Photos of Singapore

Entrance to the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple in Singapore in Chinatown. The four-story building displays Tang Dynasty architecture.



A Malay trading port known as Temasek existed on the island of Singapore by the 14th century. The settlement changed hands several times in the ensuing centuries and was eventually burned in the 17th century, falling into obscurity. In 1819, the British founded modern Singapore as a trading colony on the same site. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but was ousted two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries, with strong international trading links and per capita GDP among the highest globally.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.



Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia

Geographic coordinates

1 22 N, 103 48 E

Map references

Southeast Asia


total: 719 sq km

land: 709.2 sq km

water: 10 sq km

comparison ranking: total 190

Area - comparative

slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 0 km


193 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm

exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice


tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms


lowlying, gently undulating central plateau


highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m

lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m

Natural resources

fish, deepwater ports

Land use

agricultural land: 1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 3.3% (2018 est.)

other: 95.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2022)

Population distribution

most of the urbanization is along the southern coast, with relatively dense population clusters found in the central areas

Natural hazards

flash floods

Geography - note

focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes; consists of about 60 islands, by far the largest of which is Pulau Ujong; land reclamation has removed many former islands and created a number of new ones

People and Society


total: 6,028,459

male: 3,013,630

female: 3,014,829 (2024 est.)

comparison rankings: female 114; male 114; total 114


noun: Singaporean(s)

adjective: Singapore

Ethnic groups

Chinese 74.2%, Malay 13.7%, Indian 8.9%, other 3.2% (2021 est.)

note: data represent population by self-identification; the population is divided into four categories: Chinese, Malay (includes indigenous Malays and Indonesians), Indian (includes Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, or Sri Lankan), and other ethnic groups (includes Eurasians, Caucasians, Japanese, Filipino, Vietnamese)


English (official) 48.3%, Mandarin (official) 29.9%, other Chinese dialects (includes Hokkien, Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka) 8.7%, Malay (official) 9.2%, Tamil (official) 2.5%, other 1.4%; note - data represent language most frequently spoken at home (2020 est.)

major-language sample(s):
The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information. (English)

世界概況  –  不可缺少的基本消息來源 (Mandarin)

Mandarin audio sample:


Buddhist 31.1%, Christian 18.9%, Muslim 15.6%, Taoist 8.8%, Hindu 5%, other 0.6%, none 20% (2020 est.)

Demographic profile

Singapore has one of the lowest total fertility rates (TFR) in the world – an average of 1.15 children born per woman – and a rapidly aging population.  Women’s expanded educations, widened aspirations, and a desire to establish careers has contributed to delayed marriage and smaller families. Most married couples have only one or two children in order to invest more in each child, including the high costs of education.  In addition, more and more Singaporeans, particularly women, are staying single.  Factors contributing to this trend are a focus on careers, long working hours, the high cost of living, and long waits for public housing.    With fertility at such a low rate and rising life expectancy, the proportion of the population aged 65 or over is growing and the youth population is shrinking.  Singapore is projected to experience one of the largest percentage point increases in the elderly share of the population at 21% between 2019 and 2050, according to the UN.  The working-age population (aged 15-64) will gradually decrease, leaving fewer workers to economically support the elderly population.

Migration has played a key role in Singapore’s development.  As Singapore’s economy expanded during the 19th century, more and more Chinese, Indian, and Malay labor immigrants arrived.  Most of Singapore’s pre-World War II population growth was a result of immigration.  During World War II, immigration came to a halt when the Japanese occupied the island but revived in the postwar years.  Policy was restrictive during the 1950s and 1960s, aiming to protect jobs for residents by reducing the intake of low-skilled foreign workers and focusing instead on attracting professionals from abroad with specialist skills.  Consequently, the nonresident share of Singapore’s population plummeted to less than 3%. 

As the country industrialized, however, it loosened restrictions on the immigration of manual workers.  From the 1980s through the 2000s, the foreign population continued to grow as a result of policies aimed at attracting foreign workers of all skill levels.  More recently, the government has instituted immigration policies that target highly skilled workers. Skilled workers are encouraged to stay and are given the opportunity to become permanent residents or citizens.  The country, however, imposes restrictions on unskilled and low-skilled workers to ensure they do not establish roots, including prohibiting them from bringing their families and requiring employers to pay a monthly foreign worker levy and security bond.  The country has also become increasingly attractive to international students. The growth of the foreign-born population has continued to be rapid; as of 2015, the foreign-born composed 46% of the total population.  At the same time, growing numbers of Singaporeans are emigrating for education and work experience in highly skilled sectors such finance, information technology, and medicine.  Increasingly, the moves abroad are permanent.

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.6% (male 455,536/female 424,969)

15-64 years: 71.1% (male 2,157,441/female 2,126,799)

65 years and over: 14.3% (2024 est.) (male 400,653/female 463,061)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 35.4

youth dependency ratio: 16.2

elderly dependency ratio: 19.1

potential support ratio: 5.2 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 39.4 years (2024 est.)

male: 38 years

female: 40.6 years

comparison ranking: total 68

Population growth rate

0.87% (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 105

Birth rate

8.8 births/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 203

Death rate

4.3 deaths/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 209

Net migration rate

4.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 24

Population distribution

most of the urbanization is along the southern coast, with relatively dense population clusters found in the central areas


urban population: 100% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.74% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

6.081 million SINGAPORE (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2024 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

30.5 years (2015 est.)

note: data represents median age

Maternal mortality ratio

7 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 157

Infant mortality rate

total: 1.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2024 est.)

male: 1.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 1.4 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 226

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 86.7 years (2024 est.)

male: 84 years

female: 89.5 years

comparison ranking: total population 2

Total fertility rate

1.17 children born/woman (2024 est.)

comparison ranking: 225

Gross reproduction rate

0.57 (2024 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

6.1% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

2.46 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

2.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

6.1% (2016)

comparison ranking: 170

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 1.81 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 1.26 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 0.27 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 0.24 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0.04 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 132

Tobacco use

total: 16.5% (2020 est.)

male: 28% (2020 est.)

female: 5% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 99

Child marriage

women married by age 18: 0.1% (2022 est.)

Education expenditures

2.8% of GDP (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: 165


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.5%

male: 98.9%

female: 96.1% (2019)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years

male: 16 years

female: 17 years (2020)


Environment - current issues

water pollution; industrial pollution; limited natural freshwater resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; air pollution; deforestation; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms

Land use

agricultural land: 1% (2018 est.)

arable land: 0.9% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.1% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 3.3% (2018 est.)

other: 95.7% (2018 est.)


urban population: 100% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.74% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 190

Revenue from coal

0% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 131

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 13.33 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 37.54 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 4.4 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 7,704,300 tons (2017 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 4,699,623 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 61% (2015 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 300 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 340 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 30 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

600 million cubic meters (2020 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Singapore

conventional short form: Singapore

local long form: Republic of Singapore

local short form: Singapore

etymology: name derives from the Sanskrit words "simha" (lion) and "pura" (city) to describe the city-state's leonine symbol

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Singapore

geographic coordinates: 1 17 N, 103 51 E

time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: name derives from the Sanskrit words simha (lion) and pura (city), thus creating the city's epithet "lion city"

Administrative divisions

no first order administrative divisions; there are five community development councils: Central Singapore Development Council, North East Development Council, North West Development Council, South East Development Council, South West Development Council (2019)


9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)

National holiday

National Day, 9 August (1965)


history: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1965

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote in the second and third readings by the elected Parliament membership and assent of the president of the republic; passage of amendments affecting sovereignty or control of the Police Force or the Armed Forces requires at least two-thirds majority vote in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2020

Legal system

English common law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Singapore

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


21 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: President THARMAN Shanmugaratnam (since 14 September 2023)

head of government: Prime Minister Lawrence WONG (since 15 May 2024)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister; Cabinet responsible to Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 6-year term (no term limits); election last held on 1 September 2023 (next to be held in 2029); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition appointed prime minister by the president; deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: 2023: THARMAN Shanmugaratnam elected president; percent of vote - THARMAN Shanmugaratnam (independent) 70.4%, NG Kok Song (independent) 15.7%, TAN Kin Lian (independent) 13.9%

: HALIMAH Yacob declared president on 13 September 2017, being the only eligible candidate

2011: Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president; percent of vote - Tony TAN Keng Yam (independent) 35.2%, TAN Cheng Bock (independent) 34.9%, TAN Jee Say (independent) 25%, TAN Kin Lian (independent) 4.9%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (104 seats statutory, 103 current term; 93 members directly elected by simple majority popular vote, up to 9 nominated by a parliamentary selection committee and appointed by the president, and up to 12 non-constituency members from opposition parties to ensure political diversity; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of nominated members increased to 12 for the 2020 election for the first time

elections: last held on 10 July 2020 (next must be held by 24 November 2025)

election results:
percent of vote by party - PAP 89.2%, WP 10.6%, other 0.2%; seats by party - PAP 83, WP 10; composition - men 70, women 29, percentage women 29.3%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (although the number of judges varies - as of April 2019, the court totaled 20 judges, 7 judicial commissioners, 4 judges of appeal, and 16 international judges); the court is organized into an upper tier Appeal Court and a lower tier High Court

judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidates recommended by the prime minister after consultation with the chief justice; judges usually serve until retirement at age 65, but terms can be extended

subordinate courts: district, magistrates', juvenile, family, community, and coroners' courts; small claims tribunals; employment claims tribunals

Political parties and leaders

Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [Mohamad Hamim BIN ALIYA]
National Solidarity Party or NSP [Spencer NG]
People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]
People's Power Party or PPP [Goh Meng SENG]
People's Voice or PV [Lim TEAN]
Progress Singapore Party or PSP [Francis YUEN]
Red Dot United or RDU [Ravi PHILEMON]
Reform Party or RP [Kenneth JEYARETNAM]
Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [Desmond LIM]
Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [Dr. CHEE Soon Juan]
Singapore People's Party or SPP [Steve CHIA]
Singapore United Party or SUP [Andy ZHU]
Workers' Party or WP [Pritam SINGH]

note: the PAP has won every general election since the end of the British colonial era in 1959

International organization participation

ADB, AOSIS, APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador LUI Tuck Yew (since 30 June 2023)

chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100

FAX: [1] (202) 537-7086

email address and website:

consulate(s) general: San Francisco

consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jonathan KAPLAN (since December 2021)

embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508

mailing address: 4280 Singapore Place, Washington DC  20521-4280

telephone: [65] 6476-9100

FAX: [65] 6476-9340

email address and website:

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle; red denotes brotherhood and equality; white signifies purity and virtue; the waxing crescent moon symbolizes a young nation on the ascendancy; the five stars represent the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice, and equality

National symbol(s)

lion, merlion (mythical half lion-half fish creature), orchid; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "Majulah Singapura" (Onward Singapore)

lyrics/music: ZUBIR Said

note: adopted 1965; first performed in 1958 at the Victoria Theatre, the anthem is sung only in Malay

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Singapore Botanic Gardens


Economic overview

high-income, service-based Southeast Asian economy; renowned for financial markets and Asian Infrastructure Exchange; business-driven regulations; low unemployment; electronics, oil, and chemicals exporter; continuing education investment

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$609.002 billion (2022 est.)
$587.573 billion (2021 est.)
$539.641 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 38

Real GDP growth rate

3.65% (2022 est.)
8.88% (2021 est.)
-3.9% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 119

Real GDP per capita

$108,000 (2022 est.)
$107,700 (2021 est.)
$94,900 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 5

GDP (official exchange rate)

$466.788 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

6.12% (2022 est.)
2.3% (2021 est.)
-0.18% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 96

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: AAA (2003)

Moody's rating: Aaa (2002)

Standard & Poors rating: AAA (1995)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0% (2017 est.)

industry: 24.8% (2017 est.)

services: 75.2% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 46; industry 111; agriculture 224

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 35.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 10.9% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 24.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 2.8% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 173.3% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -149.1% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

chicken, eggs, pork, vegetables, duck, spinach, pork offal, pork fat, cabbages, lettuce (2022)

note: top ten agricultural products based on tonnage


electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, biomedical products, scientific instruments, telecommunication equipment, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, entrepot trade

Industrial production growth rate

2.9% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 118

Labor force

3.541 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 98

Unemployment rate

3.59% (2022 est.)
4.64% (2021 est.)
4.1% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 60

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 9.1% (2021 est.)

male: 7%

female: 11.8%

comparison ranking: total 164

Average household expenditures

on food: 8.4% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 2% of household expenditures (2021 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.6%

highest 10%: 27.5% (2017)


0% of GDP (2022 est.)
0% of GDP (2021 est.)
0% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities


revenues: $59.974 billion (2020 est.)

expenditures: $90.264 billion (2020 est.)

note: expenditures include both operational and development expenditures

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 52

Public debt

153.8% of GDP (2021 est.)
152.04% of GDP (2020 est.)
127.85% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 4

Taxes and other revenues

13.12% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 162

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Current account balance

$90.239 billion (2022 est.)
$76.374 billion (2021 est.)
$57.316 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 8


$870.806 billion (2022 est.)
$781.068 billion (2021 est.)
$634.034 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 8

Exports - partners

Hong Kong 14%, China 13%, Malaysia 9%, US 8%, Indonesia 6% (2022)

note: top five export partners based on percentage share of exports

Exports - commodities

integrated circuits, refined petroleum, machinery, gold, gas turbines (2022)

note: top five export commodities based on value in dollars


$701.629 billion (2022 est.)
$631.615 billion (2021 est.)
$525.324 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 12

Imports - partners

China 17%, Malaysia 13%, US 10%, Taiwan 9%, South Korea 5% (2022)

note: top five import partners based on percentage share of imports

Imports - commodities

integrated circuits, refined petroleum, crude petroleum, gold, machinery (2022)

note: top five import commodities based on value in dollars

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$296.629 billion (2022 est.)
$425.098 billion (2021 est.)
$369.834 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 12

Debt - external

$1,557,646,000,000 (2019 est.)
$1,528,177,000,000 (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 16

Exchange rates

Singapore dollars (SGD) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
1.379 (2022 est.)
1.343 (2021 est.)
1.38 (2020 est.)
1.364 (2019 est.)
1.349 (2018 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)


installed generating capacity: 12.24 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 50,742,380,000 kWh (2019 est.)

exports: 0 kWh (2019 est.)

imports: 0 kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 571 million kWh (2019 est.)

comparison rankings: imports 154; installed generating capacity 57; transmission/distribution losses 88; exports 142; consumption 49

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 96.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 1.2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 2.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)


production: 0 metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 423,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 1,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 424,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 metric tons (2019 est.)


total petroleum production: 0 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 1.448 million bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 13,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 1,121,200 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 0 barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

755,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 24

Refined petroleum products - exports

1.82 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 4

Refined petroleum products - imports

2.335 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

comparison ranking: 1

Natural gas

production: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

consumption: 13,396,282,000 cubic meters (2019 est.)

exports: 550.818 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 14,727,709,000 cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 0 cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

238.983 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 1.588 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 211.115 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 26.28 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 28

Energy consumption per capita

639.951 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 2


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 1,906,200 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 53

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 9,350,700 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 156 (2022 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 95

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: a wealthy city-state, Singapore has a highly developed ICT infrastructure; government supported near universal home broadband penetration and free public access to wireless network; the government's telecommunication regulator, Infocomm Media Development Authority (IMDA), issued awards in mid-2020 to telecom operators with the goal of having at least 50% of the city-state covered with a standalone 5G network by the end of 2022; government actively promoting Smart Nation initiative supporting digital innovation; government oversees service providers and controls Internet content; well served by submarine cable and satellite connections (2021)

domestic: fixed-line is 32 per 100 and mobile-cellular 146 per 100 teledensity (2021)

international: country code - 65; landing points for INDIGO-West, SeaMeWe -3,-4,-5, SIGMAR, SJC, i2icn, PGASCOM, BSCS, IGG, B3JS, SAEx2, APCN-2, APG, ASC, SEAX-1, ASE, EAC-C2C, Matrix Cable System and SJC2 submarine cables providing links throughout Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa, Australia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3, Bukit Timah, Seletar, and Sentosa; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2019 )

Broadcast media

state controls broadcast media; 6 domestic TV stations operated by MediaCorp which is wholly owned by a state investment company; broadcasts from Malaysian and Indonesian stations available; satellite dishes banned; multi-channel cable TV services available; a total of 19 domestic radio stations broadcasting, with MediaCorp operating 11, Singapore Press Holdings, also government-linked, another 5, 2 controlled by the Singapore Armed Forces Reservists Association and one owned by BBC Radio; Malaysian and Indonesian radio stations are available as is BBC; a number of Internet service radio stations are also available (2019)

Internet users

total: 5.369 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 91% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 88

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 1,509,700 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 26 (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 66


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 230

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 40,401,515 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,194,900,000 (2018) mt-km


9 (2024)

comparison ranking: 164


1 (2024)


3,220 km domestic gas (2014), 1,122 km cross-border pipelines (2017), 8 km refined products (2013) (2013)


total: 3,500 km

paved: 3,500 km (2017) (includes 164 km of expressways)

comparison ranking: total 160

Merchant marine

total: 3,202 (2023)

by type: bulk carrier 591, container ship 604, general cargo 107, oil tanker 600, other 1,300

comparison ranking: total 8


total ports: 5 (2024)

large: 2

medium: 1

small: 1

very small: 1

ports with oil terminals: 3

key ports: Jurong Island, Keppel - (East Singapore), Pulau Bukom, Pulau Sebarok

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Singapore Armed Forces (SAF; aka Singapore Defense Force): Singapore Army, Republic of Singapore Navy, Republic of Singapore Air Force (includes air defense), Digital and Intelligence Service

Ministry of Home Affairs: Singapore Police Force (SPF; includes Police Coast Guard and the Gurkha Contingent) (2024)

note 1: the Digital and Intelligence Service (DIS) was stood up as the fourth SAF service in October of 2022

note 2:
the Gurkha Contingent of the Singapore Police Force (GCSPF) is a paramilitary unit for riot control and acts as a rapid reaction force 

note 3: in 2009, Singapore established a multi-agency national Maritime Security Task Force (MSTF) to work with law enforcement and maritime agencies to guard Singapore’s waters, including conducting daily patrols, as well as boarding and escort operations in the Singapore Strait; the MSTF is subordinate to the Singapore Navy

Military expenditures

3% of GDP (2022 est.)
3% of GDP (2021 est.)
3% of GDP (2020)
2.9% of GDP (2019)
2.9% of GDP (2018)

comparison ranking: 30

Military and security service personnel strengths

information varies; approximately 60,000 active-duty troops (45,000 Army; 7,000 Navy; 8,000 Air Force) (2023)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the SAF has a diverse and largely modern mix of domestically produced and imported Western weapons systems; in recent years, France and the US have been the chief suppliers of arms; Singapore has the most developed arms industry in Southeast Asia and is also its largest importer of weapons (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-21 years of age for compulsory military service for men; 16.5 years of age for voluntary enlistment (with parental consent); 24-month conscript service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 40 (enlisted) or age 50 (officers); women are not conscripted, but they are allowed to volunteer for all services and branches, including combat arms (2023)

note 1: under the Enlistment Act, all male Singaporean citizens and permanent residents, unless exempted, are required to enter National Service (NS) upon attaining the age of 18; most NS conscripts serve in the Armed Forces, but some go into the Police Force or Civil Defense Force; conscripts comprise over half of the defense establishment

note 2: as of 2019, women made up about 8% of the active force

note 3: the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) also has a uniformed volunteer auxiliary branch known as the Volunteer Corps (SAFVC); the SAFVC allows citizens and residents not subject to the National Service obligation, including Singaporean women, first generation permanent residents, and naturalized citizens, to contribute towards Singapore's defense; the volunteers must be 18-45 and physically fit

note 4: members of the Gurkha Contingent (GC) of the Singapore Police Force are mostly recruited from a small number of hill tribes in Nepal; the GC was formed in 1949 originally from selected ex-British Army Gurkhas

Military deployments

maintains permanent training detachments of military personnel in Australia, France, and the US (2023)

Military - note

the SAF's roots go back to 1854 when the Singapore Volunteer Rifle Corps was formed under colonial rule; the first battalion of regular soldiers, the First Singapore Infantry Regiment, was organized in 1957; the modern SAF was established in 1965 and is today widely viewed as the best equipped military in Southeast Asia; the SAF’s primary responsibility is external defense, but it has trained for certain domestic security operations, including joint deterrence patrols with police in instances of heightened terrorism alerts; the Army is organized into three combined arms divisions and a “people’s defense force,” a divisional headquarters responsible for homeland security and counterterrorism; the Army is based largely on 2-year conscripts and reservists with a small cadre of professional soldiers, and Army units are comprised of a mix of active duty and cadre/reserve battalions that are filled out by reservists upon mobilization; the Air Force and Navy are primarily comprised of professionals; the Air Force has over 100 modern US-origin combat aircraft, plus squadrons for anti-submarine warfare, maritime patrol, early warning, surveillance, and logistical support, as well as unmanned aerial vehicles and attack helicopters; the Navy’s principal combat vessels are a mix of about 20 frigates, corvettes, and littoral combat ships (comparable to a corvette in capabilities), plus about a half dozen submarines; it has additional frigates on order

Singapore is a member of the Five Powers Defense Arrangements (FPDA), a series of mutual assistance agreements reached in 1971 embracing Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, and the UK; the FPDA commits the members to consult with one another in the event or threat of an armed attack on any of the members and to mutually decide what measures should be taken, jointly or separately; there is no specific obligation to intervene militarily (2023)


Space agency/agencies

no national government agency; Office for Space Technology and Industry (OSTin) was established in 2013 as a non-government space economic development program with the role of coordinating local space-related industry, universities, international businesses, and government agencies to encourage the development of space technologies in the private sector; the Center for Remote Sensing and Processing (CRISP) is under the National University of Singapore and established with funding from the Agency for Science, Technology, and Research of Singapore; CRISP’s mission is to develop an advanced capability in remote sensing (RS) to meet the scientific, operational, and business requirements of Singapore and the region (2023)

Space program overview

space program and capabilities are largely commercial with a focus on acquiring or developing and manufacturing small RS (including optical and microwave) satellites, other satellite-related capabilities, such as data processing, and rockets capable of placing small satellites in low Earth orbit; manufactures and operates satellites; has a considerable civil/commercial and university-based research and development program; has established relations with the space agencies and industries of China, the European Space Agency, India, Japan, and the US; has over 50 companies involved in space-related technology development and manufacturing (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 1,109 (2022)

Illicit drugs

drug abuse limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts, including carrying out death sentences; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering