A view over the Indian Ocean as seen from the space shuttle. The bottom portion of the photo shows the complete chain of the atolls that form the Maldive Islands. Off to the left are the southern portion of India, the Palk Strait, and the island of Sri Lanka. Image courtesy of NASA.
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A sultanate since the 12th century, the Maldives became a British protectorate in 1887. The islands became a republic in 1968, three years after independence. President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM dominated Maldives' political scene for 30 years, elected to six successive terms by single-party referendums. Following political demonstrations in the capital Male in August 2003, GAYOOM and his government pledged to embark upon a process of liberalization and democratic reforms, including a more representative political system and expanded political freedoms. Political parties were legalized in 2005.

In June 2008, a constituent assembly - termed the "Special Majlis" - finalized a new constitution ratified by GAYOOM in August 2008. The first-ever presidential elections under a multi-candidate, multi-party system were held in October 2008. GAYOOM was defeated in a runoff poll by Mohamed NASHEED, a political activist who had been jailed several years earlier by the GAYOOM regime. In early February 2012, after several weeks of street protests in response to his ordering the arrest of a top judge, NASHEED purportedly resigned the presidency and handed over power to Vice President Mohammed WAHEED Hassan Maniku. A government-appointed Commission of National Inquiry concluded there was no evidence of a coup, but NASHEED contends that police and military personnel forced him to resign. NASHEED, WAHEED, and Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom ran in the 2013 elections with YAMEEN ultimately winning the presidency after three rounds of voting. As president, YAMEEN weakened democratic institutions, curtailed civil liberties, jailed his political opponents, restricted the press, and exerted control over the judiciary to strengthen his hold on power and limit dissent. In September 2018, YAMEEN lost his reelection bid to Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH, a parliamentarian of the Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP), who had the support of a coalition of four parties that came together to defeat YAMEEN and restore democratic norms to Maldives. In April 2019, SOLIH's MDP won 65 of 87 seats in parliament.

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Southern Asia, group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India

Geographic coordinates

3 15 N, 73 00 E


total: 298 sq km

land: 298 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 214

Area - comparative

about 1.7 times the size of Washington, DC

<p>about 1.7 times the size of Washington, DC</p>

Land boundaries

total: 0 km


644 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines


tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)


flat, with white sandy beaches


highest point: 8th tee, golf course, Villingi Island 5 m

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

mean elevation: 2 m

Land use

agricultural land: 23.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 10% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 3.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 3% (2018 est.)

other: 73.7% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Population distribution

about a third of the population lives in the centrally located capital city of Male and almost a tenth in southern Addu City; the remainder of the populace is spread over the 200 or so populated islands of the archipelago

Natural hazards

tsunamis; low elevation of islands makes them sensitive to sea level rise

Geography - note

smallest Asian country; archipelago of 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

Map description

Madives map showing this archipelagic country in the Indian Ocean.


People and Society


noun: Maldivian(s)

adjective: Maldivian

Ethnic groups

homogeneous mixture of Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, Australasian, and African resulting from historical changes in regional hegemony over marine trade routes


Dhivehi (official, dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English (spoken by most government officials)


Sunni Muslim (official)

Age structure

0-14 years: 22.13% (male 44,260/female 42,477)

15-24 years: 17.24% (male 37,826/female 29,745)

25-54 years: 48.91% (male 104,217/female 87,465)

55-64 years: 6.91% (male 12,942/female 14,123)

65 years and over: 4.81% (2020 est.) (male 8,417/female 10,432)

This is the population pyramid for the Maldives. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. <br/><br/>For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page.

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 30.2

youth dependency ratio: 25.5

elderly dependency ratio: 4.7

potential support ratio: 21.4 (2020 est.)

Median age

total: 29.5 years

male: 29.2 years

female: 30 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 129

Birth rate

15.54 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 107

Death rate

4.15 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 212

Net migration rate

-12.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 226

Population distribution

about a third of the population lives in the centrally located capital city of Male and almost a tenth in southern Addu City; the remainder of the populace is spread over the 200 or so populated islands of the archipelago


urban population: 41.5% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 2.34% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

177,000 MALE (capital) (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.2 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.11 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

23.2 years (2016/17 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-49

Maternal mortality ratio

53 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 92

Infant mortality rate

total: 25.7 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 28.76 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 22.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 65

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.94 years

male: 74.57 years

female: 79.42 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 96

Drinking water source

improved: urban: 99% of population

rural: 100% of population

total: 99.6% of population

unimproved: urban: 1% of population

rural: 0% of population

total: 0.4% of population (2020 est.)

Physicians density

2.05 physicians/1,000 population (2019)

Hospital bed density

4.3 beds/1,000 population

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: 100% of population

rural: 99.1% of population

total: 99.5% of population

unimproved: urban: 0% of population

rural: 0.9% of population

total: 0.5% of population (2020 est.)

Tobacco use

total: 25.2% (2020 est.)

male: 44.4% (2020 est.)

female: 6% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 50

Child marriage

women married by age 15: 0% (2017)

women married by age 18: 2.2% (2017)

men married by age 18: 2.2% (2017 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.7%

male: 97.3%

female: 98.1% (2016)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 13 years

male: 12 years

female: 14 years (2019)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 15.5%

male: 18.5%

female: 11.7% (2019 est.)


Environment - current issues

depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies; inadequate sewage treatment; coral reef bleaching

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 7.63 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

carbon dioxide emissions: 1.44 megatons (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.14 megatons (2020 est.)


tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

Land use

agricultural land: 23.3% (2018 est.)

arable land: 10% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 10% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 3.3% (2018 est.)

forest: 3% (2018 est.)

other: 73.7% (2018 est.)


urban population: 41.5% of total population (2022)

rate of urbanization: 2.34% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Revenue from coal

coal revenues: 0% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 134

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 211,506 tons (2015 est.)

Total water withdrawal

municipal: 5.6 million cubic meters (2017 est.)

industrial: 300,000 cubic meters (2017 est.)

agricultural: 0 cubic meters (2017 est.)

Total renewable water resources

30 million cubic meters (2017 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Maldives

conventional short form: Maldives

local long form: Dhivehi Raajjeyge Jumhooriyyaa

local short form: Dhivehi Raajje

etymology: archipelago apparently named after the main island (and capital) of Male; the word "Maldives" means "the islands (dives) of Male"; alternatively, the name may derive from the Sanskrit word "maladvipa" meaning "garland of islands"; Dhivehi Raajje in Dhivehi means "Kingdom of the Dhivehi people"

Government type

presidential republic


name: Male

geographic coordinates: 4 10 N, 73 30 E

time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: derived from the Sanskrit word "mahaalay" meaning "big house"

Administrative divisions

21 administrative atolls (atholhuthah, singular - atholhu); Addu (Addu City), Ariatholhu Dhekunuburi (South Ari Atoll), Ariatholhu Uthuruburi (North Ari Atoll), Faadhippolhu, Felidhuatholhu (Felidhu Atoll), Fuvammulah, Hahdhunmathi, Huvadhuatholhu Dhekunuburi (South Huvadhu Atoll), Huvadhuatholhu Uthuruburi (North Huvadhu Atoll), Kolhumadulu, Maale (Male), Maaleatholhu (Male Atoll), Maalhosmadulu Dhekunuburi (South Maalhosmadulu), Maalhosmadulu Uthuruburi (North Maalhosmadulu), Miladhunmadulu Dhekunuburi (South Miladhunmadulu), Miladhunmadulu Uthuruburi (North Miladhunmadulu), Mulakatholhu (Mulaku Atoll), Nilandheatholhu Dhekunuburi (South Nilandhe Atoll), Nilandheatholhu Uthuruburi (North Nilandhe Atoll), Thiladhunmathee Dhekunuburi (South Thiladhunmathi), Thiladhunmathee Uthuruburi (North Thiladhunmathi)


26 July 1965 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 26 July (1965)


history: many previous; latest ratified 7 August 2008

amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires at least three-quarters majority vote by its membership and the signature of the president of the republic; passage of amendments to constitutional articles on rights and freedoms and the terms of office of Parliament and of the president also requires a majority vote in a referendum; amended 2015

Legal system

Islamic (sharia) legal system with English common law influences, primarily in commercial matters

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Maldives

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: unknown


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ibrahim "Ibu" Mohamed SOLIH (since 17 November 2018); Vice President Faisal NASEEM (since 17 November 2018); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ibrahim "Ibu" Mohamed SOLIH (since 17 November 2018); Vice President Faisal NASEEM (since 17 November 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 September 2018 (next to be held in 2023)

election results: Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH elected president (in 1 round); Ibrahim Mohamed SOLIH (MDP) 58.3%, Abdulla YAMEEN Abdul Gayoom (PPM) 41.7%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or People's Majlis (87 seats - includes 2 seats added by the Elections Commission in late 2018; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 6 April 2019 (next to be held in 2023)

election results: percent of vote - MDP 44.7%, JP 10.8%, PPM 8.7%, PNC 6.4%, MDA 2.8%, other 5.6%, independent 21%; seats by party - MDP 65, JP 5, PPM 5, PNC 3, MDA 2, independent 7; composition - men 83, women 4, percent of women 4.6%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 6 justices

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission - a 10-member body of selected high government officials and the public - and upon confirmation by voting members of the People's Majlis; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: High Court; Criminal, Civil, Family, Juvenile, and Drug Courts; Magistrate Courts (on each of the inhabited islands)

Political parties and leaders

Adhaalath (Justice) Party or AP [Sheikh Imran ABDULLA]
Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party or DRP [Abdulla JABIR]
Maldives Development Alliance or MDA [Ahmed Shiyam MOHAMED]
Maldivian Democratic Party or MDP [Mohamed NASHEED]
Maldives Labor and Social Democratic Party or MLSDP [Ahmed SHIHAM]
Maldives Thirdway Democrats or MTD [Ahmed ADEEB]
Maumoon/Maldives Reform Movement or MRM [Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM]
National Democratic Congress [Yousuf Maaniu] (formed in 2020)
People's National Congress or PNC [Abdul Raheem ABDULLA] (formed in early 2019)
Progressive Party of Maldives or PPM
Republican (Jumhooree) Party or JP [Qasim IBRAHIM]


International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission:

Maldives has no embassy in the US, but its Permanent Representative to the UN in New York, Thilmeeza HUSSAIN  (since 8 July 2019), is accredited to the US and serves as ambassador

chancery: 801 Second Avenue, Suite 202E, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 599-6194; [1] (212) 599-6195

FAX: [1] (212) 661-6405

email address and website:


Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: the US does not have an embassy in Maldives; the US is in the process of opening an embassy in Maldives; as of March 2022, there is no US Ambassador to Maldives; until late 2021, the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka was also accredited to the Maldives

Flag description

red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white crescent moon; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag; red recalls those who have sacrificed their lives in defense of their country, the green rectangle represents peace and prosperity, and the white crescent signifies Islam

National symbol(s)

coconut palm, yellowfin tuna; national colors: red, green, white

National anthem

name: "Gaumee Salaam" (National Salute)

lyrics/music: Mohamed Jameel DIDI/Wannakuwattawaduge DON AMARADEVA

note: lyrics adopted 1948, music adopted 1972; between 1948 and 1972, the lyrics were sung to the tune of "Auld Lang Syne"


Economic overview

Maldives has quickly become a middle-income country, driven by the rapid growth of its tourism and fisheries sectors, but the country still contends with a large and growing fiscal deficit. Infrastructure projects, largely funded by China, could add significantly to debt levels. Political turmoil and the declaration of a state of emergency in February 2018 led to the issuance of travel warnings by several countries whose citizens visit Maldives in significant numbers, but the overall impact on tourism revenue was unclear.


In 2015, Maldives’ Parliament passed a constitutional amendment legalizing foreign ownership of land; foreign land-buyers must reclaim at least 70% of the desired land from the ocean and invest at least $1 billion in a construction project approved by Parliament.


Diversifying the economy beyond tourism and fishing, reforming public finance, increasing employment opportunities, and combating corruption, cronyism, and a growing drug problem are near-term challenges facing the government. Over the longer term, Maldivian authorities worry about the impact of erosion and possible global warming on their low-lying country; 80% of the area is 1 meter or less above sea level.

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$7.05 billion (2020 est.)

$10.37 billion (2019 est.)

$9.69 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 168

Real GDP growth rate

4.8% (2017 est.)

4.5% (2016 est.)

2.2% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 54

Real GDP per capita

$13,000 (2020 est.)

$19,500 (2019 est.)

$18,800 (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 116

GDP (official exchange rate)

$4.505 billion (2017 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: CCC (2020)

Moody's rating: B3 (2020)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3% (2015 est.)

industry: 16% (2015 est.)

services: 81% (2015 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: (2016 est.) NA

government consumption: (2016 est.) NA

investment in fixed capital: (2016 est.) NA

investment in inventories: (2016 est.) NA

exports of goods and services: 93.6% (2016 est.)

imports of goods and services: 89% (2016 est.)

Agricultural products

papayas, vegetables, roots/tubers nes, nuts, fruit, other meat, tomatoes, coconuts, bananas, maize


tourism, fish processing, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand mining

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 7.7%

industry: 22.8%

services: 69.5% (2017 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 15.5%

male: 18.5%

female: 11.7% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.2%

highest 10%: 33.3% (FY09/10)


revenues: 1.19 billion (2016 est.)

expenditures: 1.643 billion (2016 est.)

Public debt

63.9% of GDP (2017 est.)

61.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$876 million (2017 est.)

-$1.033 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 140


$3.72 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$3.58 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 137

Exports - partners

Thailand 24%, United States 13%, China 12%, France 11%, Germany 11%, Italy 5%, United Kingdom 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

fish products, natural gas, scrap iron, jewelry, liquid pumps (2019)


$4.09 billion (2019 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

$4.1 billion (2018 est.) note: data are in current year dollars

country comparison to the world: 148

Imports - partners

United Arab Emirates 24%, China 16%, Singapore 14%, India 11%, Malaysia 6%, Thailand 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

refined petroleum, fruits, furniture, broadcasting equipment, lumber (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$477.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)

$575.8 million (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 153

Debt - external

$848.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)

$696.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 167

Exchange rates

rufiyaa (MVR) per US dollar -

15.42 (2017 est.)

15.35 (2016 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 14,508 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 184

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 717,708 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 168

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: upgrades to telecom infrastructure extended to outer islands; two mobile operators extend LTE coverage; tourism has strengthened the telecom market with investment and accounts for the high mobile penetration rate; launched 5G tests (2020)

domestic: fixed-line is at nearly 3 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular subscriptions stands at nearly 133 per 100 persons (2020)

international: country code - 960; landing points for Dhiraagu Cable Network, NaSCOM, Dhiraagu-SLT Submarine Cable Networks and WARF submarine cables providing connections to 8 points in Maldives, India, and Sri Lanka; satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2019)

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced downturn, particularly in mobile device production; many network operators delayed upgrades to infrastructure; progress towards 5G implementation was postponed or slowed in some countries; consumer spending on telecom services and devices was affected by large-scale job losses and the consequent restriction on disposable incomes; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home became evident, and received some support from governments

Broadcast media

state-owned radio and TV monopoly until recently; 4 state-operated and 7 privately owned TV stations and 4 state-operated and 7 privately owned radio stations (2019)

Internet users

total: 340,542 (2020 est.)

percent of population: 63% (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 170

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 63,685 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 139


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 36

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,147,247 (2018)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 7.75 million (2018)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 7

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2021)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2021)


total: 93 km (2018)

paved: 93 km (2018) - 60 km in Malée; 16 km on Addu Atolis; 17 km on Laamu

note: island roads are mainly compacted coral

country comparison to the world: 214

Merchant marine

total: 68

by type: general cargo 21, oil tanker 19, other 28 (2021)

country comparison to the world: 108

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Male

Military and Security

Military and security forces

the Republic of Maldives has no distinct army, navy, or air force but a single security unit called the Maldives National Defense Force (MNDF) comprised of ground forces, an air element, a coastguard, a presidential security division, and a special protection group (2022)

Military and security service personnel strengths

approximately 2,500 personnel (2022)

Military equipment inventories and acquisitions

India has provided most of the equipment in the MNDF's inventory (2022)

Military service age and obligation

18-28 years of age for voluntary service; no conscription; 10th grade or equivalent education required; must not be a member of a political party (2022)

Military - note

the MNDF is primarily tasked to reinforce the Maldives Police Service (MPS) and ensure security in the country's exclusive economic zone (2022)


Terrorist group(s)

Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) (2020)

note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

Transnational Issues

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Maldives is a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking and a source country for Maldivian children subjected to human trafficking within the country; Bangladeshi and Indian migrants working both legally and illegally in the construction and service sectors face conditions of forced labor, including fraudulent recruitment, confiscation of identity and travel documents, nonpayment of wages, and debt bondage; a small number of women from Sri Lanka, Thailand, India, China, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Eastern Europe, and former Soviet states are trafficked to Maldives for sexual exploitation; some Maldivian children are transported to the capital for forced domestic service, where they may also be sexually abused

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List — Maldives does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so; efforts included convicting two individuals for trafficking-related offenses, convening the National Anti-Trafficking Steering Committee for the first time in two years; drafting and finalizing a 2020-2022 national action plan; however, efforts to hold employers accountable for trafficking did not increase, non-payment of wages and of the retention of migrant workers’ passports continued; standard operating procedures for victim identification, protection, and referral were not adopted; insufficient resources were devoted to the national action plan; Maldives was granted a waiver per the Trafficking Victims Protection Act from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 (2020)