of the British Crown. However, the UK Government is constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France

Geographic coordinates

49 15 N, 2 10 W

Area

total: 116 sq km

land: 116 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 224

Area - comparative

about two-thirds the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm

Climate

temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Terrain

gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast

Elevation

highest point: Les Platons 136 m

lowest point: English Channel 0 m

Land use

agricultural land: 66% (2018 est.)

arable land: 66% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 34% (2018 est.)

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; no notable trends

Natural hazards

very large tidal variation can be hazardous to navigation

Geography - note

largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Channel Islander(s)

adjective: Channel Islander

Ethnic groups

Jersey 46.4%, British 32.7%, Portuguese/Madeiran 8.2%, Polish 3.3%, Irish, French, and other White 7.1%, other 2.4% (2011 est.)

Languages

English (official) 94.5%, Portuguese 4.6%, other .9% (includes French (official) and Jerriais)

(2001 est.)

note: data represent main spoken language; the traditional language of Jersey is Jerriais or Jersey French (a Norman language), which was spoken by fewer than 3,000 people as of 2001;  two thirds of Jerriais speakers are aged 60 and over

Religions

Protestant (Anglican, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian), Roman Catholic

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.63% (male 8,689/female 8,124)

15-24 years: 12.98% (male 6,764/female 6,354)

25-54 years: 40.12% (male 20,499/female 20,054)

55-64 years: 13.22% (male 6,515/female 6,844)

65 years and over: 17.05% (male 7,324/female 9,906) (2020 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49

youth dependency ratio: 22.3

elderly dependency ratio: 26.7

potential support ratio: 3.7 (2020 est.)

note: data represent Guernsey and Jersey

Median age

total: 37.5 years

male: 36 years

female: 39.5 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 70

Birth rate

12.46 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

Death rate

7.76 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

Net migration rate

2.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 47

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; no notable trends

Urbanization

urban population: 31% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.68% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Guernsey and Jersey

Major urban areas - population

34,000 SAINT HELIER (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.94 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.39 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 192

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.43 years

male: 79.92 years

female: 85.09 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 19

Drinking water source

improved: total: 94.2% of population

unimproved: total: 5.9% of population (2017 est.)

note: includes data for Guernsey

Sanitation facility access

improved: total: 98.5% of population

unimproved: total: 1.5% of population (2017)

Environment

Environment - current issues

habitat and species depletion due to human encroachment; water pollution; improper solid waste disposal

Climate

temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Land use

agricultural land: 66% (2018 est.)

arable land: 66% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 34% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 31% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.68% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

note: data include Guernsey and Jersey

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 178,933 tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 50,871 tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 28.4% (2016 est.)

note: data include combined totals for Guernsey and Jersey.

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey

conventional short form: Jersey

former: Norman Isles

etymology: the name is of Old Norse origin, but the meaning of the root "Jer(s)" is uncertain; the "-ey" ending means "island"

Dependency status

British crown dependency

Government type

parliamentary democracy (Assembly of the States of Jersey)

Capital

name: Saint Helier

geographic coordinates: 49 11 N, 2 06 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: named after Saint Helier, the patron saint of Jersey, who was reputedly martyred on the island in A.D. 555

Administrative divisions

none (British crown dependency); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 12 parishes; Grouville, Saint Brelade, Saint Clement, Saint Helier, Saint John, Saint Lawrence, Saint Martin, Saint Mary, Saint Ouen, Saint Peter, Saint Saviour, and Trinity

Independence

none (British Crown dependency)

National holiday

Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Constitution

history: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

amendments: proposed by a government minister to the Assembly of the States of Jersey, by an Assembly member, or by an elected parish head; passage requires several Assembly readings, a majority vote by the Assembly, review by the UK Ministry of Justice, and approval of the British monarch (Royal Assent)

Legal system

the laws of the UK apply where applicable; includes local statutes

Citizenship

see United Kingdom

Suffrage

16 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir Stephen DALTON (since 13 March 2017)

head of government: Chief Minister John LE FONDRE (since 8 June 2018); Bailiff William BAILHACHE (since 29 January 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed individually by the states

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; Council of Ministers, including the chief minister, indirectly elected by the Assembly of States; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the States of Jersey (49 elected members; 8 senators to serve 4-year terms, and 29 deputies and 12 connetables, or heads of parishes, to serve 4-year terms; 5 non-voting members appointed by the monarch include the bailiff, lieutenant governor, dean of Jersey, attorney general, and the solicitor general)

elections: last held on 16 May 2018 (next to be held on 16 May 2022)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 49; composition - men 36, women 13, percent of 26.5%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Jersey Court of Appeal (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, and 12 judges); Royal Court (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, 6 commissioners and lay people referred to as jurats, and is organized into Heritage, Family, Probate, and Samedi Divisions); appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)

judge selection and term of office: Jersey Court of Appeal bailiffs and judges appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; bailiffs and judges appointed for "extent of good behavior;" Royal Court bailiffs appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; commissioners appointed by the bailiff; jurats appointed by the Electoral College; bailiffs and commissioners appointed for "extent of good behavior;" jurats appointed until retirement at age 72

subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Youth Court; Petty Debts Court; Parish Hall Enquires (a process of preliminary investigation into youth and minor adult offenses to determine need for presentation before a court)

Political parties and leaders

one registered party: Reform Jersey [Sam MEZEC]

note: most senators and deputies sit as independents

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: none (British Crown dependency)

none (British Crown dependency)

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: none (British Crown dependency)

Flag description

white with a diagonal red cross extending to the corners of the flag; in the upper quadrant, surmounted by a yellow crown, a red shield with three lions in yellow; according to tradition, the ships of Jersey - in an attempt to differentiate themselves from English ships flying the horizontal cross of St. George - rotated the cross to the "X" (saltire) configuration; because this arrangement still resembled the Irish cross of St. Patrick, the yellow Plantagenet crown and Jersey coat of arms were added

National symbol(s)

Jersey cow; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Isle de Siez Nous" (Island Home)

lyrics/music: Gerard LE FEUVRE

note: adopted 2008; serves as a local anthem; as a British Crown dependency, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)

Economy

Economic overview

Jersey's economy is based on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. In 2016, the financial services sector accounted for about 41% of the island's output. Agriculture represented about 1% of Jersey’s economy in 2016. Potatoes are an important export crop, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle originated on the island and is known worldwide. The dairy industry remains important to the island with approximately $8.8 million gallons of milk produced in 2015. Tourism accounts for a significant portion of Jersey’s economy, with more than 700,000 total visitors in 2015. Living standards come close to those of the UK. All raw material and energy requirements are imported as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs. Light taxes and death duties make the island a popular offshore financial center. Jersey maintains its relationship with the EU through the UK. Therefore, in light of the UK’s decision to leave the EU, Jersey will also need to renegotiate its ties to the EU.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$5.569 billion (2016 est.)

$5.514 billion (2015 est.)

$4.98 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars

country comparison to the world: 174

GDP (official exchange rate)

$5.004 billion (2015 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$56,600 (2016 est.)

$49,500 (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 22

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2% (2010)

industry: 2% (2010)

services: 96% (2010)

Agricultural products

potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes; beef, dairy products

Industries

tourism, banking and finance, dairy, electronics

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 3%

industry: 12%

services: 85% (2014 est.)

Budget

revenues: 829 million (2005)

expenditures: 851 million (2005)

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Exports - commodities

light industrial and electrical goods, dairy cattle, foodstuffs, textiles, flowers

Imports - commodities

machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals

Exchange rates

Jersey pounds (JEP) per US dollar

0.7836 (2017 est.)

0.738 (2016 est.)

0.738 (2015)

0.6542 (2012)

0.6391 (2011 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 55,938

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 58 (July 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 157

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 122,668

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 191

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: good system with broadband access (2018)

domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; fixed-line 58 per 100 and mobile-cellular 119 per 100 subscriptions (2018)

international: country code - 44; landing points for the INGRID, UK-Channel Islands-8, and Guernsey-Jersey-4, submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey, the UK, and France (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

multiple UK terrestrial TV broadcasts are received via a transmitter in Jersey; satellite packages available; BBC Radio Jersey and 1 other radio station operating

Internet users

total: 58,000

percent of population: 59.6% (July 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 193

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1 (registered in UK) (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 4 (registered in UK)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 1 (2019)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier

Military and Security

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues