New Zealand High Commissioner of Tarawa Michael Wehi Mailetonga Walsh explains the Betio Memorial to Adm. Cecil D. Haney, commander of the US Pacific Fleet, during his visit to the Republic of Kiribati for Pacific Partnership 2013, 17 July 2013. The memorial is to 22 New Zealand, British, and Australian coastwatchers held prisoner and murdered by Imperial Japanese forces on Betio Island, Tarawa atoll, Kiribati. Photo courtesy of the US Navy/ Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Carlos M. Vazquez II.
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Introduction

Background

Kiribati is made up of three distinct island groups - the Gilbert Islands, the Line Islands, and the Phoenix Islands. The first Austronesian voyagers arrived in the Gilbert Islands as early as 3000 B.C., but these islands were not widely settled until about A.D. 200 by Micronesians. Around 1300, Samoans and Tongans invaded the southern Gilbert Islands, bringing Polynesian cultural elements with them. Later arrivals by Fijians brought Melanesian elements to the Gilbert Islands, and extensive intermarriage between the Micronesian, Polynesian, and Melanesian people led to the creation of what would become Gilbertese cultural traditions by the time Europeans spotted the islands in the 1600s. The Phoenix Islands and Line Islands were both visited by various Melanesian and Polynesian peoples, but their isolation and lack of natural resources meant that long-term settlements were not possible and both island groups were uninhabited by the time of European contact.
 
Kiribati experienced sustained European contact by the 1760s; all three island groups were named and charted by 1826. American whaling ships frequently passed through the islands, and the UK declared a protectorate over the Gilbert and nearby Ellice Islands in 1892 to block growing US influence. Phosphate-rich Banaba Island was annexed to the protectorate in 1900. In 1916, the protectorate became a colony, and some Line Islands were added in 1916 and 1919, with the final ones added in 1972. The Phoenix Islands were added to the colony in 1937, and the UK agreed to share jurisdiction of some of them with the US because of their strategic location for aviation. Japan occupied the northern Gilbert Islands in 1941; the islands of Makin and Tarawa were the sites of major US amphibious victories over entrenched Japanese garrisons in 1943. The UK continued to rule the colony after World War II. The Ellice Islands became its own colony in 1974. The Gilbert Islands became fully self-governing in 1977 and independent in 1979 as Kiribati, the Gilbertese spelling of Gilberts. The US relinquished all claims to the sparsely inhabited Phoenix and Line Islands in a 1979 treaty of friendship.

In 1994, Kiribati adjusted the international date line to the east of the Line Islands, bringing all islands in the country to the same day and giving Kiribati the earliest time zone in the world. Kiribati is a leading climate change and marine protection advocate. The Phoenix Islands Protected Area was established in 2008; in 2010, it became the world's largest (and deepest) UNESCO World Heritage site. In 2012, Kiribati purchased a 22 sq km (8.5 sq mi) plot of land in Fiji for potential eventual resettlement of its population because of climate change.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Oceania, group of 32 coral atolls and one raised coral island in the Pacific Ocean, straddling the Equator; the capital Tarawa is about halfway between Hawaii and Australia

Geographic coordinates

1 25 N, 173 00 E

Area

total: 811 sq km

land: 811 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes three island groups - Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, and Phoenix Islands - dispersed over about 3.5 million sq km (1.35 million sq mi)

country comparison to the world: 186

Area - comparative

four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 0 km

Coastline

1,143 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain

mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs

Elevation

highest point: unnamed elevation on Banaba 81 m

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 2 m

Natural resources

phosphate (production discontinued in 1979), coconuts (copra), fish

Land use

agricultural land: 42% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 39.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 15% (2018 est.)

other: 43% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

consists of three achipelagos spread out over an area roughly the size of India; the eastern Line Islands and central Phoenix Islands are sparsely populated, but the western Gilbert Islands are some of the most densely settled places on earth, with the main island of South Tarawa boasting a population density similar to Tokyo or Hong Kong

Natural hazards

typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March; occasional tornadoes; low level of some of the islands make them sensitive to changes in sea level

Geography - note

21 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Makatea in French Polynesia, and Nauru; Kiribati is the only country in the world to fall into all four hemispheres (northern, southern, eastern, and western)

Map description

Kiribati map showing the extent of the three island groups that comprise Kiribati and that straddle both sides of the Equator.

People and Society

Nationality

noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural)

adjective: Kiribati

Ethnic groups

I-Kiribati 95.78%, I-Kiribati/mixed 3.8%, Tuvaluan 0.2%, other 1.7% (2020 est.)

Languages

Gilbertese, English (official)

Religions

Roman Catholic 58.9%, Kiribati Uniting Church 21.2%, Kiribati Protestant Church 8.4%, Church of Jesus Christ 5.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 2.1%, Baha'i 2.1%, other 1.7% (2020 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 28.47% (male 16,223/female 15,604)

15-24 years: 20.24% (male 11,171/female 11,459)

25-54 years: 40.05% (male 21,530/female 23,249)

55-64 years: 6.65% (male 3,350/female 4,084)

65 years and over: 4.59% (2020 est.) (male 2,004/female 3,122)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 67

youth dependency ratio: 60

elderly dependency ratio: 7

potential support ratio: 14.2 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 25.7 years

male: 24.8 years

female: 26.6 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 158

Birth rate

20.12 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 71

Death rate

6.92 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Net migration rate

-2.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 178

Population distribution

consists of three achipelagos spread out over an area roughly the size of India; the eastern Line Islands and central Phoenix Islands are sparsely populated, but the western Gilbert Islands are some of the most densely settled places on earth, with the main island of South Tarawa boasting a population density similar to Tokyo or Hong Kong

Urbanization

urban population: 57.1% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

64,000 TARAWA (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.46 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

23.1 years (2009 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Maternal mortality ratio

92 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Infant mortality rate

total: 32.93 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 34.88 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 30.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 45

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 67.9 years

male: 65.3 years

female: 70.64 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 187

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 97.2% of population

rural: 63.1% of population

total: 82% of population

unimproved: urban: 2.8% of population

rural: 36.9% of population

total: 18% of population (2020 est.)

Physicians density

0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

1.9 beds/1,000 population (2016)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 75.4% of population

rural: 45.4% of population

total: 62.1% of population

unimproved: urban: 24.6% of population

rural: 54.6% of population

total: 37.9% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: malaria

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 0.43 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 0.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.17 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 165

Tobacco use

total: 40.6% (2020 est.)

male: 53.9% (2020 est.)

female: 27.3% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 3

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 2.4%

women married by age 18: 18.4%

men married by age 18: 8.6% (2019 est.)

Literacy

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 22.5%

male: 21.2%

female: 24.6% (2019 est.)

Environment

Environment - current issues

heavy pollution in lagoon of south Tarawa atoll due to overcrowding mixed with traditional practices such as lagoon latrines and open-pit dumping; ground water at risk; potential for water shortages, disease; coastal erosion

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 10.45 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 0.07 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.02 megatons (2020 est.)

Climate

tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

Land use

agricultural land: 42% (2018 est.)

arable land: 2.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 39.5% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 15% (2018 est.)

other: 43% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 57.1% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 122

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: malaria

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 35,724 tons (2016 est.)

Total renewable water resources

0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Kiribati

conventional short form: Kiribati

local long form: Republic of Kiribati

local short form: Kiribati

former: Gilbert Islands

etymology: the name is the local pronunciation of "Gilberts," the former designation of the islands; originally named after explorer Thomas GILBERT, who mapped many of the islands in 1788

note: pronounced keer-ree-bahss

Government type

presidential republic

Capital

name: Tarawa

geographic coordinates: 1 21 N, 173 02 E

time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

time zone note: Kiribati has three time zones: the Gilbert Islands group at UTC+12, the Phoenix Islands at UTC+13, and the Line Islands at UTC+14

etymology: in Kiribati creation mythology, "tarawa" was what the spider Nareau named the land to distinguish it from "karawa" (the sky) and "marawa" (the ocean)

Administrative divisions

3 geographical units: Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands; note - there are no first-order administrative divisions, but there are 6 districts (Banaba, Central Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) and 21 island councils - one for each of the inhabited islands (Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kanton, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina)

Independence

12 July 1979 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 12 July (1979)

Constitution

history: The Gilbert and Ellice Islands Order in Council 1915, The Gilbert Islands Order in Council 1975 (preindependence); latest promulgated 12 July 1979 (at independence)

amendments: proposed by the House of Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly membership; passage of amendments affecting the constitutional section on amendment procedures and parts of the constitutional chapter on citizenship requires deferral of the proposal to the next Assembly meeting where approval is required by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly membership and support of the nominated or elected Banaban member of the Assembly; amendments affecting the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms also requires approval by at least two-thirds majority in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2018

Legal system

English common law supplemented by customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Kiribati

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Taneti MAAMAU (since 11 March 2016); Vice President Teuea TOATU (since 19 June 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Taneti MAAMAU (since 11 March 2016); Vice President Teuea TOATU (since 19 June 2019)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among House of Assembly members

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote following nomination of candidates from among House of Assembly members; term is 4 years (eligible for 2 additional terms); election last held on 22 June 2020 (next to be held in 2024); vice president appointed by the president

election results: Taneti MAAMAU reelected president; percent of vote - Taneti MAAMAU (TKB) 59.3%, Banuera BERINA (BKM) 40.7%.

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of Assembly or Maneaba Ni Maungatabu (46 seats; 44 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two-rounds if needed; 1 member appointed by the Rabi Council of Leaders - representing Banaba Island, and 1 ex officio member - the attorney general; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: legislative elections originally scheduled to be held in two rounds on 7 and 15 April 2020 but rescheduled for 14 and 21 April (next to be held in 2024)

election results: percent of vote by party (second round) - NA; seats by party (second round) - TKB 22, BKM 22, 1 independent

Judicial branch

highest courts: High Court (consists of a chief justice and other judges as prescribed by the president); note - the High Court has jurisdiction on constitutional issues

judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president on the advice of the cabinet in consultation with the Public Service Commission (PSC); other judges appointed by the president on the advice of the chief justice along with the PSC

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; magistrates' courts

Political parties and leaders

Boutokaan Kiribati Moa Party or BKM [Tessie LAMBOURNE]
Tobwaan Kiribati Party or TKP [Taneti MAAMAU]

International organization participation

ABEDA, ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Teburoro TITO (since 24 January 2018)

chancery: 685 Third Avenue, Suite 1109, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 867-3310

FAX: [1] (212) 867-3320

email address and website:
Kimission.newyork@mfa.gov.ki

note - the Kiribati Permanent Mission to the UN serves as the embassy

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: the US does not have an embassy in Kiribati; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Kiribati

Flag description

the upper half is red with a yellow frigatebird flying over a yellow rising sun, and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white stripes to represent the Pacific ocean; the white stripes represent the three island groups - the Gilbert, Line, and Phoenix Islands; the 17 rays of the sun represent the 16 Gilbert Islands and Banaba (formerly Ocean Island); the frigatebird symbolizes authority and freedom

National symbol(s)

frigatebird; national colors: red, white, blue, yellow

National anthem

name: "Teirake kaini Kiribati" (Stand Up, Kiribati)

lyrics/music: Urium Tamuera IOTEBA

note: adopted 1979

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Phoenix Islands Protected Area

Economy

Economic overview

A remote country of 33 scattered coral atolls, Kiribati has few natural resources and is one of the least developed Pacific Island countries. Commercially viable phosphate deposits were exhausted by the time of independence from the United Kingdom in 1979. Earnings from fishing licenses and seafarer remittances are important sources of income. Although the number of seafarers employed declined due to changes in global shipping demands, remittances are expected to improve with more overseas temporary and seasonal work opportunities for Kiribati nationals.

 

Economic development is constrained by a shortage of skilled workers, weak infrastructure, and remoteness from international markets. The public sector dominates economic activity, with ongoing capital projects in infrastructure including road rehabilitation, water and sanitation projects, and renovations to the international airport, spurring some growth. Public debt increased from 23% of GDP at the end of 2015 to 25.8% in 2016.

 

Kiribati is dependent on foreign aid, which was estimated to have contributed over 32.7% in 2016 to the government’s finances. The country’s sovereign fund, the Revenue Equalization Reserve Fund (RERF), which is held offshore, had an estimated balance of $855.5 million in late July 2016. The RERF seeks to avoid exchange rate risk by holding investments in more than 20 currencies, including the Australian dollar, US dollar, the Japanese yen, and the Euro. Drawdowns from the RERF helped finance the government’s annual budget.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$270 million (2020 est.)

$270 million (2019 est.)

$260 million (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 217

Real GDP growth rate

3.1% (2017 est.)

1.1% (2016 est.)

10.3% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95

Real GDP per capita

$2,300 (2020 est.)

$2,300 (2019 est.)

$2,300 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 206

GDP (official exchange rate)

$197 million (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 23% (2016 est.)

industry: 7% (2016 est.)

services: 70% (2016 est.)

Agricultural products

coconuts, roots/tubers nes, bananas, vegetables, taro, tropical fruit, poultry, pork, nuts, eggs

Industries

fishing, handicrafts

Labor force

39,000 (2010 est.)

note: economically active, not including subsistence farmers

country comparison to the world: 197

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 15%

industry: 10%

services: 75% (2010)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 22.5%

male: 21.2%

female: 24.6% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Budget

revenues: 151.2 million (2017 est.)

expenditures: 277.5 million (2017 est.)

Public debt

26.3% of GDP (2017 est.)

22.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 172

Current account balance

$18 million (2017 est.)

$35 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 61

Exports

$30 million (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$20 million (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 214

Exports - partners

Thailand 53%, Philippines 17%, South Korea 10%, Japan 9% (2019)

Exports - commodities

fish and fish produces, ships, coconut oil, copra (2019)

Imports

$180 million (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$170 million (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 212

Imports - partners

China 20%, Fiji 19%, Australia 12%, Taiwan 11%, South Korea 11%, New Zealand 7%, Japan 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, netting, raw sugar, rice, poultry meats (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$0 (31 December 2017 est.)

$8.37 million (31 December 2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 192

Debt - external

$40.9 million (2016 est.)

$32.3 million (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 196

Exchange rates

Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar -

1.31 (2017 est.)

1.34 (2016 est.)

1.34 (2015 est.)

1.33 (2014 est.)

1.11 (2013 est.)

note: the Australian dollar circulates as legal tender

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 11,000 kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 25.137 million kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 4.7 million kWh (2019 est.)

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 84.9% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 15.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Coal

production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 500 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 0 barrels/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

exports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

imports: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

76,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 76,000 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 0 metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 210

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 33 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (2020 est.) less than 1

country comparison to the world: 221

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 54,661 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 46 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 205

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: generally good national and international service; wireline service available on Tarawa and Kiritimati (Christmas Island); connections to outer islands by HF/VHF radiotelephone; recently formed (mobile network operator) MNO is implementing the first phase of improvements with 3G and 4G upgrades on some islands; islands are connected to each other and the rest of the world via satellite; launch of Kacific-1 in December 2019 will improve telecommunication for Kiribati (2020)

domestic: fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular approximately 46 per 100 subscriptions (2020)

international: country code - 686; landing point for the Southern Cross NEXT submarine cable system from Australia, 7 Pacific Ocean island countries to the US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress towards 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

multi-channel TV packages provide access to Australian and US stations; 1 government-operated radio station broadcasts on AM, FM, and shortwave (2017)

Internet users

total: 45,390 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 38% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 198

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 185 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 0.2 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 213

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 66,567 (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 15

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 5 (2021)

Waterways

5 km (2012) (small network of canals in Line Islands)

country comparison to the world: 118

Merchant marine

total: 88

by type: bulk carrier 3, general cargo 35, oil tanker 12, other 38 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 98

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Betio (Tarawa Atoll), Canton Island, English Harbor

Military and Security

Military and security forces

no regular military forces; Kiribati Police and Prison Service (Ministry of Justice)

Military - note

defense assistance is provided by Australia and NZ

Transnational Issues