Photos of Hungary

Introduction

Background

Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates

47 00 N, 20 00 E

Area

total: 93,028 sq km

land: 89,608 sq km

water: 3,420 sq km

comparison ranking: total 110

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Virginia; about the same size as Indiana

Area comparison map:
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 2,106 km

border countries (7): Austria 321 km; Croatia 348 km; Romania 424 km; Serbia 164 km; Slovakia 627 km; Slovenia 94 km; Ukraine 128 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain

mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border

Elevation

highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

lowest point: Tisza River 78 m

mean elevation: 143 m

Natural resources

bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 58.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 48.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 8.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 22.5% (2018 est.)

other: 18.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

1,010 sq km (2019)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lake Balaton - 590 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Duna (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Geography - note

landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions

People and Society

Population

9,670,009 (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 94

Nationality

noun: Hungarian(s)

adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups

Hungarian 84.3%, Romani 2.1%, German 1%, other 1.2%, unspecified 13.7% (2022 est.)

note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–10% of Hungary's population

Languages

Hungarian (official) 98.8%, English 25.3%, German 12.6%, Russian 2.1%, French 1.5%, Romanian 1.4%, other 5.1% (2022 est.)

major-language sample(s):
A World Factbook nélkülözhetetlen forrása az alapvető információnak.  (Hungarian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one spoken language

Hungarian audio sample:

Religions

Catholic 30.1% (Roman Catholic 27.5%, Greek Catholic 1.7%, other Catholic 0.9%), Calvinist 9.8%, Lutheran 1.8%, other Christian (includes Orthodox) 1.6%, other 0.4%, none 16.1%, no answer 40.1% (2022 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.24% (male 709,089/female 668,143)

15-64 years: 63.97% (male 3,091,384/female 3,094,515)

65 years and over: 21.79% (2023 est.) (male 812,063/female 1,294,815)

2023 population pyramid:
2023 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.8

youth dependency ratio: 22.4

elderly dependency ratio: 31.4

potential support ratio: 3.2 (2021 est.)

Median age

total: 44.5 years (2023 est.)

male: 42.6 years

female: 46.4 years

comparison ranking: total 27

Population growth rate

-0.33% (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 213

Birth rate

9.2 births/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 198

Death rate

15 deaths/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 4

Net migration rate

2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 47

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Urbanization

urban population: 72.9% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.05% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Major urban areas - population

1.778 million BUDAPEST (capital) (2023)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2023 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.4 years (2020 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

15 deaths/100,000 live births (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 137

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2023 est.)

male: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births

comparison ranking: total 180

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.3 years (2023 est.)

male: 72.1 years

female: 78.7 years

comparison ranking: total population 124

Total fertility rate

1.59 children born/woman (2023 est.)

comparison ranking: 188

Gross reproduction rate

0.78 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Current health expenditure

7.3% of GDP (2020)

Physicians density

6.06 physicians/1,000 population (2020)

Hospital bed density

7 beds/1,000 population (2018)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2020 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2016)

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

26.4% (2016)

comparison ranking: 42

Alcohol consumption per capita

total: 10.79 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

beer: 3.96 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

wine: 3.33 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

spirits: 3.5 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

other alcohols: 0 liters of pure alcohol (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total 16

Tobacco use

total: 31.8% (2020 est.)

male: 35.8% (2020 est.)

female: 27.8% (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: total 22

Education expenditures

4.8% of GDP (2020 est.)

comparison ranking: 84

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.1%

male: 99.1%

female: 99.1% (2021)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2020)

Environment

Environment - current issues

air and water pollution are some of Hungary's most serious environmental problems; water quality in the Hungarian part of the Danube has improved but is still plagued by pollutants from industry and large-scale agriculture; soil pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protection

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Land use

agricultural land: 58.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 48.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 8.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 22.5% (2018 est.)

other: 18.6% (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 72.9% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.05% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030

Revenue from forest resources

0.1% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 112

Revenue from coal

0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 49

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 14.24 micrograms per cubic meter (2019 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 45.54 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 7.25 megatons (2020 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 3.712 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 962,893 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 25.9% (2015 est.)

Major lakes (area sq km)

fresh water lake(s): Lake Balaton - 590 sq km

Major rivers (by length in km)

Duna (Danube) (shared with Germany [s], Austria, Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania [m]) - 2,888 km
note – [s] after country name indicates river source; [m] after country name indicates river mouth

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 660 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

industrial: 3.45 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

agricultural: 550 million cubic meters (2020 est.)

Total renewable water resources

104 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

Geoparks

total global geoparks and regional networks: 4 (2024)

global geoparks and regional networks: Bakony-Balaton; Bukk Region; Hungary; Novohrad-Nógrád (includes Slovakia) (2024)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Hungary

local long form: none

local short form: Magyarorszag

former: Kingdom of Hungary, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungarian Soviet Republic, Hungarian Republic

etymology: the Byzantine Greeks refered to the tribes that arrived on the steppes of Eastern Europe in the 9th century as the "Oungroi," a name that was later Latinized to "Ungri" and which became "Hungari"; the name originally meant an "[alliance of] ten tribes"; the Hungarian name "Magyarorszag" means "Country of the Magyars"; the term may derive from the most prominent of the Hungarian tribes, the Megyer

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Budapest

geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the Hungarian capital city was formed in 1873 from the merger of three cities on opposite banks of the Danube: Buda and Obuda (Old Buda) on the western shore and Pest on the eastern; the origins of the original names are obscure, but according to the second century A.D. geographer, Ptolemy, the settlement that would become Pest was called "Pession" in ancient times; "Buda" may derive from either a Slavic or Turkic personal name

Administrative divisions

19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 cities with county rights (megyei jogu varosok, singular - megyei jogu varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)

counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad-Csanad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala

cities with county rights: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg

capital city: Budapest

Independence

16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)

National holiday

Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August (1083); note - commemorates his canonization and the transfer of his remains to Buda (now Budapest) in 1083

Constitution

history: previous 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following the collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by parliamentary committee, or by Parliament members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament members and approval by the president; amended several times, last in 2018

Legal system

civil legal system influenced by the German model

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICC jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Hungary

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Suffrage

18 years of age, 16 if married and marriage is registered in Hungary; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Tamas SULYOK (since 5 March 2024)

head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in first round or simple majority vote in second round for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 February 2024 (next to be held in spring 2029); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held on 3 April 2022 (next to be held in April or May 2027)

election results:
2024: Tamas SULYOK elected president; National Assembly vote - 134 to 5

2022: Katalin NOVAK (Fidesz) elected president; National Assembly vote - 137 to 51

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote, using the D’Hondt method; members serve 4-year terms)

elections:
last held on 3 April 2022 (next to be held in April 2026)

election results:
percent of vote by party list - Fidesz-KDNP 54.1%, United for Hungary 34.5%, Mi Hazank 5.9%, other 5.5%; seats by party list - Fidesz-KDNP 135, United for Hungary 57, Mi Hazank 6, independent 1; composition as of February 2024 - men 170, women 29, percentage women 14.6%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Curia or Supreme Judicial Court (consists of the president, vice president, department heads, and has a maximum of 113 judges, and is organized into civil, criminal, and administrative-labor departments; Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges, including the court president and vice president)

judge selection and term of office: Curia president elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president of the republic; other Curia judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a separate 15-member administrative body; judge tenure based on interim evaluations until normal retirement at age 62; Constitutional Court judges, including the president of the court, elected by the National Assembly; court vice president elected by the court itself; members serve 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: 5 regional courts of appeal; 19 regional or county courts (including Budapest Metropolitan Court); 20 administrative-labor courts; 111 district or local courts

Political parties and leaders

Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]
Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
Dialogue for Hungary (Parbeszed) or PM [Bence TORDAI, Rebeka SZABO]
Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN]
Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Bertalan TOTH, Agnes KUNHALMI]
LMP-Hungary's Green Party [Peter UNGAR, Erzsebet SCHMUCK]
Mi Hazank (Our Homeland Movement) or MHM [Laszlo TOROCZKAI]
Momentum Movement (Momentum Mozgalom) [Ferenc GELENCSER]
Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Marton GYONGYOSI]
National Self-Government of Germans in Hungary or LdU [Ibolya HOCK-ENGLENDER]
United for Hungary (a coalition of Jobbik, MSZP, Dialogue, DK, LMP, and Momentum)

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNOOSA, UNWTO, UPU, Wassenaar Arrangement, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Szabolcs Ferenc TAKACS (since 23 December 2020)

chancery: 1500 Rhode Island Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20005

telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730

FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135

email address and website:
info.was@mfa.gov.hu

https://washington.mfa.gov.hu/eng

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador David PRESSMAN (since 14 September 2022)

embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest

mailing address: 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270

telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400

FAX: [36] (1) 475-4248

email address and website:
acs.budapest@state.gov

https://hu.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country

National symbol(s)

Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); national colors: red, white, green

National anthem

name: "Himnusz" (Hymn)

lyrics/music: Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL

note: adopted 1844

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 8 (7 cultural, 1 natural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter, and Andrássy Avenue (c); Old Village of Hollókő and its Surroundings (c); Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst (n); Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment (c); Hortobágy National Park - the Puszta (c); Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae) (c); Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (c); Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape (c)

Economy

Economic overview

high-income EU and OECD economy; decreasing government spending; increasing judicial independence concerns; flat income taxation; increasingly dependent on energy imports; strong tourism and automotive manufacturing

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$340.947 billion (2022 est.)
$326.095 billion (2021 est.)
$304.518 billion (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 54

Real GDP growth rate

4.55% (2022 est.)
7.09% (2021 est.)
-4.54% (2020 est.)

note: annual GDP % growth based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 92

Real GDP per capita

$35,400 (2022 est.)
$33,600 (2021 est.)
$31,200 (2020 est.)

note: data in 2017 dollars

comparison ranking: 61

GDP (official exchange rate)

$177.337 billion (2022 est.)

note: data in current dollars at official exchange rate

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

14.61% (2022 est.)
5.11% (2021 est.)
3.33% (2020 est.)

note: annual % change based on consumer prices

comparison ranking: 187

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB (2019)

Moody's rating: Baa3 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB (2019)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 31.3% (2017 est.)

services: 64.8% (2017 est.)

comparison rankings: services 96; industry 69; agriculture 141

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 49.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 90.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -82.4% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, milk, sunflower seed, barley, rapeseed, sugar beets, apples, pork, grapes

Industries

mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate

2.06% (2022 est.)

note: annual % change in industrial value added based on constant local currency

comparison ranking: 128

Labor force

4.984 million (2022 est.)

note: number of people ages 15 or older who are employed or seeking work

comparison ranking: 87

Unemployment rate

3.61% (2022 est.)
4.05% (2021 est.)
4.25% (2020 est.)

note: % of labor force seeking employment

comparison ranking: 61

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 13.5% (2021 est.)

male: 11.5%

female: 16.2%

comparison ranking: total 130

Population below poverty line

12.1% (2021 est.)

note: % of population with income below national poverty line

Gini Index coefficient - distribution of family income

29.7 (2020 est.)

note: index (0-100) of income distribution; higher values represent greater inequality

comparison ranking: 145

Average household expenditures

on food: 18.2% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

on alcohol and tobacco: 7.3% of household expenditures (2018 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.1%

highest 10%: 23.3% (2020 est.)

note: % share of income accruing to lowest and highest 10% of population

Remittances

2.02% of GDP (2022 est.)
2.09% of GDP (2021 est.)
2.51% of GDP (2020 est.)

note: personal transfers and compensation between resident and non-resident individuals/households/entities

Budget

revenues: $70.83 billion (2019 est.)

expenditures: $74.127 billion (2019 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 103

Public debt

87% of GDP (2021 est.)
96% of GDP (2020 est.)
83.37% of GDP (2019 est.)

note: central government debt as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 31

Taxes and other revenues

21.49% (of GDP) (2021 est.)

note: central government tax revenue as a % of GDP

comparison ranking: 72

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$14.24 billion (2022 est.)
-$7.29 billion (2021 est.)
-$1.582 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - net trade and primary/secondary income in current dollars

comparison ranking: 189

Exports

$161.761 billion (2022 est.)
$145.539 billion (2021 est.)
$124.111 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - exports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 38

Exports - partners

Germany 27%, Romania 5%, Italy 5%, Slovakia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, electric batteries, video displays, packaged medicines, spark-ignition engines, broadcasting equipment (2021)

Imports

$169.199 billion (2022 est.)
$145.058 billion (2021 est.)
$121.016 billion (2020 est.)

note: balance of payments - imports of goods and services in current dollars

comparison ranking: 35

Imports - partners

Germany 25%, China 6%, Poland 6%, Austria 6%, Czechia 5%, Slovakia 5%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, integrated circuits, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment, crude petroleum (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$41.219 billion (2022 est.)
$43.483 billion (2021 est.)
$41.349 billion (2020 est.)

note: holdings of gold (year-end prices)/foreign exchange/special drawing rights in current dollars

comparison ranking: 51

Debt - external

$123.256 billion (2019 est.)
$125.29 billion (2018 est.)

comparison ranking: 49

Exchange rates

forints (HUF) per US dollar -

Exchange rates:
372.596 (2022 est.)
303.141 (2021 est.)
307.997 (2020 est.)
290.66 (2019 est.)
270.212 (2018 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2021)

Electricity

installed generating capacity: 10.873 million kW (2020 est.)

consumption: 41.533 billion kWh (2020 est.)

exports: 7.498 billion kWh (2020 est.)

imports: 19.176 billion kWh (2020 est.)

transmission/distribution losses: 3.139 billion kWh (2020 est.)

comparison rankings: transmission/distribution losses 148; imports 13; exports 24; consumption 57; installed generating capacity 62

Electricity generation sources

fossil fuels: 36.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

nuclear: 46% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

solar: 7.4% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

wind: 2% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

hydroelectricity: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

tide and wave: 0.5% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

geothermal: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

biomass and waste: 7.3% of total installed capacity (2020 est.)

Nuclear energy

Number of operational nuclear reactors: 4 (2023)

Number of nuclear reactors under construction: 0

Net capacity of operational nuclear reactors: 1.92GW (2023)

Percent of total electricity production: 46.8% (2021)

Percent of total energy produced: 44% (2021)

Number of nuclear reactors permanently shut down: 0

Coal

production: 6.956 million metric tons (2020 est.)

consumption: 8.079 million metric tons (2020 est.)

exports: 230,000 metric tons (2020 est.)

imports: 1.395 million metric tons (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 2.909 billion metric tons (2019 est.)

Petroleum

total petroleum production: 35,200 bbl/day (2021 est.)

refined petroleum consumption: 180,600 bbl/day (2019 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate exports: 8,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil and lease condensate imports: 134,800 bbl/day (2018 est.)

crude oil estimated reserves: 12.1 million barrels (2021 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production

152,400 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 59

Refined petroleum products - exports

58,720 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 50

Refined petroleum products - imports

82,110 bbl/day (2017 est.)

comparison ranking: 62

Natural gas

production: 1.685 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

consumption: 10.545 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

exports: 3.758 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

imports: 11.678 billion cubic meters (2020 est.)

proven reserves: 3.738 billion cubic meters (2021 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions

48.589 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from coal and metallurgical coke: 7.501 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from petroleum and other liquids: 21.568 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

from consumed natural gas: 19.52 million metric tonnes of CO2 (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: total emissions 58

Energy consumption per capita

108.212 million Btu/person (2019 est.)

comparison ranking: 50

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 2,845,376 (2022 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 30 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 41

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 10,248,653 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total subscriptions 92

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Hungary benefits from having a developed telecom infrastructure, with a focus among operators to develop the 5G sector and upgrade fixed networks to provide a 1Gb/s service; services based on 5G have been supported by the January 2021 multi-spectrum auction for spectrum in the 900MHz and 1800MHz bands; the number of fixed-lines continues to fall as subscribers migrate to the mobile platform for voice and data services; operators have looked to bundled packages to boost revenue and retain subscribers; the broadband market has effective infrastructure-based competition, with an extensive cable network competing against DSL services and a vibrant and rapidly expanding fiber sector; the regulator has also introduced a number of measures aimed at promoting market competition, which is pushing the drive for higher speed platforms and encouraging operators to invest in technology upgrades; as a result, Hungary now has the highest fixed broadband penetration rate in Eastern Europe; the number of super fast broadband connections (above 30Mb/s) accounted for 78% of all fixed broadband connections (2022)

domestic: fixed-line connections, with 30 fixed per 100 persons and 106 mobile-cellular subscriptions per 100 (2021)

international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 (very small aperture terminal) VSAT system of ground terminals

Broadcast media

mixed system of state-supported public service broadcast media and private broadcasters; the 5 publicly owned TV channels and the 2 main privately owned TV stations are the major national broadcasters; a large number of special interest channels; highly developed market for satellite and cable TV services with about two-thirds of viewers utilizing their services; 4 state-supported public-service radio networks; a large number of local stations including commercial, public service, nonprofit, and community radio stations; digital transition completed at the end of 2013; government-linked businesses have greatly consolidated ownership in broadcast and print media (2019)

Internet users

total: 8.633 million (2021 est.)

percent of population: 89% (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 67

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3,382,136 (2021 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34.83 (2021 est.)

comparison ranking: total 42

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 5 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 145

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 31,226,848 (2018)

Airports

109 (2024)

comparison ranking: 49

Heliports

14 (2024)

Pipelines

5,874 km gas (high-pressure transmission system), 83,732 km gas (low-pressure distribution network), 850 km oil, 1,200 km refined products (2018)

Railways

total: 7,687 km (2020) 3,111 km electrified

comparison ranking: total 28

Roadways

total: 216,443 km (2022)

comparison ranking: total 23

Waterways

1,622 km (2011) (most on Danube River)

comparison ranking: 49

Merchant marine

total: 1 (2023)

by type: other 1

comparison ranking: total 187

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Baja, Csepel (Budapest), Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Mohacs (Danube)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Hungarian Defense Forces (HDF or Magyar Honvédség): the HDF is organized as a joint force under a general staff with commands for land, air, cyber, special operations, territorial defense, and support forces (2023)

note: the National Police are under the Ministry of Interior and responsible for maintaining order nationwide; the Ministry of Interior also has the Counterterrorism Center, a special police force responsible for protecting the president and the prime minister and for preventing, uncovering, and detecting terrorist acts

Military expenditures

2.1% of GDP (2023 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2022)
1.7% of GDP (2021)
1.8% of GDP (2020)
1.4% of GDP (2019)

comparison ranking: 52

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 25,000 active-duty troops (20,000 Army; 5,000 Air Force) (2023)

note: in 2017, Hungary announced plans to increase the number of active soldiers to around 37,000 but did not give a timeline

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the military's inventory consists largely of Soviet-era weapons, with a smaller but growing mix of more modern European and US equipment; in recent years, Germany has been the top supplier of military hardware to Hungary (2023)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (abolished 2005); 6-month service obligation (2023)

note: as of 2021, women comprised over 20% of Hungary's full-time military personnel

Military deployments

150 Bosnia-Herzegovina (EUFOR stabilization force); 150 Iraq (NATO); 410 Kosovo (NATO/KFOR); note - Hungary has small numbers of troops on several UN missions (2024)

Military - note

the Hungarian Defense Forces (HDF) are responsible for ensuring the defense of the country’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, and citizens, and fulfilling Hungary’s commitments to the EU and NATO, as well as contributing to other international peacekeeping efforts under the UN; the HDF is also responsible for some aspects of domestic security, crisis management, and disaster response, and since 2015, under a declared state of emergency prompted by mass migration, it may assist law enforcement forces in border protection and handling mass migration situations; Hungary’s most recent national security strategy addressed migration as an important security concern, alongside other issues, such as great power competition and cyber security; modernizing the HDF by replacing Soviet-era equipment with Western systems and building up Hungary’s defense industrial capacity has been a priority over the past decade

Hungary has been a member of NATO since 1999 and considers the collective defense ensured within the Alliance as a cornerstone of the country’s security; NATO membership is complemented by Hungary’s ties to the EU under the EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy; the HDF has participated in multiple NATO-led security missions, including in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Kosovo, as well as EU-led missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Mali; it hosts a NATO battlegroup comprised of troops from Croatia, Hungary, Italy, and the US, and NATO’s Multinational Division Center, a headquarters capable of commanding a division-sized force (typically 15-20,000 troops) in a crisis; both organizations were established as a result of Russian aggression against Ukraine; Hungary also hosts NATO’s Center of Excellence for Military Medicine; Hungary is a member of the Visegrad Group, a regional platform that brings together Czechia, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia to discuss cultural, defense, and political cooperation

the HDF is organized as a joint force under a general staff with commands for land, air, cyber, special operations, territorial defense, and support forces; the combat units of the HDF’s Land Command have recently been reorganized and currently consists of three combined arms brigades, plus a reconnaissance regiment; one of the brigades has a joint Hungarian-Romanian peacekeeping battalion; the Special Operations Command includes a special purpose brigade; the Air Command’s combat forces are a squadron of Swedish-made fighter aircraft, an attack helicopter battalion, and an air defense missile regiment; the Territorial Defense Forces Command has volunteer operational reservists to backfill regular units on occasion and non-deployable volunteer territorial reservists that are organized into local defense units (typically battalions) spread throughout the country (2023)

Space

Space agency/agencies

Hungarian Space Office (HSO; established 1992) (2023)

Space program overview

has a history of involvement in space activities going back to the Soviet era; growing a modern space program focused on acquiring satellites and contributing to the European Space Agency (ESA); has a national space strategy; builds and operates satellites; researches and develops space technologies, including communications, navigation, and subsystems for satellites; has an astronaut corps; in addition to being an ESA member and cooperating with individual ESA and EU member states, particularly France, has relations with a variety of other foreign space agencies and industries, including those of Brazil, Israel, Russia, Singapore, Turkey, the UAE, and the US; national space strategy included the goals of fostering innovation and increasing Hungary’s competitiveness in the commercial space sector (2023)

note: further details about the key activities, programs, and milestones of the country’s space program, as well as government spending estimates on the space sector, appear in Appendix S

Terrorism

Terrorist group(s)

Terrorist group(s): Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 66,135 (Ukraine) (as of 17 March 2024)

stateless persons: 130 (2022)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking are improving but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy