Photos of Hungary

The Liberty Statue or Freedom Statue on Gellert Hill in Budapest commemorates those "who sacrificed their lives for the independence, freedom, and prosperity of Hungary." Originally erected in 1947 in remembrance of what was then referred to as the Soviet liberation of Hungary in World War II, the monument was rededicated in 1989 following the transition from communist rule to democracy.

Introduction

Background

Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU five years later.

Visit the Definitions and Notes page to view a description of each topic.

Geography

Location

Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates

47 00 N, 20 00 E

Area

total: 93,028 sq km

land: 89,608 sq km

water: 3,420 sq km

country comparison to the world: 110

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Virginia; about the same size as Indiana

<p>slightly smaller than Virginia; about the same size as Indiana</p>

Land boundaries

total: 2,106 km

border countries (7): Austria 321 km, Croatia 348 km, Romania 424 km, Serbia 164 km, Slovakia 627 km, Slovenia 94 km, Ukraine 128 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain

mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border

Elevation

highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

lowest point: Tisza River 78 m

mean elevation: 143 m

Natural resources

bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 58.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 48.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 8.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 22.5% (2018 est.)

other: 18.6% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

1,721 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Geography - note

landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

People and Society

Nationality

noun: Hungarian(s)

adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups

Hungarian 85.6%, Romani 3.2%, German 1.9%, other 2.6%, unspecified 14.1% (2011 est.)

note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group; Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–10% of Hungary's population

Languages

Hungarian (official) 99.6%, English 16%, German 11.2%, Russian 1.6%, Romanian 1.3%, French 1.2%, other 4.2%; note - shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census; Hungarian is the mother tongue of 98.9% of Hungarian speakers (2011 est.)

major-language sample(s):
A World Factbook nélkülözhetetlen forrása az alapvető információnak.  (Hungarian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Hungarian audio sample:

Religions

Roman Catholic 37.2%, Calvinist 11.6%, Lutheran 2.2%, Greek Catholic 1.8%, other 1.9%, none 18.2%, no response 27.2% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.54% (male 731,542/female 689,739)

15-24 years: 10.43% (male 526,933/female 492,388)

25-54 years: 42.17% (male 2,075,763/female 2,044,664)

55-64 years: 12.17% (male 552,876/female 636,107)

65 years and over: 20.69% (male 773,157/female 1,248,658) (2020 est.)

This is the population pyramid for Hungary. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. <br/><br/>For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 46.9

youth dependency ratio: 22

elderly dependency ratio: 30.8

potential support ratio: 3.2 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 43.6 years

male: 41.5 years

female: 45.5 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 24

Birth rate

8.72 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 209

Death rate

12.88 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 9

Net migration rate

1.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations

Urbanization

urban population: 72.2% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.05% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

1.772 million BUDAPEST (capital) (2021)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female

total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.3 years (2019 est.)

Maternal mortality ratio

12 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 139

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.69 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 5.02 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 180

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.95 years

male: 73.27 years

female: 80.83 years (2021 est.)

country comparison to the world: 91

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

Physicians density

3.41 physicians/1,000 population (2018)

Hospital bed density

7 beds/1,000 population (2017)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0% of population (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<100 (2018 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2016)

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2016)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.1%

male: 99.1%

female: 99% (2015)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 15 years (2018)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 11.4%

male: 11.9%

female: 10.6% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 114

Environment

Environment - current issues

air and water pollution are some of Hungary's most serious environmental problems; water quality in the Hungarian part of the Danube has improved but is still plagued by pollutants from industry and large-scale agriculture; soil pollution

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Heavy Metals, Air Pollution-Multi-effect Protocol, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping-London Convention, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 2006, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protection

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 15.62 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 45.54 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 7.25 megatons (2020 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 624.5 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 3.358 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 518.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

104 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Land use

agricultural land: 58.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 48.5% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 2% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 8.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 22.5% (2018 est.)

other: 18.6% (2018 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0.01% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50

Urbanization

urban population: 72.2% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.05% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate (2016)

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2016)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 3.712 million tons (2015 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 962,893 tons (2015 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 25.9% (2015 est.)

Major watersheds (area sq km)

Atlantic Ocean drainage: (Black Sea) Danube (795,656 sq km)

Government

Country name

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Hungary

local long form: none

local short form: Magyarorszag

former: Kingdom of Hungary, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungarian Soviet Republic, Hungarian Republic

etymology: the Byzantine Greeks refered to the tribes that arrived on the steppes of Eastern Europe in the 9th century as the "Oungroi," a name that was later Latinized to "Ungri" and which became "Hungari"; the name originally meant an "[alliance of] ten tribes"; the Hungarian name "Magyarorszag" means "Country of the Magyars"; the term may derive from the most prominent of the Hungarian tribes, the Megyer

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Budapest

geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: the Hungarian capital city was formed in 1873 from the merger of three cities on opposite banks of the Danube: Buda and Obuda (Old Buda) on the western shore and Pest on the eastern; the origins of the original names are obscure, but according to the second century A.D. geographer, Ptolemy, the settlement that would become Pest was called "Pession" in ancient times; "Buda" may derive from either a Slavic or Turkic personal name

Administrative divisions

19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 23 cities with county rights (megyei jogu varosok, singular - megyei jogu varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)

counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad-Csanad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala

cities with county rights: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Erd, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg

capital city: Budapest

Independence

16 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 25 December 1000 (crowning of King STEPHEN I, traditional founding date); 30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established)

National holiday

Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August (1083); note - commemorates his canonization and the transfer of his remains to Buda (now Budapest) in 1083

Constitution

history: previous 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following the collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012

amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the government, by parliamentary committee, or by Parliament members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament members and approval by the president; amended several times, last in 2018

Legal system

civil legal system influenced by the German model

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICC jurisdiction

Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Hungary

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years

Suffrage

18 years of age, 16 if married and marriage is registered in Hungary; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Janos ADER (since 10 May 2012) 

head of government: Prime Minister Viktor ORBAN (since 29 May 2010) 

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in first round or simple majority vote in second round for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 March 2017 (next to be held spring 2022); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held on 10 May 2018 (next to be held by spring 2022)

election results: Janos ADER (Fidesz) reelected president; National Assembly vote - 131 to 39; Viktor ORBAN (Fidesz) reelected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 134 to 28

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (199 seats; 106 members directly elected in single-member constituencies by simple majority vote and 93 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 8 April 2018 (next to be held in April 2022)

election results: percent of vote by party list - Fidesz-KDNP 49.3%, Jobbik 19.1%, MSZP-PM 11.9%, LMP 7.1%, DK 5.4%, Momentum Movement 3.1%, Together 0.7%, LdU 0.5%, other 2.9%; seats by party - Fidesz 117, Jobbik 26, KDNP 16, MSZP 15,  DK 9, LMP 8, PM 5, Together 1, LdU 1, independent 1; composition - men 174, women 25, percent of women 12.6%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Curia or Supreme Judicial Court (consists of the president, vice president, department heads, and approximately 91 judges and is organized into civil, criminal, and administrative-labor departments; Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges, including the court president and vice president)

judge selection and term of office: Curia president elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president of the republic; other Curia judges appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a separate 15-member administrative body; judge tenure based on interim evaluations until normal retirement at age 62; Constitutional Court judges, including the president of the court, elected by the National Assembly; court vice president elected by the court itself; members serve 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: 5 regional courts of appeal; 19 regional or county courts (including Budapest Metropolitan Court); 20 administrative-labor courts; 111 district or local courts

Political parties and leaders

Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]
Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY]
Dialogue for Hungary (Parbeszed) or PM [Gergely KARACSONY, Timea SZABO]
Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN]
Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Bertalan TOTH]
Momentum Movement (Momentum Mozgalom) [Andras FEKETE-GYOR]
Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Tamas SNEIDER]
National Self-Government of Germans in Hungary or LdU [Olivia SCHUBERT]
Politics Can Be Different or LMP [Marta DEMETER, Laszlo LORANT-KERESZTES]
Together (Egyutt)

International organization participation

Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Szabolcs Ferenc TAKACS (since 23 December 2020)

chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730

FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135

email address and website:
info@mfa.gov.hu

https://washington.mfa.gov.hu/eng

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Marc DILLARD (since 30 October 2020)

embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest

mailing address: 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270

telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400

FAX: [36] (1) 475-4248

email address and website:
acs.budapest@state.gov

https://hu.usembassy.gov/

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope; alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country

National symbol(s)

Holy Crown of Hungary (Crown of Saint Stephen); national colors: red, white, green

National anthem

name: "Himnusz" (Hymn)

lyrics/music: Ferenc KOLCSEY/Ferenc ERKEL

note: adopted 1844

Economy

Economic overview

Hungary has transitioned from a centrally planned to a market-driven economy with a per capita income approximately two thirds of the EU-28 average; however, in recent years the government has become more involved in managing the economy. Budapest has implemented unorthodox economic policies to boost household consumption and has relied on EU-funded development projects to generate growth.

 

Following the fall of communism in 1990, Hungary experienced a drop-off in exports and financial assistance from the former Soviet Union. Hungary embarked on a series of economic reforms, including privatization of state-owned enterprises and reduction of social spending programs, to shift from a centrally planned to a market-driven economy, and to reorient its economy towards trade with the West. These efforts helped to spur growth, attract investment, and reduce Hungary’s debt burden and fiscal deficits. Despite these reforms, living conditions for the average Hungarian initially deteriorated as inflation increased and unemployment reached double digits. Conditions slowly improved over the 1990s as the reforms came to fruition and export growth accelerated. Economic policies instituted during that decade helped position Hungary to join the European Union in 2004. Hungary has not yet joined the euro-zone. Hungary suffered a historic economic contraction as a result of the global economic slowdown in 2008-09 as export demand and domestic consumption dropped, prompting it to take an IMF-EU financial assistance package.

 

Since 2010, the government has backpedaled on many economic reforms and taken a more populist approach towards economic management. The government has favored national industries and government-linked businesses through legislation, regulation, and public procurements. In 2011 and 2014, Hungary nationalized private pension funds, which squeezed financial service providers out of the system, but also helped Hungary curb its public debt and lower its budget deficit to below 3% of GDP, as subsequent pension contributions have been channeled into the state-managed pension fund. Hungary’s public debt (at 74.5% of GDP) is still high compared to EU peers in Central Europe. Real GDP growth has been robust in the past few years due to increased EU funding, higher EU demand for Hungarian exports, and a rebound in domestic household consumption. To further boost household consumption ahead of the 2018 election, the government embarked on a six-year phased increase to minimum wages and public sector salaries, decreased taxes on foodstuffs and services, cut the personal income tax from 16% to 15%, and implemented a uniform 9% business tax for small and medium-sized enterprises and large companies. Real GDP growth slowed in 2016 due to a cyclical decrease in EU funding, but increased to 3.8% in 2017 as the government pre-financed EU funded projects ahead of the 2018 election.

 

Systemic economic challenges include pervasive corruption, labor shortages driven by demographic declines and migration, widespread poverty in rural areas, vulnerabilities to changes in demand for exports, and a heavy reliance on Russian energy imports.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$321.869 billion (2019 est.)

$307.778 billion (2018 est.)

$291.995 billion (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 54

Real GDP growth rate

4.58% (2019 est.)

5.44% (2018 est.)

4.45% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 60

Real GDP per capita

$32,945 (2019 est.)

$31,485 (2018 est.)

$29,832 (2017 est.)

note: data are in 2010 dollars

country comparison to the world: 63

GDP (official exchange rate)

$163.251 billion (2019 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

3.3% (2019 est.)

2.8% (2018 est.)

2.3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BBB (2019)

Moody's rating: Baa3 (2016)

Standard & Poors rating: BBB (2019)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.9% (2017 est.)

industry: 31.3% (2017 est.)

services: 64.8% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 49.6% (2017 est.)

government consumption: 20% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 21.6% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 1% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 90.2% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -82.4% (2017 est.)

Agricultural products

maize, wheat, milk, sunflower seed, barley, rapeseed, sugar beet, apples, pork, grapes

Industries

mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 4.9%

industry: 30.3%

services: 64.5% (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 22.4% (2015)

Budget

revenues: 61.98 billion (2017 est.)

expenditures: 64.7 billion (2017 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

note: Hungary has been under the EU Excessive Deficit Procedure since it joined the EU in 2004; in March 2012, the EU elevated its Excessive Deficit Procedure against Hungary and proposed freezing 30% of the country's Cohesion Funds because 2011 deficit reductions were not achieved in a sustainable manner; in June 2012, the EU lifted the freeze, recognizing that steps had been taken to reduce the deficit; the Hungarian deficit increased above 3% both in 2013 and in 2014 due to sluggish growth and the government's fiscal tightening

country comparison to the world: 104

Public debt

73.6% of GDP (2017 est.)

76% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and national, state, and local government and social security funds.

country comparison to the world: 43

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$392 million (2019 est.)

$510 million (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 115

Exports

$167.99 billion (2019 est.)

$158.802 billion (2018 est.)

$151.185 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 36

Exports - partners

Germany 27%, Romania 5%, Italy 5%, Slovakia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, packaged medicines, spark-ignition engines, video displays, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Imports

$159.63 billion (2019 est.)

$148.471 billion (2018 est.)

$138.773 billion (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 36

Imports - partners

Germany 25%, China 6%, Poland 6%, Austria 6%, Czechia 5%, Slovakia 5%, Italy 5%, Netherlands 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars and vehicle parts, integrated circuits, packaged medicines, broadcasting equipment, crude petroleum (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$28 billion (31 December 2017 est.)

$25.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 52

Debt - external

$123.256 billion (2019 est.)

$125.29 billion (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 49

Exchange rates

forints (HUF) per US dollar -

295.3276 (2020 est.)

299.4939 (2019 est.)

283.5923 (2018 est.)

279.33 (2014 est.)

232.6 (2013 est.)

Energy

Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)

Communications

Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 3,048,754

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31.16 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 45

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 10,272,694

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 86

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: Hungary benefits from a well-developed telecom infrastructure, with adoption of 5G and upgrade of fixed networks to 1Gb/s service; fixed-line subscribership fell as subscribers migrated to mobile for voice and data; effective infrastructure-based competition, with an extensive cable network competing against DSL and expanding fiber sector; high mobile penetration and highest fixed broadband penetration rate in Eastern Europe; government supports private partnership in smart agriculture applications; as part of EU, fully liberalized and open to investment; broadcasting equipment is one of the country’s top five imports, plus mobile phones, from China (2021) (2020)

domestic: competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile-cellular phones, and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections, 31 per 100 persons, while mobile-cellular is 106 per 100 (2019)

international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 (very small aperture terminal) VSAT system of ground terminals

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

mixed system of state-supported public service broadcast media and private broadcasters; the 5 publicly owned TV channels and the 2 main privately owned TV stations are the major national broadcasters; a large number of special interest channels; highly developed market for satellite and cable TV services with about two-thirds of viewers utilizing their services; 4 state-supported public-service radio networks; a large number of local stations including commercial, public service, nonprofit, and community radio stations; digital transition completed at the end of 2013; government-linked businesses have greatly consolidated ownership in broadcast and print media

Internet users

total: 7,474,413

percent of population: 76.07% (July 2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 68

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 3,189,689

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32.6 (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Transportation

National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 5 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 145

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 31,226,848 (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 20

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 1 (2017)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 8

under 914 m: 11 (2013)

Heliports

3 (2013)

Pipelines

5874 km gas (high-pressure transmission system), 83732 km gas (low-pressure distribution network), 850 km oil, 1200 km refined products (2016)

Railways

total: 8,049 km (2014)

standard gauge: 7,794 km 1.435-m gauge (2,889 km electrified) (2014)

narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)

broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge (2014)

country comparison to the world: 28

Roadways

total: 203,601 km (2014)

paved: 77,087 km (includes 1,582 km of expressways) (2014)

unpaved: 126,514 km (2014)

country comparison to the world: 27

Waterways

1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2011)

country comparison to the world: 47

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Baja, Csepel (Budapest), Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Mohacs (Danube)

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Hungarian Defense Forces: Land Forces (Army); Air Forces (note - both the air and land components are subordinate to a Joint Forces Combat Command); Logistics Center; Preparation and Training Command (2020)

note: the Hungarian Defense Forces are organized into a joint force structure with ground, air, and logistic components

Military expenditures

1.85% of GDP (2020 est.)

1.25% of GDP (2019)

1.01% of GDP (2018)

1.19% of GDP (2017)

1% of GDP (2016)

country comparison to the world: 64

Military and security service personnel strengths

the Hungarian Defense Forces have approximately 23,000 active duty troops (18,000 Army; 5,000 Air Force) (2021)

note - in 2017, Hungary announced plans to increase the number of active soldiers to around 37,000, but did not give a timeline

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

the inventory of the Hungarian Defense Forces consists largely of Soviet-era weapons, with a smaller mix of more modern European and US equipment; since 2010, Hungary has received limited quantities of equipment from several European countries and the US (2020)

Military deployments

160 Bosnia-Herzegovina (EUFOR stabilization force); 150 Iraq (counter-ISIS coalition); 430 Kosovo (NATO/KFOR) (2021)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (abolished 2005); 6-month service obligation (2019)

Military - note

Hungary joined NATO in 1999; Czechia, Hungary, and Poland were invited to begin accession talks at NATO's Madrid Summit in 1997 and in March 1999 they became the first former members of the Warsaw Pact to join the Alliance

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungary's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary has implemented the strict Schengen border rules

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 5,950 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)

stateless persons: 145 (2020)

note: 432,744 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-December 2018); Hungary is predominantly a transit country and hosts 137 migrants and asylum seekers as of the end of June 2018; 1,626 migrant arrivals in 2017

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; efforts to counter money laundering, related to organized crime and drug trafficking are improving but remain vulnerable; significant consumer of ecstasy