With an area of just 61 sq km (23.5 sq mi), San Marino is the third-smallest country in Europe, behind Monaco and the Holy See. Located in the northern part of the Italian Peninsula, near the Adriatic Sea, this tiny nation is surrounded by Italy.This satellite picture of San Marino shows a combination of vegetation (bright green); and buildings, pavement, and bare rock (blue-gray to white). Purplish-gray polygons are probably fallow agricultural land. Overhead, fluffy white clouds cast their charcoal-colored shadows over the land surface. The Apennine Mountains give the region a rough terrain, and the limestone Monte Titano dominates the area, with a fort perched on each of the mountain's three summits. According to legend, San Marino is the world's oldest surviving republic, dating back to 301. The original city sits atop Monte Titano. Today, however, development has spread throughout the republic, evidenced by the many areas of blue-gray and the meandering roads. Tourism has brought prosperity to this small republic, but historically, its rugged terrain and lack of wealth may have helped it escape the unwanted attention of potential invaders. Image courtesy of NASA.
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Geographically the third-smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named MARINUS in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the EU, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.

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Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates

43 46 N, 12 25 E


total: 61 sq km

land: 61 sq km

water: 0 sq km

country comparison to the world: 228

Area - comparative

about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Area comparison map
Area comparison map

Land boundaries

total: 37 km

border countries (1): Italy 37 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers


rugged mountains


highest point: Monte Titano 739 m

lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m

Natural resources

building stone

Land use

agricultural land: 16.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 83.3% (2018 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2022)

Natural hazards

occasional earthquakes

Geography - note

landlocked; an enclave of (completely surrounded by) Italy; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennine Mountains

People and Society


noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)

adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups

Sammarinese, Italian



major-language sample(s):
L'Almanacco dei fatti del mondo, l'indispensabile fonte per le informazioni di base. (Italian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.

Italian audio sample:


Roman Catholic

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.73% (male 2,662/female 2,379)

15-24 years: 11.64% (male 2,091/female 1,894)

25-54 years: 39.12% (male 6,310/female 7,081)

55-64 years: 14.28% (male 2,367/female 2,520)

65 years and over: 20.24% (male 3,123/female 3,805) (2020 est.)

2022 population pyramid
2022 population pyramid

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49.6

youth dependency ratio: 19.6

elderly dependency ratio: 30

potential support ratio: 3.3 (2021)

Median age

total: 45.2 years

male: 43.9 years

female: 46.3 years (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 10

Birth rate

8.85 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 206

Death rate

8.82 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 65

Net migration rate

6.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 15


urban population: 97.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.41% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Major urban areas - population

4,000 SAN MARINO (2018)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.1 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2022 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.51 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 7.72 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 166

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 83.86 years

male: 81.3 years

female: 86.65 years (2022 est.)

country comparison to the world: 5

Gross reproduction rate

0.73 (2023 est.)

Drinking water source

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020)

Current health expenditure

6.4% of GDP (2019)

Physicians density

6.11 physicians/1,000 population (2014)

Hospital bed density

3.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Sanitation facility access

improved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 100% of population

unimproved: urban: NA

rural: NA

total: 0% of population (2020)


total population: 99.9%

male: 99.9%

female: 99.9% (2018)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 12 years

male: 13 years

female: 12 years (2021)

Youth unemployment rate (ages 15-24)

total: 27.4%

male: 21.4%

female: 36% (2016 est.)


Environment - current issues

air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands; water shortage

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Climate Change-Paris Agreement, Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban, Desertification, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Air pollutants

particulate matter emissions: 13.45 micrograms per cubic meter (2016 est.)

methane emissions: 0.02 megatons (2020 est.)


Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Land use

agricultural land: 16.7% (2018 est.)

arable land: 16.7% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 0% (2018 est.)

forest: 0% (2018 est.)

other: 83.3% (2018 est.)


urban population: 97.8% of total population (2023)

rate of urbanization: 0.41% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)

Waste and recycling

municipal solid waste generated annually: 17,175 tons (2016 est.)

municipal solid waste recycled annually: 7,737 tons (2016 est.)

percent of municipal solid waste recycled: 45.1% (2016 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of San Marino

conventional short form: San Marino

local long form: Repubblica di San Marino

local short form: San Marino

etymology: named after Saint MARINUS, who in A.D. 301 founded the monastic settlement around which the city and later the state of San Marino coalesced

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: San Marino (city)

geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

etymology: named after Saint MARINUS, who in A.D. 301 founded a monastic settlement around which the city and later the state of San Marino coalesced

Administrative divisions

9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle


3 September 301 (traditional founding date)

National holiday

Founding of the Republic (or Feast of Saint Marinus), 3 September (A.D. 301)


history: San Marino’s principal legislative instruments consist of old customs (antiche consuetudini), the Statutory Laws of San Marino (Leges Statutae Sancti Marini), old statutes (antichi statute) from the1600s, Brief Notes on the Constitutional Order and Institutional Organs of the Republic of San Marino (Brevi Cenni sull’Ordinamento Costituzionale e gli Organi Istituzionali della Repubblica di San Marino) and successive legislation, chief among them is the Declaration of the Rights of Citizens and Fundamental Principles of the San Marino Legal Order (Dichiarazione dei Diritti dei Cittadini e dei Principi Fondamentali dell’Ordinamento Sammarinese), approved 8 July 1974

amendments: proposed by the Great and General Council; passage requires two-thirds majority Council vote; Council passage by absolute majority vote also requires passage in a referendum; Declaration of Civil Rights amended several times, last in 2019

Legal system

civil law system with Italian civil law influences

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of San Marino

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 30 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captain Regent Maria Luisa BERTI and Captain Manuel CIAVATTA (for the period 1 October 2022 - 1 April 2023)

head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Luca BECCARI (since 8 January 2020)

cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Grand and General Council

elections/appointments: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 6-month term; election last held in September 2022 (next to be held in March 2023); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 5-year term; election last held on 28 December 2019 (next to be held by November 2024)

election results: Maria Luisa BERTI and Manuel CIAVATTA elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA; Luca BECCARI (PDCS) elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA

note: the captains regent preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 7 other members who are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 7 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has some prime ministerial roles

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by list proportional representation vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 8 December 2019 (next to be held by 31 December 2024)

election results: percent of vote by coalition/party - PDCS 35%, Tomorrow in Movement coalition 25% (RETE Movement 18.3%, DML 6.7%), Liberia 16.7%, We for the Republic 13.3%, RF 10%; seats by coalition/party - PDCS 21, Tomorrow in Movement coalition 15 (RETE Movement 11, DML 4), Liberia 10, We for the Republic 8, RF 6; composition (as of September 2022) - men 40, women 20, percent of women 33.3%

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII (consists of 12 members); note - the College of Guarantors for the Constitutionality and General Norms functions as San Marino's constitutional court

judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Grand and General Council from among its own to serve 5-year terms

subordinate courts: first instance and first appeal criminal, administrative, and civil courts; Court for the Trust and Trustee Relations; justices of the peace or conciliatory judges

Political parties and leaders

Domani - Modus Liberi or DML [Lorenzo Forcellini REFFI]
Free San Marino (Libera San Marino) or Libera [Luca BOSCHI]
Future Republic or RF [Mario VENTURINI]
I Elect for a New Republic
Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Paride ANDREOLI]
RETE Movement [Gloria ARCANGELONI]
Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Marco GATTI]
Socialist Party or PS [Alessandro BEVITORI]
Tomorrow in Movement coalition (includes RETE Movement, DML)
We for the Republic [Denise BRONZETTI]

International organization participation

CE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Damiano BELEFFI (since 21 July 2017)

chancery: 327 E 50th Street, New York, NY 10022; Embassy address: 1711 North Street NW (2nd Floor), Washington, DC 22036

telephone: [1] (212) 751-1234
[1] (202) 223-24l8
[1] (202) 751-1436

FAX: [1] (212) 751-1436

email address and website:

Diplomatic representation from the US

embassy: the United States does not have an Embassy in San Marino; the US Ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino, and the US Consulate General in Florence maintains day-to-day ties

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature, Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively

National symbol(s)

three peaks each displaying a tower; national colors: white, blue

National anthem

name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)

lyrics/music: no lyrics/Federico CONSOLO

note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece

National heritage

total World Heritage Sites: 1 (cultural)

selected World Heritage Site locales: San Marino Historic Center and Mount Titano


Economic overview

high-income, non-EU European economy; surrounded by Italy, which is the dominant importer and exporter; open border to EU and a euro user; strong financial sector; high foreign investments; low taxation; increasingly high and risky debt

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.917 billion (2020 est.)

$2.053 billion (2019 est.)

$2.012 billion (2018 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 198

Real GDP growth rate

-6.65% (2020 est.)

2.07% (2019 est.)

1.49% (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 215

Real GDP per capita

$56,400 (2020 est.) note: data are in 2017 dollars

$60,100 (2019 est.) note: data are in 2017 dollars

$58,900 (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 22

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.643 billion (2017 est.)

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB+ (2020)

note: The year refers to the year in which the current credit rating was first obtained.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.1% (2009)

industry: 39.2% (2009)

services: 60.7% (2009)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: (2011 est.) NA

government consumption: (2011 est.) NA

investment in fixed capital: (2011 est.) NA

investment in inventories: (2011 est.) NA

exports of goods and services: 176.6% (2011)

imports of goods and services: -153.3% (2011)

Agricultural products

wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides


tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 0.2%

industry: 33.5%

services: 66.3% (September 2013 est.)


revenues: $667.7 million (2011 est.)

expenditures: $715.3 million (2011 est.)

Public debt

98.35% of GDP (2020 est.)

55.09% of GDP (2019 est.)

55.94% of GDP (2018 est.)

country comparison to the world: 27

Fiscal year

calendar year


$3.827 billion (2011 est.)

$2.576 billion (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 138

Exports - partners

Romania 10%, France 9%, Germany 8%, United States 8%, Austria 6%, Brazil 6%, Poland 6%, Russia 6%, (2019)

Exports - commodities

industrial washing/bottling machinery, packaged medicines, woodworking machinery, foodstuffs, aircraft (2019)


$2.551 billion (2011 est.)

$2.132 billion (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 162

Imports - partners

Germany 21%, Italy 13%, Poland 10%, France 7%, Spain 7%, Belgium 6%, Romania 6% (2019)

Imports - commodities

electricity, cars, aluminum, footwear, natural gas, iron piping (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$954.512 million (31 December 2021 est.)

$781.805 million (31 December 2020 est.)

$473.111 million (31 December 2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 147

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -

0.845 (2021 est.)

0.877 (2020 est.)

0.893 (2019 est.)

0.847 (2018 est.)

0.885 (2017 est.)


Electricity access

electrification - total population: 100% (2020)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 16,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 181

Telephones - mobile cellular

total subscriptions: 39,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 208

Telecommunication systems

general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system (2018)

domestic: fixed-line a little over 47 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 115 telephones per 100 persons (2020)

international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network

note: the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a significant impact on production and supply chains globally; since 2020, some aspects of the telecom sector have experienced a downturn, particularly in mobile device production; progress toward 5G implementation has resumed, as well as upgrades to infrastructure; consumer spending on telecom services has increased due to the surge in demand for capacity and bandwidth; the crucial nature of telecom services as a tool for work and school from home is still evident, and the spike in this area has seen growth opportunities for development of new tools and increased services

Broadcast media

state-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 3 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2019)

Internet users

total: 20,318 (2019 est.)

percent of population: 60% (2019 est.)

country comparison to the world: 211

Broadband - fixed subscriptions

total: 11,000 (2020 est.)

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32 (2020 est.)

country comparison to the world: 179



total: 292 km (2006)

paved: 292 km (2006)

country comparison to the world: 203

Military and Security

Military and security forces

Military Corps (National Guard): Guard of the Rock (or Fortress Guard), Uniformed Militia, Guard of the Great and General Council, Corps of the Gendarmerie; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Civil Police Corps (2022)

note: the captains regent oversee the Gendarmerie and National Guard when they are performing duties related to public order and security; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs exercises control over such administrative functions as personnel and equipment, and the courts exercise control over the Gendarmerie when it acts as judicial police

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; government has the authority to call up all San Marino citizens from 16-60 years of age to serve in the military (2022)

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of Italy

Transnational Issues